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Hereditary spastic paraplegia 6(SPG6)

MedGen UID:
324965
Concept ID:
C1838192
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Familial spastic paraplegia autosomal dominant 3; Spastic paraplegia 6; SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA 6, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT; SPG6
SNOMED CT: Autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia type 3 (732949006); Autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia type 6 (732949006)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
 
Gene (location): NIPA1 (15q11.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0010878
OMIM®: 600363
Orphanet: ORPHA100988

Definition

A form of hereditary spastic paraplegia which usually presents in late adolescence or early adulthood as a pure phenotype of lower limb spasticity with hyperreflexia and extensor plantar responses, as well as mild bladder disturbances and pes cavus. Rarely, it can present as a complex phenotype with additional manifestations including epilepsy, variable peripheral neuropathy and/or memory impairment. Caused by mutations in the NIPA1 gene (15q11.2) encoding the magnesium transporter NIPA1. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

Clinical features

From HPO
Urinary incontinence
MedGen UID:
22579
Concept ID:
C0042024
Finding
Loss of the ability to control the urinary bladder leading to involuntary urination.
Urinary urgency
MedGen UID:
39315
Concept ID:
C0085606
Finding
Urge incontinence is the strong, sudden need to urinate.
Urinary bladder sphincter dysfunction
MedGen UID:
334804
Concept ID:
C1843663
Finding
Abnormal function of a sphincter of the urinary bladder.
Pes cavus
MedGen UID:
675590
Concept ID:
C0728829
Congenital Abnormality
An increase in height of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot that does not flatten on weight bearing (i.e., a distinctly hollow form of the sole of the foot when it is bearing weight).
Lower limb muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
324478
Concept ID:
C1836296
Finding
Weakness of the muscles of the legs.
Clonus
MedGen UID:
40341
Concept ID:
C0009024
Sign or Symptom
A series of rhythmic and involuntary muscle contractions (at a frequency of about 5 to 7 Hz) that occur in response to an abruptly applied and sustained stretch.
Babinski sign
MedGen UID:
19708
Concept ID:
C0034935
Finding
Upturning of the big toe (and sometimes fanning of the other toes) in response to stimulation of the sole of the foot. If the Babinski sign is present it can indicate damage to the corticospinal tract.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Spastic paraplegia
MedGen UID:
20882
Concept ID:
C0037772
Disease or Syndrome
Spasticity and weakness of the leg and hip muscles.
Tremor
MedGen UID:
21635
Concept ID:
C0040822
Sign or Symptom
An unintentional, oscillating to-and-fro muscle movement about a joint axis.
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles.
Spastic gait
MedGen UID:
115907
Concept ID:
C0231687
Finding
Spasticity is manifested by increased stretch reflex which is intensified with movement velocity. This results in excessive and inappropriate muscle activation which can contribute to muscle hypertonia. Spastic gait is characterized by manifestations such as muscle hypertonia, stiff knee, and circumduction of the leg.
Lower limb spasticity
MedGen UID:
220865
Concept ID:
C1271100
Finding
Spasticity (velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone and hyperexcitable tendon reflexes) in the muscles of the lower limbs, hips, and pelvis
Degeneration of the lateral corticospinal tracts
MedGen UID:
375921
Concept ID:
C1846566
Finding
Deterioration of the tissues of the lateral corticospinal tracts.
Impaired vibration sensation in the lower limbs
MedGen UID:
338617
Concept ID:
C1849134
Finding
A decrease in the ability to perceive vibration in the legs.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVHereditary spastic paraplegia 6
Follow this link to review classifications for Hereditary spastic paraplegia 6 in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Byrne DJ, Garcia-Pardo ME, Cole NB, Batnasan B, Heneghan S, Sohail A, Blackstone C, O'Sullivan NC
Acta Neuropathol Commun 2022 Mar 28;10(1):40. doi: 10.1186/s40478-022-01343-6. PMID: 35346366Free PMC Article
Méreaux JL, Firanescu C, Coarelli G, Kvarnung M, Rodrigues R, Pegoraro E, Tazir M, Taithe F, Valter R, Huin V, Lidström K, Banneau G, Morais S, Parodi L, Coutelier M, Papin M, Svenningsson P, Azulay JP, Alonso I, Nilsson D, Brice A, Le Guern E, Press R, Vazza G, Loureiro JL, Goizet C, Durr A, Paucar M, Stevanin G
Neurogenetics 2021 Mar;22(1):71-79. Epub 2021 Jan 23 doi: 10.1007/s10048-020-00633-2. PMID: 33486633Free PMC Article
Erfanian Omidvar M, Torkamandi S, Rezaei S, Alipoor B, Omrani MD, Darvish H, Ghaedi H
J Neurol 2021 Jun;268(6):2065-2082. Epub 2019 Nov 19 doi: 10.1007/s00415-019-09633-1. PMID: 31745725

