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Depressed nasal ridge

MedGen UID:
334631
Concept ID:
C1842876
Finding
Synonym: Flat nose
 
HPO: HP:0000457

Definition

Lack of prominence of the nose resulting from a posteriorly-placed nasal ridge. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVDepressed nasal ridge

Conditions with this feature

Deficiency of alpha-mannosidase
MedGen UID:
7467
Concept ID:
C0024748
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-mannosidosis encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from mild to severe. Three major clinical subtypes have been suggested: A mild form recognized after age ten years with absence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 1). A moderate form recognized before age ten years with presence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 2). A severe form manifested as prenatal loss or early death from progressive central nervous system involvement or infection (type 3). Individuals with a milder phenotype have mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, impaired hearing, characteristic coarse features, clinical or radiographic skeletal abnormalities, immunodeficiency, and primary central nervous system disease – mainly cerebellar involvement causing ataxia. Periods of psychiatric symptoms are common. Associated medical problems can include corneal opacities, hepatosplenomegaly, aseptic destructive arthritis, and metabolic myopathy. Alpha-mannosidosis is insidiously progressive; some individuals may live into the sixth decade.
Infantile GM1 gangliosidosis
MedGen UID:
75665
Concept ID:
C0268271
Disease or Syndrome
GLB1-related disorders comprise two phenotypically distinct lysosomal storage disorders: GM1 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type IVB (MPS IVB). The phenotype of GM1 gangliosidosis constitutes a spectrum ranging from severe (infantile) to intermediate (late-infantile and juvenile) to mild (chronic/adult). Type I (infantile) GM1 gangliosidosis begins before age 12 months. Prenatal manifestations may include nonimmune hydrops fetalis, intrauterine growth restriction, and placental vacuolization; congenital dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spots) may be observed. Macular cherry-red spot is detected on eye exam. Progressive central nervous system dysfunction leads to spasticity and rapid regression; blindness, deafness, decerebrate rigidity, seizures, feeding difficulties, and oral secretions are observed. Life expectancy is two to three years. Type II can be subdivided into the late-infantile (onset age 1-3 years) and juvenile (onset age 3-10 years) phenotypes. Central nervous system dysfunction manifests as progressive cognitive, motor, and speech decline as measured by psychometric testing. There may be mild corneal clouding, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or cardiomyopathy; the typical course is characterized by progressive neurologic decline, progressive skeletal disease in some individuals (including kyphosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral heads), and progressive feeding difficulties leading to aspiration risk. Type III begins in late childhood to the third decade with generalized dystonia leading to unsteady gait and speech disturbance followed by extrapyramidal signs including akinetic-rigid parkinsonism. Cardiomyopathy develops in some and skeletal involvement occurs in most. Intellectual impairment is common late in the disease with prognosis directly related to the degree of neurologic impairment. MPS IVB is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with specific findings of axial and appendicular dysostosis multiplex, short stature (below 15th centile in adults), kyphoscoliosis, coxa/genu valga, joint laxity, platyspondyly, and odontoid hypoplasia. First signs and symptoms may be apparent at birth. Bony involvement is progressive, with more than 84% of adults requiring ambulation aids; life span does not appear to be limited. Corneal clouding is detected in some individuals and cardiac valvular disease may develop.
Ateleiotic dwarfism
MedGen UID:
90986
Concept ID:
C0342573
Congenital Abnormality
Isolated growth hormone deficiency type IA is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe growth failure (SDS less than -4.5) by 6 months of age, undetectable growth hormone (GH) concentrations, and a tendency to develop antibodies despite an initial good response to rhGH treatment (summary by Alatzoglou et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency See IGHD1B (617281) and IGHD2 (173100), both caused by mutation in the GH1 gene; IGHD3 (307200), caused by mutation in the BTK gene (300300); and IGHD4 (618157), caused by mutation in the GHRHR gene (139191). Isolated growth hormone deficiency-5 (IGHD5) has been reclassified as combined pituitary hormone deficiency-7 (CPHD7; 618160).
Chondrodysplasia punctata, MT type
MedGen UID:
98147
Concept ID:
C0432224
Congenital Abnormality
