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Neck flexor weakness

MedGen UID:
334801
Concept ID:
C1843637
Finding
Synonyms: Neck flexion weakness; Neck flexor muscle weakness; Weakness of neck flexors
 
HPO: HP:0003722

Definition

Weakness of the muscles involved in neck flexion (sternocleidomastoid, longus capitus, longus colli, and scalenus anterior). [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVNeck flexor weakness

Conditions with this feature

Sarcotubular myopathy
MedGen UID:
78750
Concept ID:
C0270968
Congenital Abnormality
A mild subtype of autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy characterized by slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness and wasting of the pelvic and shoulder girdles with onset that usually occurs during the second or third decade of life. Clinical presentation is variable and can include calf psuedohypertrophy, joint contractures, scapular winging, muscle cramping and/or facial and respiratory muscle involvement.
Eichsfeld type congenital muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
98047
Concept ID:
C0410180
Disease or Syndrome
Rigid spine muscular dystrophy (RSMD) is a form of congenital muscular dystrophy. Disorders in this group cause muscle weakness and wasting (atrophy) beginning very early in life. In particular, RSMD involves weakness of the muscles of the torso and neck (axial muscles). Other characteristic features include spine stiffness and serious breathing problems.\n\nIn RSMD, muscle weakness is often apparent at birth or within the first few months of life. Affected infants can have poor head control and weak muscle tone (hypotonia), which may delay the development of motor skills such as crawling or walking. Over time, muscles surrounding the spine atrophy, and the joints of the spine develop deformities called contractures that restrict movement. The neck and back become stiff and rigid, and affected children have limited ability to move their heads up and down or side to side. Affected children eventually develop an abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis). In some people with RSMD, muscles in the inner thighs also atrophy, although it does not impair the ability to walk.\n\nA characteristic feature of RSMD is breathing difficulty (respiratory insufficiency) due to restricted movement of the torso and weakness of the diaphragm, which is the muscle that separates the abdomen from the chest cavity. The breathing problems, which tend to occur only at night, can be life-threatening. Many affected individuals require a machine to help them breathe (mechanical ventilation) during sleep.\n\nThe combination of features characteristic of RSMD, particularly axial muscle weakness, spine rigidity, and respiratory insufficiency, is sometimes referred to as rigid spine syndrome. While these features occur on their own in RSMD, they can also occur along with additional signs and symptoms in other muscle disorders. The features of rigid spine syndrome typically appear at a younger age in people with RSMD than in those with other muscle disorders.
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
371919
Concept ID:
C1834846
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Nemaline myopathy 6
MedGen UID:
373095
Concept ID:
C1836472
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-6 is an autosomal dominant skeletal muscle disorder characterized by childhood onset of slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and slow movements with stiff muscles. Patients are unable to run or correct themselves from falling over. Histopathologic changes seen on skeletal muscle biopsy include nemaline rods, cores devoid of oxidative enzyme activity, and predominance of hypertrophic type 1 fibers. There is no cardiac or respiratory involvement (summary by Sambuughin et al., 2010).
Myosin storage myopathy
MedGen UID:
374868
Concept ID:
C1842160
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant myosin storage congenital myopathy-7A (CMYP7A) is a skeletal muscle disorder with wide phenotypic variability. The age at symptom onset can range from early childhood to late adulthood. Affected individuals have proximal muscle weakness affecting the upper and lower limbs and distal muscle weakness of the lower limbs, resulting in gait difficulties and scapular winging (scapuloperoneal myopathy). Additional features may include thin habitus, high-arched palate, foot drop, pes cavus, calf pseudohypertrophy, and decreased reflexes. The severity is also variable: some patients develop respiratory insufficiency, joint contractures, and scoliosis in the first decades, whereas others are clinically unaffected, but show subtle signs of the disorder on examination. Serum creatine kinase may be normal or elevated. The disease is usually slowly progressive and most patients remain ambulatory. Skeletal muscle biopsy can show different abnormalities, including hyaline bodies, type 1 fiber predominance, congenital fiber-type disproportion (CFTD), and nonspecific myopathic changes with myofibrillar disarray. Intrafamilial variability is common (Dye et al., 2006; Pegoraro et al., 2007; review by Tajsharghi and Oldfors, 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Nemaline myopathy 2