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Van de Vondel L, De Winter J, Beijer D, Coarelli G, Wayand M, Palvadeau R, Pauly MG, Klein K, Rautenberg M, Guillot-Noël L, Deconinck T, Vural A, Ertan S, Dogu O, Uysal H, Brankovic V, Herzog R, Brice A, Durr A, Klebe S, Stock F, Bischoff AT, Rattay TW, Sobrido MJ, De Michele G, De Jonghe P, Klopstock T, Lohmann K, Zanni G, Santorelli FM, Timmerman V, Haack TB, Züchner S; PREPARE Consortium, Schüle R, Stevanin G, Synofzik M, Basak AN, Baets J
Mov Disord 2022 Jun;37(6):1175-1186. Epub 2022 Feb 12 doi: 10.1002/mds.28959. PMID: 35150594Free PMC Article
Nicolas A, Kenna KP, Renton AE, Ticozzi N, Faghri F, Chia R, Dominov JA, Kenna BJ, Nalls MA, Keagle P, Rivera AM, van Rheenen W, Murphy NA, van Vugt JJFA, Geiger JT, Van der Spek RA, Pliner HA, Shankaracharya, Smith BN, Marangi G, Topp SD, Abramzon Y, Gkazi AS, Eicher JD, Kenna A; ITALSGEN Consortium, Mora G, Calvo A, Mazzini L, Riva N, Mandrioli J, Caponnetto C, Battistini S, Volanti P, La Bella V, Conforti FL, Borghero G, Messina S, Simone IL, Trojsi F, Salvi F, Logullo FO, D'Alfonso S, Corrado L, Capasso M, Ferrucci L; Genomic Translation for ALS Care (GTAC) Consortium, Moreno CAM, Kamalakaran S, Goldstein DB; ALS Sequencing Consortium, Gitler AD, Harris T, Myers RM; NYGC ALS Consortium, Phatnani H, Musunuri RL, Evani US, Abhyankar A, Zody MC; Answer ALS Foundation, Kaye J, Finkbeiner S, Wyman SK, LeNail A, Lima L, Fraenkel E, Svendsen CN, Thompson LM, Van Eyk JE, Berry JD, Miller TM, Kolb SJ, Cudkowicz M, Baxi E; Clinical Research in ALS and Related Disorders for Therapeutic Development (CReATe) Consortium, Benatar M, Taylor JP, Rampersaud E, Wu G, Wuu J; SLAGEN Consortium, Lauria G, Verde F, Fogh I, Tiloca C, Comi GP, Sorarù G, Cereda C; French ALS Consortium, Corcia P, Laaksovirta H, Myllykangas L, Jansson L, Valori M, Ealing J, Hamdalla H, Rollinson S, Pickering-Brown S, Orrell RW, Sidle KC, Malaspina A, Hardy J, Singleton AB, Johnson JO, Arepalli S, Sapp PC, McKenna-Yasek D, Polak M, Asress S, Al-Sarraj S, King A, Troakes C, Vance C, de Belleroche J, Baas F, Ten Asbroek ALMA, Muñoz-Blanco JL, Hernandez DG, Ding J, Gibbs JR, Scholz SW, Floeter MK, Campbell RH, Landi F, Bowser R, Pulst SM, Ravits JM, MacGowan DJL, Kirby J, Pioro EP, Pamphlett R, Broach J, Gerhard G, Dunckley TL, Brady CB, Kowall NW, Troncoso JC, Le Ber I, Mouzat K, Lumbroso S, Heiman-Patterson TD, Kamel F, Van Den Bosch L, Baloh RH, Strom TM, Meitinger T, Shatunov A, Van Eijk KR, de Carvalho M, Kooyman M, Middelkoop B, Moisse M, McLaughlin RL, Van Es MA, Weber M, Boylan KB, Van Blitterswijk M, Rademakers R, Morrison KE, Basak AN, Mora JS, Drory VE, Shaw PJ, Turner MR, Talbot K, Hardiman O, Williams KL, Fifita JA, Nicholson GA, Blair IP, Rouleau GA, Esteban-Pérez J, García-Redondo A, Al-Chalabi A; Project MinE ALS Sequencing Consortium, Rogaeva E, Zinman L, Ostrow LW, Maragakis NJ, Rothstein JD, Simmons Z, Cooper-Knock J, Brice A, Goutman SA, Feldman EL, Gibson SB, Taroni F, Ratti A, Gellera C, Van Damme P, Robberecht W, Fratta P, Sabatelli M, Lunetta C, Ludolph AC, Andersen PM, Weishaupt JH, Camu W, Trojanowski JQ, Van Deerlin VM, Brown RH Jr, van den Berg LH, Veldink JH, Harms MB, Glass JD, Stone DJ, Tienari P, Silani V, Chiò A, Shaw CE, Traynor BJ, Landers JE
Neuron 2018 Mar 21;97(6):1267-1288. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.02.027. PMID: 29566793Free PMC Article
Eggermann K, Gess B, Häusler M, Weis J, Hahn A, Kurth I
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2018 Feb 9;115(6):91-97. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2018.0091. PMID: 29478438Free PMC Article
Ruano L, Melo C, Silva MC, Coutinho P
Neuroepidemiology 2014;42(3):174-83. Epub 2014 Mar 5 doi: 10.1159/000358801. PMID: 24603320
Fink JK