A rare, non-rhizomelic, chondrodysplasia punctata syndrome characterized, radiologically, by stippled calcifications and disproportionate, short metacarpals and tibiae (with characteristic overshoot of the proximal fibula), clinically manifesting with severe short stature, bilateral shortening of upper and lower limbs, flat midface and nose, in the absence of cataracts and cutaneous anomalies. Neonatal tachypnea, hydrocephalus and mild developmental delay have been seldomly associated. Additional radiologic features include bowed long bones, platyspondyly and/or vertebral clefts.
Deletion of short arm of chromosome 18
MedGen UID:
96604
Concept ID:
C0432442
Disease or Syndrome
The main clinical manifestations of chromosome 18p deletion syndrome are mental retardation, growth retardation, craniofacial dysmorphism including round face, dysplastic ears, wide mouth and dental anomalies, and abnormalities of the limbs, genitalia, brain, eyes, and heart. The round face characteristic in the neonatal period and childhood may change to a long face with linear growth of the height of the face (summary by Tsukahara et al., 2001).
X-linked lethal multiple pterygium syndrome
MedGen UID:
374225
Concept ID:
C1839440
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is a rare, genetic, developmental defect during embryogenesis characterized by the typical lethal multiple pterygium syndrome presentation (comprising of multiple pterygia, severe arthrogryposis, cleft palate, cystic hygromata and/or fetal hydrops, skeletal abnormalities and fetal death in the 2nd or 3rd trimester) with an X-linked pattern of inheritance.
Diaphanospondylodysostosis
MedGen UID:
374993
Concept ID:
C1842691
Disease or Syndrome
Diaphanospondylodysostosis is a rare, recessively inherited, perinatal lethal skeletal disorder. The primary skeletal characteristics include small chest, abnormal vertebral segmentation, and posterior rib gaps containing incompletely differentiated mesenchymal tissue. Consistent craniofacial features include ocular hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, depressed nasal bridge with short nose, and low-set ears. The most commonly described extraskeletal finding is nephroblastomatosis with cystic kidneys, but other visceral findings have been described in some cases (summary by Funari et al., 2010).
Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334629
Concept ID:
C1842870
Disease or Syndrome
The constitutional deletion of chromosome 1p36 results in a syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (Shapira et al., 1997). Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome in humans, occurring in 1 in 5,000 births (Shaffer and Lupski, 2000; Heilstedt et al., 2003). See also neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH; 616975), which shows overlapping features and is caused by heterozygous mutation in the RERE gene (605226) on proximal chromosome 1p36. See also Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS; 619312), caused by mutation in the SPEN gene (613484) on chromosome 1p36, which shows overlapping features.
Microphthalmia with cyst, bilateral facial clefts, and limb anomalies
MedGen UID:
375210
Concept ID:
C1843492
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia-short limb-abnormal calcification syndrome
MedGen UID:
338595
Concept ID:
C1849011
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia-short limb-abnormal calcification syndrome is a rare, genetic primary bone dysplasia disorder characterized by disproportionate short stature with shortening of upper and lower limbs, short and broad fingers with short hands, narrowed chest with rib abnormalities and pectus excavatum, abnormal chondral calcifications (incl. larynx, trachea and costal cartilages) and facial dysmorphism (frontal bossing, hypertelorism, prominent eyes, short flat nose, wide nostrils, high-arched palate, long philtrum). Platyspondyly (esp. of cervical spine) and abnormal epiphyses and metaphyses are observed on radiography. Atlantoaxial instability causing spinal compression and recurrent respiratory disease are potential complications that may result lethal.
Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome
MedGen UID:
381473
Concept ID:
C1854678
Disease or Syndrome
In people with multiple pterygium syndrome, Escobar type, the webbing typically affects the skin of the neck, fingers, forearms, inner thighs, and backs of the knee. People with this type may also have arthrogryposis. A side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis) is sometimes seen. Affected individuals may also have respiratory distress at birth due to underdeveloped lungs (lung hypoplasia). People with multiple pterygium syndrome, Escobar type usually have distinctive facial features including droopy eyelids (ptosis), outside corners of the eyes that point downward (downslanting palpebral fissures), skin folds covering the inner corner of the eyes (epicanthal folds), a small jaw, and low-set ears. Males with this condition can have undescended testes (cryptorchidism). This condition does not worsen after birth, and affected individuals typically do not have muscle weakness later in life.