MedGen UID:
342534
Concept ID:
C1850569
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-2 (NEM2) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder with a wide range of severity. The most common clinical presentation is early-onset (in infancy or childhood) muscle weakness predominantly affecting proximal limb muscles. Muscle biopsy shows accumulation of Z-disc and thin filament proteins into aggregates named 'nemaline bodies' or 'nemaline rods,' usually accompanied by disorganization of the muscle Z discs. The clinical and histologic spectrum of entities caused by variants in the NEB gene is a continuum, ranging in severity. The distribution of weakness can vary from generalized muscle weakness, more pronounced in proximal limb muscles, to distal-only involvement, although neck flexor weakness appears to be rather consistent. Histologic patterns range from a severe usually nondystrophic disturbance of the myofibrillar pattern to an almost normal pattern, with or without nemaline bodies, sometimes combined with cores (summary by Lehtokari et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Nemaline Myopathy See also NEM1 (255310), caused by mutation in the tropomyosin-3 gene (TPM3; 191030) on chromosome 1q22; NEM3 (161800), caused by mutation in the alpha-actin-1 gene (ACTA1; 102610) on chromosome 1q42; NEM4 (609285), caused by mutation in the beta-tropomyosin gene (TPM2; 190990) on chromosome 9p13; NEM5A (605355), also known as Amish nemaline myopathy, NEM5B (620386), and NEM5C (620389), all caused by mutation in the troponin T1 gene (TNNT1; 191041) on chromosome 19q13; NEM6 (609273), caused by mutation in the KBTBD13 gene (613727) on chromosome 15q22; NEM7 (610687), caused by mutation in the cofilin-2 gene (CFL2; 601443) on chromosome 14q13; NEM8 (615348), caused by mutation in the KLHL40 gene (615340), on chromosome 3p22; NEM9 (615731), caused by mutation in the KLHL41 gene (607701) on chromosome 2q31; NEM10 (616165), caused by mutation in the LMOD3 gene (616112) on chromosome 3p14; and NEM11 (617336), caused by mutation in the MYPN gene (608517) on chromosome 10q21. Several of the genes encode components of skeletal muscle sarcomeric thin filaments (Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001). Mutations in the NEB gene are the most common cause of nemaline myopathy (Lehtokari et al., 2006).
Myopathy, myofibrillar, 9, with early respiratory failure
MedGen UID:
350930
Concept ID:
C1863599
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) is a slowly progressive myopathy that typically begins in the third to fifth decades of life. The usual presenting findings are gait disturbance relating to distal leg weakness or nocturnal respiratory symptoms due to respiratory muscle weakness. Weakness eventually generalizes and affects both proximal and distal muscles. Most affected individuals require walking aids within a few years of onset; some progress to wheelchair dependence and require nocturnal noninvasive ventilatory support about ten years after onset. The phenotype varies even among individuals within the same family: some remain ambulant until their 70s whereas others may require ventilator support in their 40s.
Vacuolar Neuromyopathy
MedGen UID:
355637
Concept ID:
C1866139
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant myopathy with rimmed ubiquitin-positive autophagic vacuolation (MRUPAV) is characterized by adult onset of slowly progressive skeletal muscle weakness variably affecting the distal or proximal lower limbs. Some patients may also have upper limb involvement or neck muscle weakness, but respiratory and bulbar involvement only rarely occurs. EMG studies show a myopathic process, and myotonia may also be observed. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows myopathic features, rimmed vacuoles, and abnormal subsarcolemmal protein aggregation with activation of the autophagy pathway (Ruggieri et al., 2020).
Myotonic dystrophy type 2
MedGen UID:
419137
Concept ID:
C2931689
Disease or Syndrome
Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is characterized by myotonia and muscle dysfunction (proximal and axial weakness, myalgia, and stiffness), and less commonly by posterior subcapsular cataracts, cardiac conduction defects, insulin-insensitive type 2 diabetes mellitus, and other endocrine abnormalities. While myotonia (involuntary muscle contraction with delayed relaxation) has been reported during the first decade, onset is typically in the third to fourth decade, most commonly with fluctuating or episodic muscle pain that can be debilitating and proximal and axial weakness of the neck flexors and the hip flexors. Subsequently, weakness occurs in the elbow extensors and finger flexors. Facial weakness and weakness of the ankle dorsiflexors are less common. Myotonia rarely causes severe symptoms. In a subset of individuals, calf hypertrophy in combination with brisk reflexes is notable.
Distal myopathy, Tateyama type
MedGen UID:
482073
Concept ID:
C3280443
Disease or Syndrome
CAV3-related distal myopathy is one form of distal myopathy, a group of disorders characterized by weakness and loss of function affecting the muscles farthest from the center of the body (distal muscles), such as those of the hands and feet. People with CAV3-related distal myopathy experience wasting (atrophy) and weakness of the small muscles in the hands and feet that generally become noticeable in adulthood. A bump or other sudden impact on the muscles, especially those in the forearms, may cause them to exhibit repetitive tensing (percussion-induced rapid contraction). The rapid contractions can continue for up to 30 seconds and may be painful. Overgrowth (hypertrophy) of the calf muscles can also occur in CAV3-related distal myopathy. The muscles closer to the center of the body (proximal muscles) such as the thighs and upper arms are normal in this condition.
Congenital myopathy 10b, mild variant
MedGen UID:
762102
Concept ID:
C3541476
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-10B (CMYP10B) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder characterized by infantile- or childhood-onset myopathy, areflexia, dysphagia, and respiratory distress that usually requires nocturnal ventilation. Other common features include facial and neck muscle weakness, feeding difficulties, contractures, scoliosis, high-arched palate, hyporeflexia, and difficulties walking. The disorder is slowly progressive and most patients follow a chronic course. Muscle biopsy shows variable findings, including type 1 fiber predominance, minicore lesions, and myofibrillar disorganization (Boyden et al., 2012; Harris et al., 2018). Patients with missense mutations affecting conserved cysteine residues in the EGF-like domain show the mild variant phenotype (CMYP10B) with later onset of respiratory failure and minicores on muscle biopsy, whereas patients with more damaging mutations, including nonsense or frameshift null mutations, show the severe variant phenotype (CMYP10A) (Croci et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Actin accumulation myopathy
MedGen UID:
777997
Concept ID:
C3711389
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-2A (CMYP2A) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the skeletal muscle characterized by infantile- or childhood-onset myopathy with delayed motor milestones and nonprogressive muscle weakness. Of the patients with congenital myopathy caused by mutation in the ACTA1 gene, about 90% carry heterozygous mutations that are usually de novo and cause the severe infantile phenotype (CMYP2C; 620278). Some patients with de novo mutations have a more typical and milder disease course with delayed motor development and proximal muscle weakness, but are able to achieve independent ambulation. Less frequently, autosomal dominant transmission of the disorder within a family may occur when the ACTA1 mutation produces a phenotype compatible with adult life. Of note, intrafamilial variability has also been reported: a severely affected proband may be identified and then mildly affected or even asymptomatic relatives are found to carry the same mutation. The severity of the disease most likely depends on the detrimental effect of the mutation, although there are probably additional modifying factors (Ryan et al., 2001; Laing et al., 2009; Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001; Agrawal et al., 2004; Nowak et al., 2013; Sewry et al., 2019; Laitila and Wallgren-Pettersson, 2021). The most common histologic finding on muscle biopsy in patients with ACTA1 mutations is the presence of 'nemaline rods,' which represent abnormal thread- or rod-like structures ('nema' is Greek for 'thread'). However, skeletal muscle biopsy from patients with mutations in the ACTA1 gene can show a range of pathologic phenotypes. These include classic rods, intranuclear rods, clumped filaments, cores, or fiber-type disproportion, all of which are nonspecific pathologic findings and not pathognomonic of a specific congenital myopathy. Most patients have clinically severe disease, regardless of the histopathologic phenotype (Nowak et al., 2007; Sewry et al., 2019). ACTA1 mutations are the second most common cause of congenital myopathies classified histologically as 'nemaline myopathy' after mutations in the NEB gene (161650). ACTA1 mutations are overrepresented in the severe phenotype with early death (Laing et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM2 (256030).
