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Sensory axonal neuropathy

MedGen UID:
334116
Concept ID:
C1842587
Finding
Synonym: Axonal sensory neuropathy
 
HPO: HP:0003390

Definition

An axonal neuropathy of peripheral sensory nerves. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVSensory axonal neuropathy

Conditions with this feature

Abortive cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
66358
Concept ID:
C0221061
Disease or Syndrome
'Behr syndrome' is a clinical term that refers to the constellation of early-onset optic atrophy accompanied by neurologic features, including ataxia, pyramidal signs, spasticity, and mental retardation (Behr, 1909; Thomas et al., 1984). Patients with mutations in genes other than OPA1 can present with clinical features reminiscent of Behr syndrome. Mutations in one of these genes, OPA3 (606580), result in type III 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (MGCA3; 258501). Lerman-Sagie (1995) noted that the abnormal urinary pattern in MGCA3 may not be picked up by routine organic acid analysis, suggesting that early reports of Behr syndrome with normal metabolic features may actually have been 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease X-linked recessive 4
MedGen UID:
162891
Concept ID:
C0795910
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-4 with or without cerebellar ataxia (CMTX4) is a mitochondrial disorder manifest as progressive neurologic dysfunction with highly variable features. The age at onset ranges from infancy to young adulthood, and patients can present with different features, including hearing loss, delayed motor development, or difficulty walking due to peripheral neuropathy and/or cerebellar ataxia. Most patients develop all features, including a progressive sensorimotor axonal neuropathy and deafness due to auditory neuropathy. Additional more variable features can include cognitive impairment, cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging, cerebellar signs, such as dysarthria, abnormal extraocular movements, tremor, and dysmetria, as well as spasticity. There is significant intrafamilial variability: the variable features are consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. Prolonged treatment with riboflavin may result in some mild improvement in the ataxia (summary by Rinaldi et al., 2012, Heimer et al., 2018, Bogdanova-Mihaylova et al., 2019).
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
371919
Concept ID:
C1834846
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Spastic paraplegia, optic atropy, and neuropathy
MedGen UID:
324411
Concept ID:
C1836010
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy, and neuropathy (SPOAN) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by early-onset progressive spastic paraplegia resulting in loss of independent ambulation in the teenage years. Additional features include optic atrophy, later onset of sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, and progressive joint contractures; cognition remains intact (summary by Melo et al., 2015).
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 3
MedGen UID:
373087
Concept ID:
C1836439
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is characterized by multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in skeletal muscle. The most common clinical features include adult onset of weakness of the external eye muscles and exercise intolerance. Patients with C10ORF2-linked adPEO may have other clinical features including proximal muscle weakness, ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, cataracts, depression, and endocrine abnormalities (summary by Fratter et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia, see PEOA1 (157640). PEO caused by mutations in the POLG gene (174763) are associated with more complicated phenotypes than those forms caused by mutations in the SLC25A4 (103220) or C10ORF2 genes (Lamantea et al., 2002).
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 2
MedGen UID:
325157
Concept ID:
C1837355
Disease or Syndrome
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease 1 (PMLD1) is a slowly progressive leukodystrophy that typically presents during the neonatal or early-infantile period with nystagmus, commonly associated with hypotonia, delayed acquisition of motor milestones, speech delay, and dysarthria. Over time the hypotonia typically evolves into spasticity that affects the ability to walk and communicate. Cerebellar signs (gait ataxia, dysmetria, intention tremor, head titubation, and dysdiadochokinesia) frequently manifest during childhood. Some individuals develop extrapyramidal movement abnormalities (choreoathetosis and dystonia). Hearing loss and optic atrophy are observed in rare cases. Motor impairments can lead to swallowing difficulty and orthopedic complications, including hip dislocation and scoliosis. Most individuals have normal cognitive skills or mild intellectual disability – which, however, can be difficult to evaluate in the context of profound motor impairment.