\n\nThe two forms of multiple pterygium syndrome are differentiated by the severity of their symptoms. Multiple pterygium syndrome, Escobar type (sometimes referred to as Escobar syndrome) is the milder of the two types. Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is fatal before birth or very soon after birth.\n\nLethal multiple pterygium syndrome has many of the same signs and symptoms as the Escobar type. In addition, affected fetuses may develop a buildup of excess fluid in the body (hydrops fetalis) or a fluid-filled sac typically found on the back of the neck (cystic hygroma). Individuals with this type have severe arthrogryposis. Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is associated with abnormalities such as underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of the heart, lung, or brain; twisting of the intestines (intestinal malrotation); kidney abnormalities; an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate); and an unusually small head size (microcephaly). Affected individuals may also develop a hole in the muscle that separates the abdomen from the chest cavity (the diaphragm), a condition called a congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is typically fatal in the second or third trimester of pregnancy.\n\nMultiple pterygium syndrome is a condition that is evident before birth with webbing of the skin (pterygium) at the joints and a lack of muscle movement (akinesia) before birth. Akinesia frequently results in muscle weakness and joint deformities called contractures that restrict the movement of joints (arthrogryposis). As a result, multiple pterygium syndrome can lead to further problems with movement such as arms and legs that cannot fully extend.
Camptomelic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
354620
Concept ID:
C1861922
Disease or Syndrome
Campomelic dysplasia (CD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by distinctive facies, Pierre Robin sequence with cleft palate, shortening and bowing of long bones, and clubfeet. Other findings include laryngotracheomalacia with respiratory compromise and ambiguous genitalia or normal female external genitalia in most individuals with a 46,XY karyotype. Many affected infants die in the neonatal period; additional findings identified in long-term survivors include short stature, cervical spine instability with cord compression, progressive scoliosis, and hearing impairment.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
409857
Concept ID:
C1969562
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
MBD5 haploinsufficiency is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, seizures, sleep disturbances, and abnormal behaviors. Most children lack speech entirely or have single words, short phrases, or short sentences. Seizures are present in more than 80% of children; onset is usually around age two years. Sleep disturbances, present in about 90%, can result in excessive daytime drowsiness. Abnormal behaviors can include autistic-like behaviors (80%) and self-injury and aggression (>60%).
Chromosome 22q11.2 microduplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
436417
Concept ID:
C2675369
Disease or Syndrome
22q11.2 duplication is a condition caused by an extra copy of a small piece of chromosome 22. The duplication occurs near the middle of the chromosome at a location designated q11.2.\n\nThe features of this condition vary widely, even among members of the same family. Affected individuals may have developmental delay, intellectual disability, slow growth leading to short stature, and weak muscle tone (hypotonia). Many people with the duplication have no apparent physical or intellectual disabilities.
Diamond-Blackfan anemia 1
MedGen UID:
390966
Concept ID:
C2676137
Disease or Syndrome
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50%, and growth deficiency in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia or no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma.
46,XY sex reversal 4
MedGen UID:
416704
Concept ID:
C2752149
Congenital Abnormality
Sex reversal in an individual associated with a 9p24.3 deletion.
Ring chromosome 14
MedGen UID:
419284
Concept ID:
C2930916
Disease or Syndrome
Ring chromosome 14 syndrome is a condition characterized by seizures and intellectual disability. Recurrent seizures (epilepsy) develop in infancy or early childhood. In many cases, the seizures are resistant to treatment with anti-epileptic drugs. Most people with ring chromosome 14 syndrome also have some degree of intellectual disability or learning problems. Development may be delayed, particularly the development of speech and of motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking.\n\nAdditional features of ring chromosome 14 syndrome can include slow growth and short stature, a small head (microcephaly), puffy hands and/or feet caused by a buildup of fluid (lymphedema), and subtle differences in facial features. Some affected individuals have problems with their immune system that lead to recurrent infections, especially involving the respiratory system. Abnormalities of the retina, the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color, have also been reported in some people with this condition. These changes typically do not affect vision. Major birth defects are rarely seen with ring chromosome 14 syndrome.