Autosomal dominant mitochondrial myopathy with exercise intolerance
MedGen UID:
863950
Concept ID:
C4015513
Disease or Syndrome
CHCHD10-related disorders are characterized by a spectrum of adult-onset neurologic phenotypes that can include: Mitochondrial myopathy (may also be early onset): weakness, amyotrophy, exercise intolerance. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): progressive degeneration of upper motor neurons and lower motor neurons. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD): slowly progressive behavioral changes, language disturbances, cognitive decline, extrapyramidal signs. Late-onset spinal motor neuronopathy (SMA, Jokela type): weakness, cramps, and/or fasciculations; areflexia. Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy: slowly progressive lower-leg muscle weakness and atrophy, small hand muscle weakness, loss of tendon reflexes, sensory abnormalities. Cerebellar ataxia: gait ataxia, kinetic ataxia (progressive loss of coordination of lower- and upper-limb movements), dysarthria/dysphagia, nystagmus, cerebellar oculomotor disorder. Because of the recent discovery of CHCHD10-related disorders and the limited number of affected individuals reported to date, the natural history of these disorders (except for SMAJ caused by the p.Gly66Val pathogenic variant) is largely unknown.
Progressive scapulohumeroperoneal distal myopathy
MedGen UID:
905125
Concept ID:
C4225181
Disease or Syndrome
Scapulohumeroperoneal myopathy is an autosomal dominant muscle disorder characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness and atrophy affecting both proximal and distal muscles of the upper and lower limbs. Onset is usually in the first decade and can be as early as infancy, although some patients do not notice symptoms until young adulthood. There is marked variability in severity (summary by Zukosky et al., 2015).
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal recessive 5
MedGen UID:
1648331
Concept ID:
C4748184
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle, autosomal recessive 23
MedGen UID:
1648462
Concept ID:
C4748327
Disease or Syndrome
The clinical manifestations of LAMA2 muscular dystrophy (LAMA2-MD) comprise a continuous spectrum ranging from severe congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) to milder late-onset LAMA2-MD. MDC1A is typically characterized by neonatal profound hypotonia, poor spontaneous movements, and respiratory failure. Failure to thrive, gastroesophageal reflux, aspiration, and recurrent chest infections necessitating frequent hospitalizations are common. As disease progresses, facial muscle weakness, temporomandibular joint contractures, and macroglossia may further impair feeding and can affect speech. In late-onset LAMA2-MD onset of manifestations range from early childhood to adulthood. Affected individuals may show muscle hypertrophy and develop a rigid spine syndrome with joint contractures, usually most prominent in the elbows. Progressive respiratory insufficiency, scoliosis, and cardiomyopathy can occur.
Nemaline myopathy 5B, autosomal recessive, childhood-onset
MedGen UID:
1841181
Concept ID:
C5830545
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive childhood-onset nemaline myopathy-5B (NEM5B) is a skeletal muscle disorder in which patients usually present with proximal muscle weakness of the lower and upper limbs in a limb-girdle distribution, resulting in gait abnormalities; however, most remain ambulatory even into late adulthood. Some affected individuals show delayed motor development. There is axial weakness and atrophy of the paraspinal muscles, along with kyphosis, scoliosis, and rigid spine, as well as variable limitations of the large joints. Most patients develop restrictive respiratory insufficiency with decreased forced vital capacity; some need noninvasive ventilation. Serum creatine kinase may be elevated. Muscle biopsy can show variable features, including nemaline rods, multiminicore lesions, endomysial fibrosis, and myofibrillar changes (Pellerin et al., 2020; Lee et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM2 (256030).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Marion MH, Hicklin LA
Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 Jul;88:34-39. Epub 2021 May 29 doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2021.05.024. PMID: 34102419
Leung AKC, Lam JM, Alobaida S, Leong KF, Wong AHC
Curr Pediatr Rev 2021;17(4):273-287. doi: 10.2174/1573396317666210426105045. PMID: 33902423
Meola G, Sansone V
Rev Neurol (Paris) 2004 May;160(5 Pt 2):S55-69. doi: 10.1016/s0035-3787(04)71007-3. PMID: 15269662