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1B
MedGen UID:
330880
Concept ID:
C1842586
Disease or Syndrome
The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), which are also referred to as hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSN) in the absence of significant autonomic features, are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of disorders associated with sensory dysfunction. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HSAN, see HSAN1A (162400).
Sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis
MedGen UID:
375302
Concept ID:
C1843851
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 18
MedGen UID:
336066
Concept ID:
C1843884
Disease or Syndrome
Disease with characteristics of sensory neuropathy and cerebellar ataxia. Prevalence is unknown. Only 26 cases in a 5-generation American family of Irish ancestry have been reported to date. Onset is in the second and third decades of life with symptomatic onset ranging from 13 to 27 years. Patients initially present with axonal sensory neuropathy, while cerebellar ataxia and motor neuron dysfunction develop later. Linked to chromosome 7q22-q23 but the responsible gene mutation has not yet been identified.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth peroneal muscular atrophy, X-linked, with aplasia cutis congenita
MedGen UID:
337105
Concept ID:
C1844864
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, X-linked 5
MedGen UID:
335096
Concept ID:
C1845095
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked deafness-5 is a neurologic disorder characterized by childhood onset of auditory neuropathy and later onset of distal sensory impairment affecting the peripheral nervous system (summary by Zong et al., 2015).
Infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
338613
Concept ID:
C1849096
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA) is a severe, progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by normal development until age one year, followed by onset of ataxia, muscle hypotonia, loss of deep-tendon reflexes, and athetosis. Ophthalmoplegia and sensorineural deafness develop by age seven years. By adolescence, affected individuals are profoundly deaf and no longer ambulatory; sensory axonal neuropathy, optic atrophy, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in females become evident. Epilepsy can develop into a serious and often fatal encephalopathy: myoclonic jerks or focal clonic seizures that progress to epilepsia partialis continua followed by status epilepticus with loss of consciousness.
Giant axonal neuropathy 1
MedGen UID:
376775
Concept ID:
C1850386
Disease or Syndrome
GAN-related neurodegeneration comprises a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe (sometimes called classic giant axonal neuropathy) to milder pure early-onset peripheral motor and sensory neuropathies. The classic giant axonal neuropathy phenotype typically manifests as an infantile-onset neurodegenerative disorder, starting as a severe peripheral motor and sensory neuropathy and evolving into central nervous system impairment (intellectual disability, seizures, cerebellar signs, and pyramidal tract signs). Most affected individuals become wheelchair dependent in the second decade of life and eventually bedridden with severe polyneuropathy, ataxia, and dementia. Death usually occurs in the third decade. At the milder end of the spectrum are predominantly motor and sensory neuropathies (with little to no CNS involvement) that overlap with the axonal form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 10
MedGen UID:
350481
Concept ID:
C1864669
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, see CLN1 (256730).
Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic, 1B
MedGen UID:
394003
Concept ID:
C2676254
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with biallelic PRICKLE1-related disorders typically present with progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) with ataxia characterized by myoclonic seizures (lightning-like jerks), generalized convulsive seizures, varying degrees of neurologic regression mainly presenting with ataxia, and mild cognitive impairment or normal cognition. Onset of symptoms is between ages five and ten years. Action myoclonus may affect the limbs or bulbar muscles, while spontaneous myoclonus may occasionally involve facial muscles. Dysarthria may also be an early feature of this condition. The main seizure types are myoclonic or tonic-clonic with frequent nocturnal occurrence. Individuals with heterozygous PRICKLE1 pathogenic variants have presented with non-PME seizures (isolated myoclonic seizures, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy), myoclonic epilepsy, developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and/or central nervous system malformations.