Greenberg dysplasia
MedGen UID:
418969
Concept ID:
C2931048
Disease or Syndrome
Greenberg dysplasia (GRBGD), also known as hydrops-ectopic calcification-moth-eaten (HEM) skeletal dysplasia, is a rare autosomal recessive osteochondrodysplasia characterized by gross fetal hydrops, severe shortening of all long bones with a moth-eaten radiographic appearance, platyspondyly, disorganization of chondroosseous calcification, and ectopic ossification centers. It is lethal in utero. Patient fibroblasts show increased levels of cholesta-8,14-dien-3-beta-ol, suggesting a defect of sterol metabolism (summary by Konstantinidou et al., 2008). Herman (2003) reviewed the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and 6 disorders involving enzyme defects in postsqualene cholesterol biosynthesis: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS; 270400), desmosterolosis (602398), X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2; 302960), CHILD syndrome (308050), lathosterolosis (607330), and HEM skeletal dysplasia.
Craniometaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
419753
Concept ID:
C2931244
Disease or Syndrome
Craniometaphyseal dysplasia is an osteochondrodysplasia characterized by hyperostosis and sclerosis of the craniofacial bones associated with abnormal modeling of the metaphyses. Sclerosis of the skull may lead to asymmetry of the mandible, as well as to cranial nerve compression, that may finally result in hearing loss and facial palsy (summary by Nurnberg et al., 1997). The delineation of separate autosomal dominant (CMDD; 123000) and autosomal recessive forms of CMD by Gorlin et al. (1969) was confirmed by reports that made it evident that the dominant form is relatively mild and comparatively common, whereas the recessive form is rare, severe, and possibly heterogeneous.
Frontonasal dysplasia with alopecia and genital anomaly
MedGen UID:
462053
Concept ID:
C3150703
Disease or Syndrome
Frontonasal dysplasia-2 (FND2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by variable degrees of alopecia, skull defects, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge and ridge with notched alae nasi, and abnormal central nervous system findings (summary by Kariminejad et al., 2014).
X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia, Chassaing-Lacombe type
MedGen UID:
477107
Concept ID:
C3275476
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia Chassaing-Lacombe type is a rare genetic bone disorder characterized by chondrodysplasia, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), hydrocephaly and facial dysmorphism in the affected males.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder type 3B
MedGen UID:
763607
Concept ID:
C3550693
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth.
Meckel syndrome, type 8
MedGen UID:
854220
Concept ID:
C3836857
Disease or Syndrome
Meckel-Gruber syndrome is a severe autosomal recessive ciliopathy classically defined by the triad of encephalocele, polydactyly, and renal and biliary ductal dysplasia. Clinical heterogeneity exists even within families (summary by Shaheen et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Meckel syndrome, see MKS1 (249000).
Neu-Laxova syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
863456
Concept ID:
C4015019
Disease or Syndrome
Neu-Laxova syndrome-2 (NLS2) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of severe congenital malformations leading to prenatal or early postnatal lethality. Affected individuals have abnormal craniofacial features, microcephaly, intrauterine growth retardation, ichthyosis, flexion deformities, limb malformations, and edema of the hands and feet. Some patients have malformations of the central nervous system, such as abnormal gyration (summary by Acuna-Hidalgo et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Neu-Laxova syndrome, see NLS1 (256520).
Even-plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
904613
Concept ID:
C4225180
Disease or Syndrome
EVEN-plus syndrome (EVPLS) is characterized by prenatal-onset short stature, vertebral and epiphyseal changes, microtia, midface hypoplasia with flat nose and triangular nares, cardiac malformations, and other findings including anal atresia, hypodontia, and aplasia cutis. The features overlap those reported in patients with CODAS syndrome (600373; Royer-Bertrand et al., 2015).
Meier-Gorlin syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
905079
Concept ID:
C4225188
Disease or Syndrome
Any Meier-Gorlin syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the GMNN gene.
Neu-Laxova syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1633287
Concept ID:
C4551478
Disease or Syndrome