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Galassi G, Mazzoli M, Ariatti A, Bedin R, Marzullo D, Bastia E, Agnoletto V, Gozzi M, Valzania F, Meletti S, Marchioni A
Eur J Neurol 2024 Jan;31(1):e16090. Epub 2023 Oct 12 doi: 10.1111/ene.16090. PMID: 37823704
Vasta R, Torrieri MC, D'Ovidio F, Circiello A, De Mattei F, Manera U, Canosa A, Calvo A, Chiò A, Moglia C
Eur J Neurol 2021 Apr;28(4):1181-1187. Epub 2020 Dec 29 doi: 10.1111/ene.14676. PMID: 33314477
Verma R, Chaudhari TS, Raut TP, Garg RK
J Neurol Sci 2013 Dec 15;335(1-2):105-11. Epub 2013 Sep 10 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2013.09.002. PMID: 24064258
Dobkin BH
Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2005 Sep;19(3):259-63. doi: 10.1177/1545968305277167. PMID: 16093417Free PMC Article
Singh S, Kumar L, Shankar KR
Indian Pediatr 1997 Mar;34(3):193-8. PMID: 9282485

Diagnosis

Tobaly D, Laforêt P, Stojkovic T, Behin A, Petit FM, Barp A, Bello L, Carlier P, Carlier RY
Neuromuscul Disord 2022 Jan;32(1):5-14. Epub 2021 Aug 5 doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2021.07.397. PMID: 34711478
Vasta R, Torrieri MC, D'Ovidio F, Circiello A, De Mattei F, Manera U, Canosa A, Calvo A, Chiò A, Moglia C
Eur J Neurol 2021 Apr;28(4):1181-1187. Epub 2020 Dec 29 doi: 10.1111/ene.14676. PMID: 33314477
Régal L, Mårtensson E, Maystadt I, Voermans N, Lederer D, Burlina A, Juan Fita MJ, Hoogeboom AJM, Olsson Engman M, Hollemans T, Schouten M, Meulemans S, Jonson T, François I, Gil Ortega D, Kamsteeg EJ, Creemers JWM
Genet Med 2018 Jan;20(1):109-118. Epub 2017 Jul 20 doi: 10.1038/gim.2017.74. PMID: 28726805
Verma R, Chaudhari TS, Raut TP, Garg RK
J Neurol Sci 2013 Dec 15;335(1-2):105-11. Epub 2013 Sep 10 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2013.09.002. PMID: 24064258
Gourie-Devi M, Nalini A, Sandhya S
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003 May;74(5):683-6. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.74.5.683. PMID: 12700323Free PMC Article

Therapy

Chakraborty T, Kramer CL, Wijdicks EFM, Rabinstein AA
Neurocrit Care 2020 Feb;32(1):113-120. doi: 10.1007/s12028-019-00781-w. PMID: 31297663
Verma R, Chaudhari TS, Raut TP, Garg RK
J Neurol Sci 2013 Dec 15;335(1-2):105-11. Epub 2013 Sep 10 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2013.09.002. PMID: 24064258
Dobkin BH
Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2005 Sep;19(3):259-63. doi: 10.1177/1545968305277167. PMID: 16093417Free PMC Article
Singh S, Kumar L, Shankar KR
Indian Pediatr 1997 Mar;34(3):193-8. PMID: 9282485
De Bleecker JL, De Reuck JL, Willems JL
Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1992;94(2):93-103. doi: 10.1016/0303-8467(92)90065-b. PMID: 1324821

Prognosis

Vasta R, Torrieri MC, D'Ovidio F, Circiello A, De Mattei F, Manera U, Canosa A, Calvo A, Chiò A, Moglia C
Eur J Neurol 2021 Apr;28(4):1181-1187. Epub 2020 Dec 29 doi: 10.1111/ene.14676. PMID: 33314477
Chakraborty T, Kramer CL, Wijdicks EFM, Rabinstein AA
Neurocrit Care 2020 Feb;32(1):113-120. doi: 10.1007/s12028-019-00781-w. PMID: 31297663
Witting N, Werlauff U, Duno M, Vissing J
Muscle Nerve 2016 Mar;53(3):388-93. Epub 2015 Aug 13 doi: 10.1002/mus.24765. PMID: 26172852
Verma R, Chaudhari TS, Raut TP, Garg RK
J Neurol Sci 2013 Dec 15;335(1-2):105-11. Epub 2013 Sep 10 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2013.09.002. PMID: 24064258
Dobkin BH
Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2005 Sep;19(3):259-63. doi: 10.1177/1545968305277167. PMID: 16093417Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Tobaly D, Laforêt P, Stojkovic T, Behin A, Petit FM, Barp A, Bello L, Carlier P, Carlier RY
Neuromuscul Disord 2022 Jan;32(1):5-14. Epub 2021 Aug 5 doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2021.07.397. PMID: 34711478
Vasta R, Torrieri MC, D'Ovidio F, Circiello A, De Mattei F, Manera U, Canosa A, Calvo A, Chiò A, Moglia C
Eur J Neurol 2021 Apr;28(4):1181-1187. Epub 2020 Dec 29 doi: 10.1111/ene.14676. PMID: 33314477
Chakraborty T, Kramer CL, Wijdicks EFM, Rabinstein AA
Neurocrit Care 2020 Feb;32(1):113-120. doi: 10.1007/s12028-019-00781-w. PMID: 31297663
Witting N, Werlauff U, Duno M, Vissing J
Muscle Nerve 2016 Mar;53(3):388-93. Epub 2015 Aug 13 doi: 10.1002/mus.24765. PMID: 26172852
Gourie-Devi M, Nalini A, Sandhya S
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003 May;74(5):683-6. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.74.5.683. PMID: 12700323Free PMC Article

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