Neuropathy, hereditary sensory, type 1F
MedGen UID:
816524
Concept ID:
C3810194
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IF is an autosomal dominant sensory neuropathy affecting the lower limbs. Distal sensory impairment becomes apparent during the second or third decade of life, resulting in painless ulceration of the feet with poor healing, which can progress to osteomyelitis, bone destruction, and amputation. There is no autonomic involvement, spasticity, or cognitive impairment (summary by Kornak et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HSN, see HSAN1A (162400).
Perrault syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
863744
Concept ID:
C4015307
Disease or Syndrome
Perrault syndrome is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in males and females and ovarian dysfunction in females. SNHL is bilateral and ranges from profound with prelingual (congenital) onset to moderate with early-childhood onset. When onset is in early childhood, hearing loss can be progressive. Ovarian dysfunction ranges from gonadal dysgenesis (absent or streak gonads) manifesting as primary amenorrhea to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) defined as cessation of menses before age 40 years. Fertility in affected males is reported as normal (although the number of reported males is limited). Neurologic features described in some individuals with Perrault syndrome include learning difficulties and developmental delay, cerebellar ataxia, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy.
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal recessive 1
MedGen UID:
897191
Concept ID:
C4225153
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Short stature, microcephaly, and endocrine dysfunction
MedGen UID:
895448
Concept ID:
C4225288
Disease or Syndrome
In patients with SSMED, short stature and microcephaly are apparent at birth, and there is progressive postnatal growth failure. Endocrine dysfunction, including hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, multinodular goiter, and diabetes mellitus, is present in affected adults. Progressive ataxia has been reported in some patients, with onset ranging from the second to fifth decade of life. In addition, a few patients have developed tumors, suggesting that there may be a predisposition to tumorigenesis. In contrast to syndromes involving defects in other components of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) complex (see, e.g., 606593), no clinically overt immunodeficiency has been observed in SSMED, although laboratory analysis has revealed lymphopenia or borderline leukopenia in some patients (Murray et al., 2015; Bee et al., 2015; de Bruin et al., 2015; Guo et al., 2015).
Arthrogryposis, distal, with impaired proprioception and touch
MedGen UID:
934659
Concept ID:
C4310692
Disease or Syndrome
Distal arthrogryposis with impaired proprioception and touch is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by loss of certain mechanosensation modalities resulting in ataxia, difficulty walking, dysmetria, muscle weakness and atrophy, and progressive skeletal contractures. Patients have onset of symptoms in early childhood (summary by Chesler et al., 2016 and Delle Vedove et al., 2016).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease axonal type 2CC
MedGen UID:
934757
Concept ID:
C4310790
Disease or Syndrome
Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2CC is an autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy that predominantly affects the lower limbs, resulting in muscle weakness and atrophy and gait impairment. Other features include distal sensory impairment and less severe involvement of the upper limbs. The age at onset and severity are variable (summary by Rebelo et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT type 2, see CMT2A (118210).
Spinocerebellar ataxia 46
MedGen UID:
1624251
Concept ID:
C4540404
Disease or Syndrome
A rare autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia with characteristics of slowly progressive late-onset cerebellar ataxia variably combined with sensory axonal neuropathy. Patients may present gait and limb ataxia, dysarthria, abnormal oculomotor function and distal sensory impairment. Cerebellar atrophy is typically mild or absent.
Neuromuscular disease and ocular or auditory anomalies with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1684689
Concept ID:
C5231483
Disease or Syndrome
Mitchell syndrome
MedGen UID:
1714342
Concept ID:
C5394554
Disease or Syndrome