Any Neu-Laxova syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PHGDH gene.
LEOPARD syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1631694
Concept ID:
C4551484
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck, and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth restriction resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25th centile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20% of affected individuals, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML.
Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia 1
MedGen UID:
1634824
Concept ID:
C4551958
Disease or Syndrome
Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA) is a rare autosomal recessive oxidative phosphorylation disorder specific to skeletal muscle and bone marrow (Bykhovskaya et al., 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Myopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Sideroblastic Anemia MLASA2 (613561) is caused by mutation in the YARS2 gene (610957) on chromosome 12p11. MLASA3 (500011) is caused by heteroplasmic mutation in the mitochondrially-encoded MTATP6 gene (516060).
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1644087
Concept ID:
C4551982
Disease or Syndrome
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome (THES), generally considered to be a neonatal enteropathy, is characterized by intractable diarrhea (seen in almost all affected children), woolly hair (seen in all), intrauterine growth restriction, facial dysmorphism, and short stature. Additional findings include poorly characterized immunodeficiency, recurrent infections, skin abnormalities, and liver disease. Mild intellectual disability (ID) is seen in about 50% of affected individuals. Less common findings include congenital heart defects and platelet anomalies. To date 52 affected individuals have been reported.
Menke-Hennekam syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1675629
Concept ID:
C5193034
Disease or Syndrome
Menke-Hennekam syndrome-1 (MKHK1) is a congenital disorder characterized by variable impairment of intellectual development and facial dysmorphisms. Feeding difficulties, autistic behavior, recurrent upper airway infections, hearing impairment, short stature, and microcephaly are also frequently seen. Although mutations in the same gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome-1 (RSTS1; 180849), patients with MKHK1 do not resemble the striking phenotype of RSTS1. Genetic Heterogeneity of Menke-Hennekam Syndrome Menke-Hennekam syndrome-2 (MKHK2; 618333) is caused by heterozygous mutation in exons 30 or 31 of the EP300 gene (602700). Mutation elsewhere in that gene results in RSTS2 (613684).
Myopathy, congenital, progressive, with scoliosis
MedGen UID:
1684769
Concept ID:
C5231417
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-19 (CMYP19) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder characterized by infantile-onset of progressive muscle weakness and atrophy associated with scoliosis, variably impaired walking, and dysmorphic facial features (Feichtinger et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Intellectual developmental disorder with speech delay, autism, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1684848
Concept ID:
C5231456
Disease or Syndrome
CEBALID syndrome
MedGen UID:
1710973
Concept ID:
C5394044
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with MN1 C-terminal truncation (MCTT) syndrome have mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, severe expressive language delay, dysmorphic facial features (midface hypoplasia, downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, exophthalmia, short upturned nose, and small low-set ears), and distinctive findings on brain imaging (including perisylvian polymicrogyria and atypical rhombencephalosynapsis). Mild-to-moderate prelingual hearing loss (usually bilateral, conductive, and/or sensorineural) is common. Generalized seizures (observed in the minority of individuals) are responsive to anti-seizure medication. There is an increased risk for craniosynostosis and, thus, increased intracranial pressure. To date, 25 individuals with MCTT syndrome have been identified.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Lehalle D, Altunoglu U, Bruel AL, Arnaud E, Blanchet P, Choi JW, Désir J, Kiliç E, Lederer D, Pinson L, Thauvin-Robinet C, Singer A, Thevenon J, Callier P, Kayserili H, Faivre L
Am J Med Genet A 2017 Dec;173(12):3136-3142. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38490. PMID: 29136349
Tang HW, Liao SF, Li JS
Eur J Pediatr 2014 Feb;173(2):251-5. Epub 2013 May 12 doi: 10.1007/s00431-013-2001-z. PMID: 23666113
Park SC, Kiumehr S, Teng CC, Tello C, Liebmann JM, Ritch R
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012 Mar 21;53(3):1610-6. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-7577. PMID: 22266523
Axelsson S
Swed Dent J Suppl 2005;(170):3-67. PMID: 15762376
Cho BC
Plast Reconstr Surg 2004 Oct;114(5):1032-41. doi: 10.1097/01.prs.0000135336.43513.17. PMID: 15457010

