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Short finger

MedGen UID:
334977
Concept ID:
C1844548
Anatomical Abnormality; Finding
Synonyms: Hypoplastic digits; Hypoplastic fingers
 
HPO: HP:0009381

Definition

Abnormally short finger associated with developmental hypoplasia. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Focal dermal hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
42055
Concept ID:
C0016395
Disease or Syndrome
Focal dermal hypoplasia is a multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. Skin manifestations present at birth include atrophic and hypoplastic areas of skin; cutis aplasia; fat nodules in the dermis manifesting as soft, yellow-pink cutaneous nodules; and pigmentary changes. Verrucoid papillomas of the skin and mucous membranes may appear later. The nails can be ridged, dysplastic, or hypoplastic; hair can be sparse or absent. Limb malformations include oligo-/syndactyly and split hand/foot. Developmental abnormalities of the eye can include anophthalmia/microphthalmia, iris and chorioretinal coloboma, and lacrimal duct abnormalities. Craniofacial findings can include facial asymmetry, notched alae nasi, cleft lip and palate, and pointed chin. Occasional findings include dental anomalies, abdominal wall defects, diaphragmatic hernia, and renal anomalies. Psychomotor development is usually normal; some individuals have cognitive impairment.
Diastrophic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
113103
Concept ID:
C0220726
Disease or Syndrome
Diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) is characterized by limb shortening, normal-sized head, hitchhiker thumbs, spinal deformities (scoliosis, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, cervical kyphosis), and contractures of the large joints with deformities and early-onset osteoarthritis. Other typical findings are ulnar deviation of the fingers, gap between the first and second toes, and clubfoot. On occasion, the disease can be lethal at birth, but most affected individuals survive the neonatal period and develop physical limitations with normal intelligence.
Metatropic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
82699
Concept ID:
C0265281
Congenital Abnormality
The autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders (previously considered to be clinically distinct phenotypes before their molecular basis was discovered) are now grouped into neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias; however, the overlap within each group is considerable. Affected individuals typically have either neuromuscular or skeletal manifestations alone, and in only rare instances an overlap syndrome has been reported. The three autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders (mildest to most severe) are: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2C. Scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy. Congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy. The autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders are characterized by a congenital-onset, static, or later-onset progressive peripheral neuropathy with variable combinations of laryngeal dysfunction (i.e., vocal fold paresis), respiratory dysfunction, and joint contractures. The six autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasias (mildest to most severe) are: Familial digital arthropathy-brachydactyly. Autosomal dominant brachyolmia. Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Maroteaux type. Parastremmatic dysplasia. Metatropic dysplasia. The skeletal dysplasia is characterized by brachydactyly (in all 6); the five that are more severe have short stature that varies from mild to severe with progressive spinal deformity and involvement of the long bones and pelvis. In the mildest of the autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders life span is normal; in the most severe it is shortened. Bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) can occur with both autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias.
Atelosteogenesis type I
MedGen UID:
82701
Concept ID:
C0265283
Congenital Abnormality
The FLNB disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild to severe. At the mild end are spondylocarpotarsal synostosis (SCT) syndrome and Larsen syndrome; at the severe end are the phenotypic continuum of atelosteogenesis types I (AOI) and III (AOIII) and Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD). SCT syndrome is characterized by postnatal disproportionate short stature, scoliosis and lordosis, clubfeet, hearing loss, dental enamel hypoplasia, carpal and tarsal synostosis, and vertebral fusions. Larsen syndrome is characterized by congenital dislocations of the hip, knee, and elbow; clubfeet (equinovarus or equinovalgus foot deformities); scoliosis and cervical kyphosis, which can be associated with a cervical myelopathy; short, broad, spatulate distal phalanges; distinctive craniofacies (prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, malar flattening, and widely spaced eyes); vertebral anomalies; and supernumerary carpal and tarsal bone ossification centers. Individuals with SCT syndrome and Larsen syndrome can have midline cleft palate and hearing loss. AOI and AOIII are characterized by severe short-limbed dwarfism; dislocated hips, knees, and elbows; and clubfeet. AOI is lethal in the perinatal period. In individuals with AOIII, survival beyond the neonatal period is possible with intensive and invasive respiratory support. Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD) is a perinatal-lethal micromelic dwarfism characterized by flipper-like limbs (polysyndactyly with complete syndactyly of all fingers and toes, hypoplastic or absent first digits, and duplicated intermediate and distal phalanges), macrobrachycephaly, prominant forehead, hypertelorism, and exophthalmos. Occasional features include cleft palate, omphalocele, and cardiac and genitourinary anomalies. The radiographic features at mid-gestation are characteristic.