Acta Neuropathol 2013 Sep;126(3):307-28. Epub 2013 Jul 30 doi: 10.1007/s00401-013-1115-8. PMID: 23897027Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Meyyazhagan A, Orlacchio A
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Feb 1;23(3) doi: 10.3390/ijms23031697. PMID: 35163618Free PMC Article
Méreaux JL, Banneau G, Papin M, Coarelli G, Valter R, Raymond L, Kol B, Ariste O, Parodi L, Tissier L, Mairey M, Ait Said S, Gautier C, Guillaud-Bataille M; French SPATAX clinical network, Forlani S, de la Grange P, Brice A, Vazza G, Durr A, Leguern E, Stevanin G
Brain 2022 Apr 29;145(3):1029-1037. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab386. PMID: 34983064
Pedroso JL, Vale TC, França Junior MC, Kauffman MA, Teive H, Barsottini OGP, Munhoz RP
Cerebellum 2022 Dec;21(6):1073-1084. Epub 2021 Nov 15 doi: 10.1007/s12311-021-01345-5. PMID: 34782953
Nicolas A, Kenna KP, Renton AE, Ticozzi N, Faghri F, Chia R, Dominov JA, Kenna BJ, Nalls MA, Keagle P, Rivera AM, van Rheenen W, Murphy NA, van Vugt JJFA, Geiger JT, Van der Spek RA, Pliner HA, Shankaracharya, Smith BN, Marangi G, Topp SD, Abramzon Y, Gkazi AS, Eicher JD, Kenna A; ITALSGEN Consortium, Mora G, Calvo A, Mazzini L, Riva N, Mandrioli J, Caponnetto C, Battistini S, Volanti P, La Bella V, Conforti FL, Borghero G, Messina S, Simone IL, Trojsi F, Salvi F, Logullo FO, D'Alfonso S, Corrado L, Capasso M, Ferrucci L; Genomic Translation for ALS Care (GTAC) Consortium, Moreno CAM, Kamalakaran S, Goldstein DB; ALS Sequencing Consortium, Gitler AD, Harris T, Myers RM; NYGC ALS Consortium, Phatnani H, Musunuri RL, Evani US, Abhyankar A, Zody MC; Answer ALS Foundation, Kaye J, Finkbeiner S, Wyman SK, LeNail A, Lima L, Fraenkel E, Svendsen CN, Thompson LM, Van Eyk JE, Berry JD, Miller TM, Kolb SJ, Cudkowicz M, Baxi E; Clinical Research in ALS and Related Disorders for Therapeutic Development (CReATe) Consortium, Benatar M, Taylor JP, Rampersaud E, Wu G, Wuu J; SLAGEN Consortium, Lauria G, Verde F, Fogh I, Tiloca C, Comi GP, Sorarù G, Cereda C; French ALS Consortium, Corcia P, Laaksovirta H, Myllykangas L, Jansson L, Valori M, Ealing J, Hamdalla H, Rollinson S, Pickering-Brown S, Orrell RW, Sidle KC, Malaspina A, Hardy J, Singleton AB, Johnson JO, Arepalli S, Sapp PC, McKenna-Yasek D, Polak M, Asress S, Al-Sarraj S, King A, Troakes C, Vance C, de Belleroche J, Baas F, Ten Asbroek ALMA, Muñoz-Blanco JL, Hernandez DG, Ding J, Gibbs JR, Scholz SW, Floeter MK, Campbell RH, Landi F, Bowser R, Pulst SM, Ravits JM, MacGowan DJL, Kirby J, Pioro EP, Pamphlett R, Broach J, Gerhard G, Dunckley TL, Brady CB, Kowall NW, Troncoso JC, Le Ber I, Mouzat K, Lumbroso S, Heiman-Patterson TD, Kamel F, Van Den Bosch L, Baloh RH, Strom TM, Meitinger T, Shatunov A, Van Eijk KR, de Carvalho M, Kooyman M, Middelkoop B, Moisse M, McLaughlin RL, Van Es MA, Weber M, Boylan KB, Van Blitterswijk M, Rademakers R, Morrison KE, Basak AN, Mora JS, Drory VE, Shaw PJ, Turner MR, Talbot K, Hardiman O, Williams KL, Fifita JA, Nicholson GA, Blair IP, Rouleau GA, Esteban-Pérez J, García-Redondo A, Al-Chalabi A; Project MinE ALS Sequencing Consortium, Rogaeva E, Zinman L, Ostrow LW, Maragakis NJ, Rothstein JD, Simmons Z, Cooper-Knock J, Brice A, Goutman SA, Feldman EL, Gibson SB, Taroni F, Ratti A, Gellera C, Van Damme P, Robberecht W, Fratta P, Sabatelli M, Lunetta C, Ludolph AC, Andersen PM, Weishaupt JH, Camu W, Trojanowski JQ, Van Deerlin VM, Brown RH Jr, van den Berg LH, Veldink JH, Harms MB, Glass JD, Stone DJ, Tienari P, Silani V, Chiò A, Shaw CE, Traynor BJ, Landers JE
Neuron 2018 Mar 21;97(6):1267-1288. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.02.027. PMID: 29566793Free PMC Article
Ruano L, Melo C, Silva MC, Coutinho P
Neuroepidemiology 2014;42(3):174-83. Epub 2014 Mar 5 doi: 10.1159/000358801. PMID: 24603320

Therapy

van de Venis L, van de Warrenburg B, Weerdesteyn V, Geurts ACH, Nonnekes J
Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2023 Jan;37(1):27-36. Epub 2023 Jan 25 doi: 10.1177/15459683221147839. PMID: 36695288Free PMC Article
Lin Q, Liu Y, Ye Z, Hu J, Cai W, Weng Q, Chen WJ, Wang N, Cao D, Lin Y, Fu Y
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Sep 19;16(1):391. doi: 10.1186/s13023-021-02014-w. PMID: 34538260Free PMC Article
Yang H, Brown RH Jr, Wang D, Strauss KA, Gao G
Trends Mol Med 2021 Jun;27(6):520-523. Epub 2021 Mar 10 doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2021.02.004. PMID: 33714697Free PMC Article
Servelhere KR, Faber I, Martinez A, Nickel R, Moro A, Germiniani FMB, Moscovich M, Blume TR, Munhoz RP, Teive HAG, França MC Jr
Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2018 Mar;76(3):183-188. doi: 10.1590/0004-282x20180013. PMID: 29809239
Bayrakli F, Poyrazoglu HG, Yuksel S, Yakicier C, Erguner B, Sagiroglu MS, Yuceturk B, Ozer B, Doganay S, Tanrikulu B, Seker A, Akbulut F, Ozen A, Per H, Kumandas S, Altuner Torun Y, Bayri Y, Sakar M, Dagcinar A, Ziyal I
J Hum Genet 2015 Dec;60(12):763-8. Epub 2015 Oct 1 doi: 10.1038/jhg.2015.109. PMID: 26423925

Prognosis

Diarra S, Coulibaly T, Dembélé K, Ngouth N, Cissé L, Diallo SH, Ouologuem M, Diallo S, Coulibaly O, Bagayoko K, Coulibaly D, Simaga A, Sango HA, Traoré M, Jacobson S, Fischbeck KH, Landouré G, Guinto CO; H3Africa consortium
Acta Neurol Belg 2023 Dec;123(6):2155-2165. Epub 2022 Nov 17 doi: 10.1007/s13760-022-02113-w. PMID: 36396882
Xing F, Du J
Neurol Sci 2022 Aug;43(8):4989-4996. Epub 2022 Mar 28 doi: 10.1007/s10072-022-05921-3. PMID: 35348942
Méreaux JL, Banneau G, Papin M, Coarelli G, Valter R, Raymond L, Kol B, Ariste O, Parodi L, Tissier L, Mairey M, Ait Said S, Gautier C, Guillaud-Bataille M; French SPATAX clinical network, Forlani S, de la Grange P, Brice A, Vazza G, Durr A, Leguern E, Stevanin G
Brain 2022 Apr 29;145(3):1029-1037. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab386. PMID: 34983064
Huna-Baron R, Yahalom G, Anikster Y, Ben Zeev B, Hoffmann C, Hassin-Baer S
J Neuroophthalmol 2022 Mar 1;42(1):e147-e152. Epub 2021 Apr 14 doi: 10.1097/WNO.0000000000001249. PMID: 33870938
Fink JK
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2006 Jan;6(1):65-76. doi: 10.1007/s11910-996-0011-1. PMID: 16469273

Clinical prediction guides

Diarra S, Coulibaly T, Dembélé K, Ngouth N, Cissé L, Diallo SH, Ouologuem M, Diallo S, Coulibaly O, Bagayoko K, Coulibaly D, Simaga A, Sango HA, Traoré M, Jacobson S, Fischbeck KH, Landouré G, Guinto CO; H3Africa consortium
Acta Neurol Belg 2023 Dec;123(6):2155-2165. Epub 2022 Nov 17 doi: 10.1007/s13760-022-02113-w. PMID: 36396882
Mo A, Saffari A, Kellner M, Döbler-Neumann M, Jordan C, Srivastava S, Zhang B, Sahin M, Fink JK, Smith L, Posey JE, Alter KE, Toro C, Blackstone C, Soldatos AG, Christie M, Schüle R, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D
Mov Disord 2022 Dec;37(12):2440-2446. Epub 2022 Sep 14 doi: 10.1002/mds.29225. PMID: 36103453Free PMC Article
Utz KS, Kohl Z, Marterstock DC, Doerfler A, Winkler J, Schmidt M, Regensburger M
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2022 Jul 29;17(1):301. doi: 10.1186/s13023-022-02451-1. PMID: 35906604Free PMC Article
Meyyazhagan A, Orlacchio A
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Feb 1;23(3) doi: 10.3390/ijms23031697. PMID: 35163618Free PMC Article
Méreaux JL, Banneau G, Papin M, Coarelli G, Valter R, Raymond L, Kol B, Ariste O, Parodi L, Tissier L, Mairey M, Ait Said S, Gautier C, Guillaud-Bataille M; French SPATAX clinical network, Forlani S, de la Grange P, Brice A, Vazza G, Durr A, Leguern E, Stevanin G
Brain 2022 Apr 29;145(3):1029-1037. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab386. PMID: 34983064

Recent systematic reviews

Fereshtehnejad SM, Saleh PA, Oliveira LM, Patel N, Bhowmick S, Saranza G, Kalia LV
Neurol Sci 2023 Mar;44(3):947-959. Epub 2022 Nov 28 doi: 10.1007/s10072-022-06516-8. PMID: 36441344Free PMC Article
Giannoccaro MP, Matteo E, Bartiromo F, Tonon C, Santorelli FM, Liguori R, Rizzo G
Neurol Sci 2022 Sep;43(9):5501-5511. Epub 2022 May 21 doi: 10.1007/s10072-022-06145-1. PMID: 35595875
Erfanian Omidvar M, Torkamandi S, Rezaei S, Alipoor B, Omrani MD, Darvish H, Ghaedi H
J Neurol 2021 Jun;268(6):2065-2082. Epub 2019 Nov 19 doi: 10.1007/s00415-019-09633-1. PMID: 31745725
Lohkamp LN, Coulter I, Ibrahim GM
Childs Nerv Syst 2020 Jul;36(7):1357-1365. Epub 2020 Apr 16 doi: 10.1007/s00381-020-04601-x. PMID: 32300873
Ruano L, Melo C, Silva MC, Coutinho P
Neuroepidemiology 2014;42(3):174-83. Epub 2014 Mar 5 doi: 10.1159/000358801. PMID: 24603320

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