Diagnosis

Lehalle D, Altunoglu U, Bruel AL, Arnaud E, Blanchet P, Choi JW, Désir J, Kiliç E, Lederer D, Pinson L, Thauvin-Robinet C, Singer A, Thevenon J, Callier P, Kayserili H, Faivre L
Am J Med Genet A 2017 Dec;173(12):3136-3142. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38490. PMID: 29136349
Menke LA, van Belzen MJ, Alders M, Cristofoli F; DDD Study, Ehmke N, Fergelot P, Foster A, Gerkes EH, Hoffer MJ, Horn D, Kant SG, Lacombe D, Leon E, Maas SM, Melis D, Muto V, Park SM, Peeters H, Peters DJ, Pfundt R, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CM, Tartaglia M, Hennekam RC
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Oct;170(10):2681-93. Epub 2016 Jun 17 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37800. PMID: 27311832
Kurata H, Terashima H, Nakashima M, Okazaki T, Matsumura W, Ohno K, Saito Y, Maegaki Y, Kubota M, Nanba E, Saitsu H, Matsumoto N, Kato M
Clin Genet 2016 Nov;90(5):437-444. Epub 2016 Jul 4 doi: 10.1111/cge.12813. PMID: 27246907
Tang HW, Liao SF, Li JS
Eur J Pediatr 2014 Feb;173(2):251-5. Epub 2013 May 12 doi: 10.1007/s00431-013-2001-z. PMID: 23666113
Kumar P, Sharma PK, Gautam RK, Jain RK, Kar HK
Int J Dermatol 2007 May;46(5):492-3. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2007.03248.x. PMID: 17472679

Therapy

Park SC, Kiumehr S, Teng CC, Tello C, Liebmann JM, Ritch R
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012 Mar 21;53(3):1610-6. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-7577. PMID: 22266523
Yang TS, Chi CC, Tsai CJ, Chang MJ
Obstet Gynecol 1978 Dec;52(6):682-4. PMID: 733136

Prognosis

Varela-Centelles P, Loira-Gago M, Gonzalez-Mosquera A, Seoane-Romero JM, Garcia-Martin JM, Seoane J
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2016 Nov 1;21(6):e758-e765. doi: 10.4317/medoral.21475. PMID: 27694790Free PMC Article
DeSanto C, D'Aco K, Araujo GC, Shannon N; DDD Study, Vernon H, Rahrig A, Monaghan KG, Niu Z, Vitazka P, Dodd J, Tang S, Manwaring L, Martir-Negron A, Schnur RE, Juusola J, Schroeder A, Pan V, Helbig KL, Friedman B, Shinawi M
J Med Genet 2015 Nov;52(11):754-61. Epub 2015 Aug 11 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103069. PMID: 26264232
Tang HW, Liao SF, Li JS
Eur J Pediatr 2014 Feb;173(2):251-5. Epub 2013 May 12 doi: 10.1007/s00431-013-2001-z. PMID: 23666113
Kayserili H, Uz E, Niessen C, Vargel I, Alanay Y, Tuncbilek G, Yigit G, Uyguner O, Candan S, Okur H, Kaygin S, Balci S, Mavili E, Alikasifoglu M, Haase I, Wollnik B, Akarsu NA
Hum Mol Genet 2009 Nov 15;18(22):4357-66. Epub 2009 Aug 19 doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddp391. PMID: 19692347
Cho BC
Plast Reconstr Surg 2004 Oct;114(5):1032-41. doi: 10.1097/01.prs.0000135336.43513.17. PMID: 15457010

Clinical prediction guides

Lehalle D, Altunoglu U, Bruel AL, Arnaud E, Blanchet P, Choi JW, Désir J, Kiliç E, Lederer D, Pinson L, Thauvin-Robinet C, Singer A, Thevenon J, Callier P, Kayserili H, Faivre L
Am J Med Genet A 2017 Dec;173(12):3136-3142. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38490. PMID: 29136349
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