Mitchell syndrome (MITCH) is a progressive disorder characterized by episodic demyelination, sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and hearing loss (Chung et al., 2020).
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 11
MedGen UID:
1760275
Concept ID:
C5436694
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 11 (MC4DN11) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by a childhood-onset sensory neuronopathy and additional features which may include hypotonia, cerebellar ataxia, tremor, dystonia, choreoathetosis, and/or dysarthria. Patients may have variable motor delay, speech delay, or impaired intellectual development (summary by Doss et al., 2014; Otero et al., 2019; Xu et al., 2019; Dong et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cardiomyopathy, spasticity, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1750805
Concept ID:
C5436848
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cardiomyopathy, spasticity, and brain abnormalities (NEDCASB) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder characterized by global neurodevelopmental delay, severely impaired intellectual development, poor overall growth, and spasticity of the lower limbs resulting in gait difficulties. Most affected individuals also develop progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in childhood or have cardiac developmental anomalies. Additional more variable features include dysmorphic facies and axonal sensory peripheral neuropathy. Brain imaging tends to show thin corpus callosum and polymicrogyria (summary by Garcia-Cazorla et al., 2020).
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia type 76
MedGen UID:
1798906
Concept ID:
C5567483
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-76 is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by young-adult onset of slowly progressive spasticity of the lower limbs resulting in gait difficulties. Most affected individuals have upper limb involvement and additional features such as foot deformities and dysarthria. Cognition is unaffected (summary by Gan-Or et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Spinocerebellar ataxia 49
MedGen UID:
1805601
Concept ID:
C5676950
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-49 (SCA49) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized initially by gait abnormalities, gaze-evoked nystagmus, and hyperreflexia. The age at onset is highly variable, ranging from the second to seventh decades, even within the same family. The disorder is slowly progressive, and later features may include dysarthria, dysmetria, diplopia, pyramidal signs, and axonal peripheral neuropathy. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy and myelination defects (Corral-Juan et al., 2022).
Autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia
MedGen UID:
1814513
Concept ID:
C5700127
Disease or Syndrome
NMAN is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset in the first or second decade of a peripheral axonal neuropathy predominantly affecting motor more than sensory nerves. The axonal neuropathy is reminiscent of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (see, e.g., CMT2A1, 118210) and distal hereditary motor neuropathy (see, e.g., HMND1, 182960). Individuals with NMAN also have delayed muscle relaxation and action myotonia associated with neuromyotonic discharges on needle EMG resulting from hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerves (summary by Zimon et al., 2012).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Staff NP, Cavaletti G, Islam B, Lustberg M, Psimaras D, Tamburin S
J Peripher Nerv Syst 2019 Oct;24 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):S26-S39. doi: 10.1111/jns.12335. PMID: 31647151Free PMC Article
Uncini A, Kuwabara S
Clin Neurophysiol 2012 Aug;123(8):1487-95. Epub 2012 Apr 4 doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2012.01.025. PMID: 22480600
Finsterer J
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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Suthar R, Sharawat IK, Eggermann K, Padmanabha H, Saini AG, Bharti B, Kurth I, Singhi P, Sankhyan N
Neurol India 2022 Jan-Feb;70(1):231-237. doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.338691. PMID: 35263888
Alberti MA, Povedano M, Montero J, Casasnovas C
Neurologia (Engl Ed) 2020 Jan-Feb;35(1):40-45. Epub 2017 Sep 6 doi: 10.1016/j.nrl.2017.05.012. PMID: 28888467
Staff NP, Cavaletti G, Islam B, Lustberg M, Psimaras D, Tamburin S
J Peripher Nerv Syst 2019 Oct;24 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):S26-S39. doi: 10.1111/jns.12335. PMID: 31647151Free PMC Article
Asbury AK
J Child Neurol 2000 Mar;15(3):183-91. doi: 10.1177/088307380001500308. PMID: 10757475
Hughes RA
Baillieres Clin Neurol 1994 Apr;3(1):45-72. PMID: 7921591