Septo-optic dysplasia sequence
MedGen UID:
90926
Concept ID:
C0338503
Disease or Syndrome
Septooptic dysplasia is a clinically heterogeneous disorder loosely defined by any combination of optic nerve hypoplasia, pituitary gland hypoplasia, and midline abnormalities of the brain, including absence of the corpus callosum and septum pellucidum (Dattani et al., 1998). The diagnosis of this rare congenital anomaly is made when 2 or more features of the classic triad are present. Approximately 30% of patients have complete manifestations, 62% display hypopituitarism, and 60% have an absent septum pellucidum. The disorder is equally prevalent in males and females and is more common in infants born to younger mothers, with a reported incidence of 1 in 10,000 live births (summary by Webb and Dattani, 2010). Also see 516020.0012 for a form of septooptic dysplasia associated with cardiomyopathy and exercise intolerance.
Orofacial-digital syndrome IV
MedGen UID:
98358
Concept ID:
C0406727
Disease or Syndrome
Oral-facial-digital syndrome is actually a group of related conditions that affect the development of the oral cavity (the mouth and teeth), facial features, and digits (fingers and toes).\n\nResearchers have identified at least 13 potential forms of oral-facial-digital syndrome. The different types are classified by their patterns of signs and symptoms. However, the features of the various types overlap significantly, and some types are not well defined. The classification system for oral-facial-digital syndrome continues to evolve as researchers find more affected individuals and learn more about this disorder.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of oral-facial-digital syndrome vary widely. However, most forms of this disorder involve problems with development of the oral cavity, facial features, and digits. Most forms are also associated with brain abnormalities and some degree of intellectual disability.\n\nAbnormalities of the oral cavity that occur in many types of oral-facial-digital syndrome include a split (cleft) in the tongue, a tongue with an unusual lobed shape, and the growth of noncancerous tumors or nodules on the tongue. Affected individuals may also have extra, missing, or defective teeth. Another common feature is an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate). Some people with oral-facial-digital syndrome have bands of extra tissue (called hyperplastic frenula) that abnormally attach the lip to the gums.\n\nOther features occur in only one or a few types of oral-facial digital syndrome. These features help distinguish the different forms of the disorder. For example, the most common form of oral-facial-digital syndrome, type I, is associated with polycystic kidney disease. This kidney disease is characterized by the growth of fluid-filled sacs (cysts) that interfere with the kidneys' ability to filter waste products from the blood. Other forms of oral-facial-digital syndrome are characterized by neurological problems, particular changes in the structure of the brain, bone abnormalities, vision loss, and heart defects.\n\nDistinctive facial features often associated with oral-facial-digital syndrome include a split in the lip (a cleft lip); a wide nose with a broad, flat nasal bridge; and widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism).\n\nAbnormalities of the digits can affect both the fingers and the toes in people with oral-facial-digital syndrome. These abnormalities include fusion of certain fingers or toes (syndactyly), digits that are shorter than usual (brachydactyly), or digits that are unusually curved (clinodactyly). The presence of extra digits (polydactyly) is also seen in most forms of oral-facial-digital syndrome.
Type IV short rib polydactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
96578
Concept ID:
C0432198
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). Patients with a clinical diagnosis of Beemer-Langer syndrome have been found to carry mutations in the IFT80 gene (611177); see SRTD2, 611263. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis 4B
MedGen UID:
108615
Concept ID:
C0598226
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) encompasses several forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis. Although most neonates with ARCI are collodion babies, the clinical presentation and severity of ARCI may vary significantly, ranging from harlequin ichthyosis, the most severe and often fatal form, to lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and (nonbullous) congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE). These phenotypes are now recognized to fall on a continuum; however, the phenotypic descriptions are clinically useful for clarification of prognosis and management. Infants with harlequin ichthyosis are usually born prematurely and are encased in thick, hard, armor-like plates of cornified skin that severely restrict movement. Life-threatening complications in the immediate postnatal period include respiratory distress, feeding problems, and systemic infection. Collodion babies are born with a taut, shiny, translucent or opaque membrane that encases the entire body and lasts for days to weeks. LI and CIE are seemingly distinct phenotypes: classic, severe LI with dark brown, plate-like scale with no erythroderma and CIE with finer whiter scale and underlying generalized redness of the skin. Affected individuals with severe involvement can have ectropion, eclabium, scarring alopecia involving the scalp and eyebrows, and palmar and plantar keratoderma. Besides these major forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis, a few rare subtypes have been recognized, such as bathing suit ichthyosis, self-improving collodion ichthyosis, or ichthyosis-prematurity syndrome.
Bullous dystrophy, macular type
MedGen UID:
167089
Concept ID:
C0795974
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary bullous dystrophy of the macular type (HBDM) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by the formation of bullae without evident trauma, hyper- and hypopigmentation, absence of hair at birth, and, in some cases, microcephaly, mildly impaired intellectual development, short conic fingers, and aberrations of nails (summary by Wijker et al., 1995).
Myhre syndrome
MedGen UID:
167103
Concept ID:
C0796081
Disease or Syndrome
Myhre syndrome is a connective tissue disorder with multisystem involvement, progressive and proliferative fibrosis that may occur spontaneously or following trauma or surgery, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and in some instances, autistic-like behaviors. Organ systems primarily involved include: cardiovascular (congenital heart defects, long- and short-segment stenosis of the aorta and peripheral arteries, pericardial effusion, constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and hypertension); respiratory (choanal stenosis, laryngotracheal narrowing, obstructive airway disease, or restrictive pulmonary disease), gastrointestinal (pyloric stenosis, duodenal strictures, severe constipation); and skin (thickened particularly on the hands and extensor surfaces). Additional findings include distinctive craniofacial features and skeletal involvement (intrauterine growth restriction, short stature, limited joint range of motion). To date, 55 individuals with molecularly confirmed Myhre syndrome have been reported.
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
162917
Concept ID:
C0796154
Disease or Syndrome
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1 (SGBS1) is characterized by pre- and postnatal macrosomia; distinctive craniofacial features (including macrocephaly, coarse facial features, macrostomia, macroglossia, and palatal abnormalities); and commonly, mild-to-severe intellectual disability with or without structural brain anomalies. Other variable findings include supernumerary nipples, diastasis recti / umbilical hernia, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, genitourinary defects, and gastrointestinal anomalies. Skeletal anomalies can include vertebral fusion, scoliosis, rib anomalies, and congenital hip dislocation. Hand anomalies can include large hands and postaxial polydactyly. Affected individuals are at increased risk for embryonal tumors including Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma, adrenal neuroblastoma, gonadoblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and medulloblastoma.
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Golden type
MedGen UID:
208672
Concept ID:
C0796172
Disease or Syndrome
A rare primary bone dysplasia disorder with characteristics of severe short stature, coarse facies, thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis and enlarged joints with contractures. Psychomotor delay and intellectual disability may also be associated. Radiographic features include flat vertebral bodies, lacy ossification of the metaphyses of long bones and iliac crests, and marked sclerosis of the skull base.
Facial dysmorphism-lens dislocation-anterior segment abnormalities-spontaneous filtering blebs syndrome
MedGen UID:
330396
Concept ID:
C1832167
Disease or Syndrome
Traboulsi syndrome is characterized by dislocated crystalline lenses and anterior segment abnormalities in association with a distinctive facies involving flat cheeks and a beaked nose. Some affected individuals develop highly unusual nontraumatic conjunctival cysts (filtering blebs), presumably caused by abnormal thinning of the sclera (Patel et al., 2014).
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia-cone-rod dystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
324684
Concept ID:
C1837073
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with cone-rod dystrophy (SMDCRD) is characterized by postnatal growth deficiency resulting in profound short stature, rhizomelia with bowing of the lower extremities, platyspondyly with anterior vertebral protrusions, progressive metaphyseal irregularity and cupping with shortened tubular bones, and early-onset progressive visual impairment associated with a pigmentary maculopathy and electroretinographic evidence of cone-rod dysfunction (summary by Hoover-Fong et al., 2014). Yamamoto et al. (2014) reviewed 16 reported cases of SMDCRD, noting that all affected individuals presented uniform skeletal findings, with rhizomelia and bowed lower limbs observed in the first year of life, whereas retinal dystrophy had a more variable age of onset. There was severe disproportionate short stature, with a final height of less than 100 cm; scoliosis was usually mild. Visual loss was progressive, with stabilization in adolescence.
Intellectual disability-brachydactyly-Pierre Robin syndrome
MedGen UID:
325196
Concept ID:
C1837564
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual disability-brachydactyly-Pierre Robin syndrome is a rare developmental defect during embryogenesis syndrome characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability and phsychomotor delay, Robin sequence (incl. severe micrognathia and soft palate cleft) and distinct dysmorphic facial features (e.g. synophris, short palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, small, low-set, and posteriorly angulated ears, bulbous nose, long/flat philtrum, and bow-shaped upper lip). Skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly, clinodactyly, small hands and feet, and oral manifestations (e.g. bifid, short tongue, oligodontia) are also associated. Additional features reported include microcephaly, capillary hemangiomas on face and scalp, ventricular septal defect, corneal clouding, nystagmus and profound sensorineural deafness.
X-linked lethal multiple pterygium syndrome
MedGen UID:
374225
Concept ID:
C1839440
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is a rare, genetic, developmental defect during embryogenesis characterized by the typical lethal multiple pterygium syndrome presentation (comprising of multiple pterygia, severe arthrogryposis, cleft palate, cystic hygromata and/or fetal hydrops, skeletal abnormalities and fetal death in the 2nd or 3rd trimester) with an X-linked pattern of inheritance.
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Bieganski type
MedGen UID:
335350
Concept ID:
C1846148
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (SEMDHL) is an X-linked recessive developmental disorder characterized by slowly progressive skeletal and neurologic abnormalities, including short stature, large and deformed joints, significant motor impairment, visual defects, and sometimes cognitive deficits. Affected individuals typically have normal early development in the first year or so of life, followed by development regression and the development of symptoms. Brain imaging shows white matter abnormalities consistent with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (summary by Miyake et al., 2017).
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
337527
Concept ID:
C1846175
Disease or Syndrome
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2 (SGBS2) is an X-linked recessive disorder in which affected males have severely impaired intellectual development, ciliary dyskinesia, and macrocephaly (summary by Budny et al., 2006). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, see 312870.
Heterotopia, periventricular, X-linked dominant
MedGen UID:
376309
Concept ID:
C1848213
Disease or Syndrome
FLNA deficiency is associated with a phenotypic spectrum that includes FLNA-related periventricular nodular heterotopia (Huttenlocher syndrome), congenital heart disease (patent ductus arteriosus, atrial and ventricular septal defects), valvular dystrophy, dilation and rupture of the thoracic aortic, pulmonary disease (pulmonary hypertension, alveolar hypoplasia, emphysema, asthma, chronic bronchitis), gastrointestinal dysmotility and obstruction, joint hypermobility, and macrothrombocytopenia.
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia-short limb-abnormal calcification syndrome
MedGen UID:
338595
Concept ID:
C1849011
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia-short limb-abnormal calcification syndrome is a rare, genetic primary bone dysplasia disorder characterized by disproportionate short stature with shortening of upper and lower limbs, short and broad fingers with short hands, narrowed chest with rib abnormalities and pectus excavatum, abnormal chondral calcifications (incl. larynx, trachea and costal cartilages) and facial dysmorphism (frontal bossing, hypertelorism, prominent eyes, short flat nose, wide nostrils, high-arched palate, long philtrum). Platyspondyly (esp. of cervical spine) and abnormal epiphyses and metaphyses are observed on radiography. Atlantoaxial instability causing spinal compression and recurrent respiratory disease are potential complications that may result lethal.
Growth delay due to insulin-like growth factor I resistance
MedGen UID:
338622
Concept ID:
C1849157
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with mutations in the receptor for insulin-like growth factor I show intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth failure, resulting in short stature and microcephaly. Other features may include delayed bone age, developmental delay, and dysmorphic features.
Osteodysplasty, precocious, of Danks, Mayne, and Kozlowski
MedGen UID:
337989
Concept ID:
C1850185
Disease or Syndrome
Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome
MedGen UID:
381473
Concept ID:
C1854678
Disease or Syndrome
Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome has many of the same signs and symptoms as the Escobar type. In addition, affected fetuses may develop a buildup of excess fluid in the body (hydrops fetalis) or a fluid-filled sac typically found on the back of the neck (cystic hygroma). Individuals with this type have severe arthrogryposis. Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is associated with abnormalities such as underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of the heart, lung, or brain; twisting of the intestines (intestinal malrotation); kidney abnormalities; an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate); and an unusually small head size (microcephaly). Affected individuals may also develop a hole in the muscle that separates the abdomen from the chest cavity (the diaphragm), a condition called a congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is typically fatal in the second or third trimester of pregnancy.\n\nIn people with multiple pterygium syndrome, Escobar type, the webbing typically affects the skin of the neck, fingers, forearms, inner thighs, and backs of the knee. People with this type may also have arthrogryposis. A side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis) is sometimes seen. Affected individuals may also have respiratory distress at birth due to underdeveloped lungs (lung hypoplasia). People with multiple pterygium syndrome, Escobar type usually have distinctive facial features including droopy eyelids (ptosis), outside corners of the eyes that point downward (downslanting palpebral fissures), skin folds covering the inner corner of the eyes (epicanthal folds), a small jaw, and low-set ears. Males with this condition can have undescended testes (cryptorchidism). This condition does not worsen after birth, and affected individuals typically do not have muscle weakness later in life.\n\nThe two forms of multiple pterygium syndrome are differentiated by the severity of their symptoms. Multiple pterygium syndrome, Escobar type (sometimes referred to as Escobar syndrome) is the milder of the two types. Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is fatal before birth or very soon after birth.\n\nMultiple pterygium syndrome is a condition that is evident before birth with webbing of the skin (pterygium) at the joints and a lack of muscle movement (akinesia) before birth. Akinesia frequently results in muscle weakness and joint deformities called contractures that restrict the movement of joints (arthrogryposis). As a result, multiple pterygium syndrome can lead to further problems with movement such as arms and legs that cannot fully extend.
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Sedaghatian type
MedGen UID:
340816
Concept ID:
C1855229
Disease or Syndrome
Sedaghatian-type spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (SMDS) is a rare lethal disorder characterized by severe metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with mild limb shortening, platyspondyly, delayed epiphyseal ossification, irregular iliac crests, and pulmonary hemorrhage. Affected infants present with severe hypotonia and cardiorespiratory problems; most die within days of birth due to respiratory failure. Cardiac abnormalities include conduction defects, complete heart block, and structural anomalies. Half of infants with SMDS are reported to have central nervous system malformations consistent with abnormal neuronal migration, including agenesis of the corpus callosum, pronounced frontotemporal pachygyria, simplified gyral pattern, partial lissencephaly, and severe cerebellar hypoplasia (summary by Smith et al., 2014).
Yunis-Varon syndrome
MedGen UID:
341818
Concept ID:
C1857663
Disease or Syndrome
Yunis-Varon syndrome (YVS) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal defects, including cleidocranial dysplasia and digital anomalies, and severe neurologic involvement with neuronal loss. Enlarged cytoplasmic vacuoles are found in neurons, muscle, and cartilage. The disorder is usually lethal in infancy (summary by Campeau et al., 2013).
Patent ductus arteriosus-bicuspid aortic valve-hand anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
346902
Concept ID:
C1858420
Disease or Syndrome
Patent ductus arteriosus - bicuspid aortic valve - hand anomalies syndrome is a very rare heart-hand syndrome (see this term) that is characterized by a variety of cardiovascular anomalies including patent arterial duct, bicuspid aortic valve and pseudocoarctation of the aorta in conjunction with hand anomalies such as brachydactyly and ulnar ray derivative i.e. fifth metacarpal hypoplasia. Transmission is most likely autosomal dominant.
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type III
MedGen UID:
349899
Concept ID:
C1860823
Disease or Syndrome
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is characterized by craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities. Craniofacial features include sparse, slowly growing scalp hair, laterally sparse eyebrows, a bulbous tip of the nose, protruding ears, long flat philtrum, and thin upper vermillion border. The most typical radiographic findings in TRPS are cone-shaped epiphyses, predominantly at the middle phalanges. Hip malformations such as coxa plana, coxa magna, or coxa vara are present in over 70% of patients. In older patients, the hip abnormalities resemble degenerative arthrosis. TRPS3 differs from TRPS1 by the presence of severe brachydactyly, due to short metacarpals, and severe short stature (summary by Ludecke et al., 2001).
Tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome
MedGen UID:
348322
Concept ID:
C1861305
Disease or Syndrome
Tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome is a rare, inherited bone disorder that affects primarily the hands and feet. Several individual bones make up each wrist (carpal bones) and ankle (tarsal bones). In tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome, the carpal bones fuse together, as do the tarsal bones, which causes stiffness and immobility of the hands and feet. Symptoms of the condition can become apparent in infancy, and they worsen with age. The severity of the symptoms can vary, even among members of the same family.\n\nIn this condition, fusion at the joints between the bones that make up each finger and toe (symphalangism) can also occur. Consequently, the fingers and toes become stiff and difficult to bend. Stiffness of the pinky fingers and toes (fifth digits) is usually noticeable first. The joints at the base of the pinky fingers and toes fuse first, and slowly, the other joints along the length of these digits may also be affected. Progressively, the bones in the fourth, third, and second digits (the ring finger, middle finger, and forefinger, and the corresponding toes) become fused. The thumb and big toe are usually not involved. Affected individuals have increasing trouble forming a fist, and walking often becomes painful and difficult. Occasionally, there is also fusion of bones in the upper and lower arm at the elbow joint (humeroradial fusion). Less common features of tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome include short stature or the development of hearing loss.
Pierpont syndrome
MedGen UID:
356049
Concept ID:
C1865644
Disease or Syndrome
Pierpont syndrome (PRPTS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome associated with learning disability. Key features include distinctive facial characteristics, especially when smiling, plantar fat pads, and other limb anomalies (summary by Burkitt Wright et al., 2011).
Weill-Marchesani syndrome 2, dominant
MedGen UID:
358388
Concept ID:
C1869115
Disease or Syndrome
Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by abnormalities of the lens of the eye, short stature, brachydactyly, joint stiffness, and cardiovascular defects. The ocular problems, typically recognized in childhood, include microspherophakia (small spherical lens), myopia secondary to the abnormal shape of the lens, ectopia lentis (abnormal position of the lens), and glaucoma, which can lead to blindness. Height of adult males is 142-169 cm; height of adult females is 130-157 cm. Autosomal recessive WMS cannot be distinguished from autosomal dominant WMS by clinical findings alone.
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, aggrecan type
MedGen UID:
411237
Concept ID:
C2748544
Disease or Syndrome
A new form of skeletal dysplasia with manifestations of severe short stature, facial dysmorphism and characteristic radiographic findings. To date, three cases have been described, all originating from the same family. The disease results from a missense mutation affecting the C-type lectin domain of aggrecan (AGC1 gene; chromosome 15) which regulates endochondral ossification. Transmission is autosomal recessive.
Greenberg dysplasia
MedGen UID:
418969
Concept ID:
C2931048
Disease or Syndrome
Greenberg dysplasia (GRBGD), also known as hydrops-ectopic calcification-moth-eaten (HEM) skeletal dysplasia, is a rare autosomal recessive osteochondrodysplasia characterized by gross fetal hydrops, severe shortening of all long bones with a moth-eaten radiographic appearance, platyspondyly, disorganization of chondroosseous calcification, and ectopic ossification centers. It is lethal in utero. Patient fibroblasts show increased levels of cholesta-8,14-dien-3-beta-ol, suggesting a defect of sterol metabolism (summary by Konstantinidou et al., 2008). Herman (2003) reviewed the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and 6 disorders involving enzyme defects in postsqualene cholesterol biosynthesis: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS; 270400), desmosterolosis (602398), X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2; 302960), CHILD syndrome (308050), lathosterolosis (607330), and HEM skeletal dysplasia.
Chromosome 15q11.2 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
467404
Concept ID:
C3180937
Disease or Syndrome
A heterozygous deletion of chromosome 15q11.2 may increase the susceptibility to neuropsychiatric or neurodevelopmental problems, including delayed psychomotor development, speech delay, autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and possibly seizures (summary by Doornbos et al., 2009 and Burnside et al., 2011). See also chromosome 15q11.2 duplication syndrome (608636).
Sclerosteosis 2
MedGen UID:
482032
Concept ID:
C3280402
Disease or Syndrome
Sclerosteosis is a severe sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by progressive skeletal overgrowth. Syndactyly is a variable manifestation. The disorder is rare and the majority of affected individuals have been reported in the Afrikaner population of South Africa (summary by Brunkow et al., 2001). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of sclerosteosis, see SOST1 (269500).
Pseudohypoparathyroidism type I A
MedGen UID:
488447
Concept ID:
C3494506
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of GNAS inactivation include the phenotypes pseudohypoparathyroidism Ia, Ib, and Ic (PHP-Ia, -Ib, -Ic), pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP), progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH), and osteoma cutis (OC). PHP-Ia and PHP-Ic are characterized by: End-organ resistance to endocrine hormones including parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins (LH and FSH), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and CNS neurotransmitters (leading to obesity and variable degrees of intellectual disability and developmental delay); and The Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) phenotype (short stature, round facies, and subcutaneous ossifications) and brachydactyly type E (shortening mainly of the 4th and/or 5th metacarpals and metatarsals and distal phalanx of the thumb). Although PHP-Ib is characterized principally by PTH resistance, some individuals also have partial TSH resistance and mild features of AHO (e.g., brachydactyly). PPHP, a more limited form of PHP-Ia, is characterized by various manifestations of the AHO phenotype without the hormone resistance or obesity. POH and OC are even more restricted variants of PPHP: POH consists of dermal ossification beginning in infancy, followed by increasing and extensive bone formation in deep muscle and fascia. OC consists of extra-skeletal ossification that is limited to the dermis and subcutaneous tissues.
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis 2
MedGen UID:
854762
Concept ID:
C3888093
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) encompasses several forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis. Although most neonates with ARCI are collodion babies, the clinical presentation and severity of ARCI may vary significantly, ranging from harlequin ichthyosis, the most severe and often fatal form, to lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and (nonbullous) congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE). These phenotypes are now recognized to fall on a continuum; however, the phenotypic descriptions are clinically useful for clarification of prognosis and management. Infants with harlequin ichthyosis are usually born prematurely and are encased in thick, hard, armor-like plates of cornified skin that severely restrict movement. Life-threatening complications in the immediate postnatal period include respiratory distress, feeding problems, and systemic infection. Collodion babies are born with a taut, shiny, translucent or opaque membrane that encases the entire body and lasts for days to weeks. LI and CIE are seemingly distinct phenotypes: classic, severe LI with dark brown, plate-like scale with no erythroderma and CIE with finer whiter scale and underlying generalized redness of the skin. Affected individuals with severe involvement can have ectropion, eclabium, scarring alopecia involving the scalp and eyebrows, and palmar and plantar keratoderma. Besides these major forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis, a few rare subtypes have been recognized, such as bathing suit ichthyosis, self-improving collodion ichthyosis, or ichthyosis-prematurity syndrome.
Acromesomelic dysplasia 3
MedGen UID:
904735
Concept ID:
C4225404
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual disability, X-linked, syndromic, 35
MedGen UID:
1392054
Concept ID:
C4478383
Disease or Syndrome
Anauxetic dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
1638106
Concept ID:
C4551965
Disease or Syndrome
The cartilage-hair hypoplasia – anauxetic dysplasia (CHH-AD) spectrum disorders are a continuum that includes the following phenotypes: Metaphyseal dysplasia without hypotrichosis (MDWH). Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH). Anauxetic dysplasia (AD). CHH-AD spectrum disorders are characterized by severe disproportionate (short-limb) short stature that is usually recognized in the newborn, and occasionally prenatally because of the short extremities. Other findings include joint hypermobility, fine silky hair, immunodeficiency, anemia, increased risk for malignancy, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and impaired spermatogenesis. The most severe phenotype, AD, has the most pronounced skeletal phenotype, may be associated with atlantoaxial subluxation in the newborn, and may include cognitive deficiency. The clinical manifestations of the CHH-AD spectrum disorders are variable, even within the same family.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and distal skeletal anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684792
Concept ID:
C5231448
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and distal skeletal anomalies (NEDDFSA) is a global neurodevelopmental disorder with highly variable features. Patients often show poor feeding, poor overall growth, and hypotonia from early infancy, followed by mildly delayed motor development, poor language acquisition, and behavioral abnormalities. Intellectual development varies from severe with absent speech to mild with the ability to attend special schools. Common features include dysmorphic facial features with notable eye anomalies, joint hypermobility, and mild skeletal anomalies of the hands and feet (summary by Carapito et al., 2019).
Microcephaly 27, primary, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1783457
Concept ID:
C5543051
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant primary microcephaly-27 (MCPH27) is characterized by small head circumference apparent in early childhood and associated with global developmental delay manifest as delayed walking, inability to walk, impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech. Most patients have variable and nonspecific additional features, including facial dysmorphism, hypotonia, limb hypertonia, poor feeding, and distal skeletal anomalies. Brain imaging may show enlarged ventricles or gyral abnormalities, but most have normal imaging (Parry et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
Usmani-Riazuddin syndrome, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1794162
Concept ID:
C5561952
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Usmani-Riazzudin syndrome (USRISD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and speech delay, hypotonia, and behavioral abnormalities, most commonly aggressive behavior. More variable additional features may include seizures and distal limb anomalies (summary by Usmani et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental-craniofacial syndrome with variable renal and cardiac abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794194
Concept ID:
C5561984
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental-craniofacial syndrome with variable renal and cardiac abnormalities (NECRC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by dysmorphic craniofacial features associated with mild developmental delay, mildly impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties, speech delay, and behavioral abnormalities. About half of patients have congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and/or congenital cardiac defects, including septal defects (Connaughton et al., 2020).
Acromesomelic dysplasia 4
MedGen UID:
1794238
Concept ID:
C5562028
Disease or Syndrome
Acromesomelic dysplasia-4 (AMD4) is characterized by disproportionate short stature due to mesomelic shortening of the limbs. Radiographic hallmarks include mild to moderate platyspondyly, moderate brachydactyly, iliac flaring, and metaphyseal alterations of the long bones that progressively increase with age (Diaz-Gonzalez et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of acromesomelic dysplasia, see AMD1 (602875).
Chilton-Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1803276
Concept ID:
C5677022
Disease or Syndrome
Chilton-Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome (CHOCNS) is characterized mainly by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development and occasional speech delay. Most patients have behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, and aggression. About half of patients have dysmorphic facial features, and about half have nonspecific brain abnormalities, including thin corpus callosum. Rare involvement of other organ systems may be present. At least 1 child with normal development at age 2.5 years has been reported (Chilton et al., 2020).
Congenital myopathy 20
MedGen UID:
1841029
Concept ID:
C5830393
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-20 (CMYP20) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder that shows wide phenotypic variability. Some patients present in early childhood with proximal muscle weakness affecting the lower and upper limbs resulting in difficulties running and climbing, whereas others present soon after birth with congenital limb or distal contractures. Additional features may include dysmorphic facial features and global developmental delay. Skeletal muscle biopsy may show nemaline rods (Nilipour et al., 2018; Pehlivan et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

GBD 2017 Risk Factor Collaborators
Lancet 2018 Nov 10;392(10159):1923-1994. Epub 2018 Nov 8 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32225-6. PMID: 30496105Free PMC Article
Amirfeyz R, McNinch R, Watts A, Rodrigues J, Davis TRC, Glassey N, Bullock J
J Hand Surg Eur Vol 2017 Jun;42(5):473-480. Epub 2016 Dec 21 doi: 10.1177/1753193416682917. PMID: 28488453
Woodside JC, Light TR
J Hand Surg Am 2016 Jan;41(1):135-43; quiz 143. Epub 2015 Aug 6 doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2015.06.114. PMID: 26254946

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Hernandez Fustes OJ, Hernandez Fustes OJ
Neurodiagn J 2020 Sep;60(3):177-184. doi: 10.1080/21646821.2020.1796414. PMID: 33006509
Koehler DM, Goldfarb CA, Snyder-Warwick A, Roberts S, Wall LB
J Hand Surg Am 2019 Jul;44(7):548-555. Epub 2019 Apr 25 doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2019.02.020. PMID: 31031024
Naran S, Imbriglia JE
Hand (N Y) 2016 Dec;11(4):NP38-NP40. Epub 2016 Jul 28 doi: 10.1177/1558944716658748. PMID: 28149225Free PMC Article
Sutcliffe AG, Manning JT, Katalanic A, Ludwig A, Mehta M, Lim J, Basatemur E, Ludwig M
Reprod Biomed Online 2010 Jan;20(1):138-43. Epub 2009 Nov 10 doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2009.10.023. PMID: 20158999
Freitas D, Maia J, Beunen G, Lefevre J, Claessens A, Marques A, Rodrigues A, Silva C, Crespo M, Thomis M, Sousa A, Malina R
Ann Hum Biol 2004 Jul-Aug;31(4):408-20. doi: 10.1080/03014460410001713050. PMID: 15513692

Diagnosis

Qi YF, Ma X, Lin SZ, Wang WQ, Li JY, Chen QD, Liu L
Medicine (Baltimore) 2023 Dec 22;102(51):e36357. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000036357. PMID: 38134094Free PMC Article
Shangguan H, Xu Y, Chen R
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Aug 25;50(4):500-505. doi: 10.3724/zdxbyxb-2021-0263. PMID: 34704406Free PMC Article
Hernandez Fustes OJ, Hernandez Fustes OJ
Neurodiagn J 2020 Sep;60(3):177-184. doi: 10.1080/21646821.2020.1796414. PMID: 33006509
Koehler DM, Goldfarb CA, Snyder-Warwick A, Roberts S, Wall LB
J Hand Surg Am 2019 Jul;44(7):548-555. Epub 2019 Apr 25 doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2019.02.020. PMID: 31031024
Sutcliffe AG, Manning JT, