U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Autosomal dominant sensory ataxia 1(SNAX1)

MedGen UID:
332346
Concept ID:
C1837015
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Ataxia, sensory, autosomal dominant
 
Gene (location): RNF170 (8p11.21)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0012166
OMIM®: 608984

Definition

Autosomal dominant sensory ataxia-1 (SNAX1) is a peripheral neuropathy resulting from the degeneration of dorsal root ganglia that affects both central and peripheral neurites of sensory neurons. Affected individuals show adult onset of slowly progressive clumsiness, gait ataxia, walking difficulties, and distal sensory loss which may be associated with abnormal sensory nerve conduction values. Some patients have vestibular ocular dysfunction. Muscle weakness and atrophy are not observed, and brain imaging is normal (summary by Cortese et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Abnormal vestibulo-ocular reflex
MedGen UID:
867213
Concept ID:
C4021571
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The VOR attempts to keep the image stable on the retina. Ideally passive or active head movements in one direction are compensated for by eye movements of equal magnitude.
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Babinski sign
MedGen UID:
19708
Concept ID:
C0034935
Finding
Upturning of the big toe (and sometimes fanning of the other toes) in response to stimulation of the sole of the foot. If the Babinski sign is present it can indicate damage to the corticospinal tract.
Areflexia
MedGen UID:
115943
Concept ID:
C0234146
Finding
Absence of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Positive Romberg sign
MedGen UID:
66017
Concept ID:
C0240914
Finding
The patient stands with the feet placed together and balance and is asked to close his or her eyes. A loss of balance upon eye closure is a positive Romberg sign and is interpreted as indicating a deficit in proprioception.
Sensory ataxia
MedGen UID:
66020
Concept ID:
C0240991
Sign or Symptom
Incoordination of movement caused by a deficit in the sensory nervous system. Sensory ataxia can be distinguished from cerebellar ataxia by asking the patient to close his or her eyes. Persons with cerebellar ataxia show only a minimal worsening of symptoms, whereas persons with sensory ataxia show a marked worsening of symptoms.
Dysesthesia
MedGen UID:
97901
Concept ID:
C0392699
Disease or Syndrome
Painful sensations elicited by a nonpainful cutaneous stimulus such as a light touch or gentle stroking over affected areas of the body. Sometimes referred to as hyperpathia or hyperalgesia. Often perceived as an intense burning, dyesthesias may outlast the stimulus by several seconds.
Gait disturbance
MedGen UID:
107895
Concept ID:
C0575081
Finding
The term gait disturbance can refer to any disruption of the ability to walk. In general, this can refer to neurological diseases but also fractures or other sources of pain that is triggered upon walking. However, in the current context gait disturbance refers to difficulty walking on the basis of a neurological or muscular disease.
Hyporeflexia
MedGen UID:
195967
Concept ID:
C0700078
Finding
Reduction of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Gait ataxia
MedGen UID:
155642
Concept ID:
C0751837
Sign or Symptom
A type of ataxia characterized by the impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal walking. Gait ataxia is characteirzed by a wide-based staggering gait with a tendency to fall.
Distal sensory impairment of all modalities
MedGen UID:
322937
Concept ID:
C1836527
Finding
Reduced ability to sense pain, temperature, touch, vibration stimuli in the distal regions of the extremities.
Gait instability, worse in the dark
MedGen UID:
324663
Concept ID:
C1837016
Finding
Impaired distal vibration sensation
MedGen UID:
381262
Concept ID:
C1853767
Finding
A decrease in the ability to perceive vibration in the distal portions of the limbs.
Abnormal cerebellum morphology
MedGen UID:
400925
Concept ID:
C1866129
Anatomical Abnormality
Any structural abnormality of the cerebellum.
Impaired distal proprioception
MedGen UID:
867227
Concept ID:
C4021585
Finding
A loss or impairment of the sensation of the relative position of parts of the body and joint position occuring at distal joints.
Decreased amplitude of sensory action potentials
MedGen UID:
870496
Concept ID:
C4024943
Finding
A reduction in the amplitude of sensory nerve action potential. This feature is measured by nerve conduction studies.
Frequent falls
MedGen UID:
163408
Concept ID:
C0850703
Finding

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Vishwakarma P, Agarwal S, Dean DD, Muthuswamy S, Mandal K
J Neurogenet 2021 Sep-Dec;35(4):370-380. Epub 2021 Jun 23 doi: 10.1080/01677063.2021.1940172. PMID: 34159894
Jen JC, Graves TD, Hess EJ, Hanna MG, Griggs RC, Baloh RW; CINCH investigators
Brain 2007 Oct;130(Pt 10):2484-93. Epub 2007 Jun 15 doi: 10.1093/brain/awm126. PMID: 17575281
Brusse E, Maat-Kievit JA, van Swieten JC
Clin Genet 2007 Jan;71(1):12-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2006.00722.x. PMID: 17204042

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Wilke C, Pellerin D, Mengel D, Traschütz A, Danzi MC, Dicaire MJ, Neumann M, Lerche H, Bender B, Houlden H; RFC1 study group, Züchner S, Schöls L, Brais B, Synofzik M
Brain 2023 Oct 3;146(10):4144-4157. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad157. PMID: 37165652
Rafehi H, Read J, Szmulewicz DJ, Davies KC, Snell P, Fearnley LG, Scott L, Thomsen M, Gillies G, Pope K, Bennett MF, Munro JE, Ngo KJ, Chen L, Wallis MJ, Butler EG, Kumar KR, Wu KH, Tomlinson SE, Tisch S, Malhotra A, Lee-Archer M, Dolzhenko E, Eberle MA, Roberts LJ, Fogel BL, Brüggemann N, Lohmann K, Delatycki MB, Bahlo M, Lockhart PJ
Am J Hum Genet 2023 Jan 5;110(1):105-119. Epub 2022 Dec 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.11.015. PMID: 36493768Free PMC Article
Sullivan R, Yau WY, O'Connor E, Houlden H
J Neurol 2019 Feb;266(2):533-544. Epub 2018 Oct 3 doi: 10.1007/s00415-018-9076-4. PMID: 30284037Free PMC Article
Ruano L, Melo C, Silva MC, Coutinho P
Neuroepidemiology 2014;42(3):174-83. Epub 2014 Mar 5 doi: 10.1159/000358801. PMID: 24603320
Wong LJ, Naviaux RK, Brunetti-Pierri N, Zhang Q, Schmitt ES, Truong C, Milone M, Cohen BH, Wical B, Ganesh J, Basinger AA, Burton BK, Swoboda K, Gilbert DL, Vanderver A, Saneto RP, Maranda B, Arnold G, Abdenur JE, Waters PJ, Copeland WC
Hum Mutat 2008 Sep;29(9):E150-72. doi: 10.1002/humu.20824. PMID: 18546365Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Rafehi H, Read J, Szmulewicz DJ, Davies KC, Snell P, Fearnley LG, Scott L, Thomsen M, Gillies G, Pope K, Bennett MF, Munro JE, Ngo KJ, Chen L, Wallis MJ, Butler EG, Kumar KR, Wu KH, Tomlinson SE, Tisch S, Malhotra A, Lee-Archer M, Dolzhenko E, Eberle MA, Roberts LJ, Fogel BL, Brüggemann N, Lohmann K, Delatycki MB, Bahlo M, Lockhart PJ
Am J Hum Genet 2023 Jan 5;110(1):105-119. Epub 2022 Dec 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.11.015. PMID: 36493768Free PMC Article
Radmard S, Zesiewicz TA, Kuo SH
Neurol Clin 2023 Feb;41(1):21-44. Epub 2022 Aug 31 doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2022.05.002. PMID: 36400556Free PMC Article
Rahman S, Copeland WC
Nat Rev Neurol 2019 Jan;15(1):40-52. doi: 10.1038/s41582-018-0101-0. PMID: 30451971Free PMC Article
Sullivan R, Yau WY, O'Connor E, Houlden H
J Neurol 2019 Feb;266(2):533-544. Epub 2018 Oct 3 doi: 10.1007/s00415-018-9076-4. PMID: 30284037Free PMC Article
Soong BW, Morrison PJ
Handb Clin Neurol 2018;155:143-174. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64189-2.00010-X. PMID: 29891056

Therapy

Hassan A
Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2023;13:9. Epub 2023 Mar 28 doi: 10.5334/tohm.747. PMID: 37008993Free PMC Article
Naseri N, Sharma M, Velinov M
Clin Genet 2021 Jan;99(1):111-118. Epub 2020 Aug 26 doi: 10.1111/cge.13829. PMID: 32783189Free PMC Article
Picher-Martel V, Dupre N
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2018;17(3):161-171. doi: 10.2174/1871527317666180419115029. PMID: 29676235
Wijemanne S, Jankovic J
Nat Rev Neurol 2015 Jul;11(7):414-24. Epub 2015 Jun 23 doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2015.86. PMID: 26100751
Strupp M, Zwergal A, Brandt T
Neurotherapeutics 2007 Apr;4(2):267-73. doi: 10.1016/j.nurt.2007.01.014. PMID: 17395137

Prognosis

Coutelier M, Jacoupy M, Janer A, Renaud F, Auger N, Saripella GV, Ancien F, Pucci F, Rooman M, Gilis D, Larivière R, Sgarioto N, Valter R, Guillot-Noel L, Le Ber I, Sayah S, Charles P, Nümann A, Pauly MG, Helmchen C, Deininger N, Haack TB, Brais B, Brice A, Trégouët DA, El Hachimi KH, Shoubridge EA, Durr A, Stevanin G
Brain 2022 May 24;145(4):1519-1534. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab407. PMID: 34788392
Jung HH, Danek A, Walker RH
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2011 Oct 25;6:68. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-6-68. PMID: 22027213Free PMC Article
Whaley NR, Fujioka S, Wszolek ZK
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2011 May 28;6:33. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-6-33. PMID: 21619691Free PMC Article
Wong LJ, Naviaux RK, Brunetti-Pierri N, Zhang Q, Schmitt ES, Truong C, Milone M, Cohen BH, Wical B, Ganesh J, Basinger AA, Burton BK, Swoboda K, Gilbert DL, Vanderver A, Saneto RP, Maranda B, Arnold G, Abdenur JE, Waters PJ, Copeland WC
Hum Mutat 2008 Sep;29(9):E150-72. doi: 10.1002/humu.20824. PMID: 18546365Free PMC Article
Hamel CP
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Feb 1;2:7. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-7. PMID: 17270046Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Wilke C, Pellerin D, Mengel D, Traschütz A, Danzi MC, Dicaire MJ, Neumann M, Lerche H, Bender B, Houlden H; RFC1 study group, Züchner S, Schöls L, Brais B, Synofzik M
Brain 2023 Oct 3;146(10):4144-4157. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad157. PMID: 37165652
Saucier J, Al-Qadi M, Amor MB, Ishikawa K, Chamard-Witkowski L
J Neurol Sci 2023 Jan 15;444:120527. Epub 2022 Dec 16 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2022.120527. PMID: 36563608
Rafehi H, Read J, Szmulewicz DJ, Davies KC, Snell P, Fearnley LG, Scott L, Thomsen M, Gillies G, Pope K, Bennett MF, Munro JE, Ngo KJ, Chen L, Wallis MJ, Butler EG, Kumar KR, Wu KH, Tomlinson SE, Tisch S, Malhotra A, Lee-Archer M, Dolzhenko E, Eberle MA, Roberts LJ, Fogel BL, Brüggemann N, Lohmann K, Delatycki MB, Bahlo M, Lockhart PJ
Am J Hum Genet 2023 Jan 5;110(1):105-119. Epub 2022 Dec 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.11.015. PMID: 36493768Free PMC Article
Karam A, Trottier Y
Adv Exp Med Biol 2018;1049:197-218. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-71779-1_9. PMID: 29427104
Wong LJ, Naviaux RK, Brunetti-Pierri N, Zhang Q, Schmitt ES, Truong C, Milone M, Cohen BH, Wical B, Ganesh J, Basinger AA, Burton BK, Swoboda K, Gilbert DL, Vanderver A, Saneto RP, Maranda B, Arnold G, Abdenur JE, Waters PJ, Copeland WC
Hum Mutat 2008 Sep;29(9):E150-72. doi: 10.1002/humu.20824. PMID: 18546365Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Hassan A
Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2023;13:9. Epub 2023 Mar 28 doi: 10.5334/tohm.747. PMID: 37008993Free PMC Article
Fereshtehnejad SM, Saleh PA, Oliveira LM, Patel N, Bhowmick S, Saranza G, Kalia LV
Neurol Sci 2023 Mar;44(3):947-959. Epub 2022 Nov 28 doi: 10.1007/s10072-022-06516-8. PMID: 36441344Free PMC Article
Milne SC, Corben LA, Georgiou-Karistianis N, Delatycki MB, Yiu EM
Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2017 Jul;31(7):609-622. Epub 2017 Jun 9 doi: 10.1177/1545968317712469. PMID: 28595509
Tang M, Ryman DC, McDade E, Jasielec MS, Buckles VD, Cairns NJ, Fagan AM, Goate A, Marcus DS, Xiong C, Allegri RF, Chhatwal JP, Danek A, Farlow MR, Fox NC, Ghetti B, Graff-Radford NR, Laske C, Martins RN, Masters CL, Mayeux RP, Ringman JM, Rossor MN, Salloway SP, Schofield PR, Morris JC, Bateman RJ; Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN)
Lancet Neurol 2016 Dec;15(13):1317-1325. Epub 2016 Oct 21 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(16)30229-0. PMID: 27777020Free PMC Article
Ruano L, Melo C, Silva MC, Coutinho P
Neuroepidemiology 2014;42(3):174-83. Epub 2014 Mar 5 doi: 10.1159/000358801. PMID: 24603320

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...