Diagnosis

Dupré M, Hermann R, Froment Tilikete C
Cerebellum 2021 Oct;20(5):687-700. Epub 2020 Oct 4 doi: 10.1007/s12311-020-01192-w. PMID: 33011895Free PMC Article
Berciano J
J Neurol 2021 Oct;268(10):3728-3743. Epub 2020 Jun 30 doi: 10.1007/s00415-020-10034-y. PMID: 32607643
Shang P, Zhu M, Wang Y, Zheng X, Wu X, Zhu J, Feng J, Zhang HL
J Neurol 2021 Jul;268(7):2402-2419. Epub 2020 Mar 5 doi: 10.1007/s00415-020-09742-2. PMID: 32140865
Arcila-Londono X, Lewis RA
Semin Neurol 2012 Jul;32(3):179-86. Epub 2012 Nov 1 doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1329196. PMID: 23117942
Hughes RA, Cornblath DR
Lancet 2005 Nov 5;366(9497):1653-66. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67665-9. PMID: 16271648

Therapy

Shang P, Zhu M, Wang Y, Zheng X, Wu X, Zhu J, Feng J, Zhang HL
J Neurol 2021 Jul;268(7):2402-2419. Epub 2020 Mar 5 doi: 10.1007/s00415-020-09742-2. PMID: 32140865
Staff NP, Cavaletti G, Islam B, Lustberg M, Psimaras D, Tamburin S
J Peripher Nerv Syst 2019 Oct;24 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):S26-S39. doi: 10.1111/jns.12335. PMID: 31647151Free PMC Article
Vucic S, Kiernan MC, Cornblath DR
J Clin Neurosci 2009 Jun;16(6):733-41. Epub 2009 Apr 7 doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2008.08.033. PMID: 19356935
Hughes RA, Cornblath DR
Lancet 2005 Nov 5;366(9497):1653-66. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67665-9. PMID: 16271648
Ensrud ER, Krivickas LS
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2001 May;12(2):321-34, ix. PMID: 11345010

Prognosis

Kalita J, Kumar M, Misra UK
Neurol India 2022 Sep-Oct;70(5):1995-2002. doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.359245. PMID: 36352600
Freiha J, Zoghaib R, Makhoul K, Maalouf N, Riachi N, Chalah MA, Ayache SS, Ahdab R
Clin Neurophysiol 2021 May;132(5):1157-1162. Epub 2021 Mar 13 doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2021.02.013. PMID: 33780722
Staff NP, Cavaletti G, Islam B, Lustberg M, Psimaras D, Tamburin S
J Peripher Nerv Syst 2019 Oct;24 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):S26-S39. doi: 10.1111/jns.12335. PMID: 31647151Free PMC Article
Hughes RA, Cornblath DR
Lancet 2005 Nov 5;366(9497):1653-66. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67665-9. PMID: 16271648
Ensrud ER, Krivickas LS
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2001 May;12(2):321-34, ix. PMID: 11345010

Clinical prediction guides

Babu K, Seamon K, Jewell A, Harrison A, Harper A, Al Saif H, Couser N
Ophthalmic Genet 2023 Aug;44(4):379-384. Epub 2022 Sep 13 doi: 10.1080/13816810.2022.2116651. PMID: 36098092
Kalita J, Kumar M, Misra UK
Neurol India 2022 Sep-Oct;70(5):1995-2002. doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.359245. PMID: 36352600
Agarwal E, Bhagat A, Srivastava K, Thakore B, Jagtap S, Kalane U, Rajadhyaksha S
Indian J Pediatr 2022 May;89(5):452-458. Epub 2021 Jun 7 doi: 10.1007/s12098-021-03804-7. PMID: 34097234
Freiha J, Zoghaib R, Makhoul K, Maalouf N, Riachi N, Chalah MA, Ayache SS, Ahdab R
Clin Neurophysiol 2021 May;132(5):1157-1162. Epub 2021 Mar 13 doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2021.02.013. PMID: 33780722
Dupré M, Hermann R, Froment Tilikete C
Cerebellum 2021 Oct;20(5):687-700. Epub 2020 Oct 4 doi: 10.1007/s12311-020-01192-w. PMID: 33011895Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Green C, Baker T, Subramaniam A
Med J Aust 2018 Mar 5;208(4):181-188. doi: 10.5694/mja17.00552. PMID: 29490222
Liu J, Lian Z, Chen H, Shi Z, Feng H, Du Q, Zhang Q, Zhou H
J Neuroimmunol 2017 Dec 15;313:25-33. Epub 2017 Oct 7 doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2017.10.003. PMID: 29153605

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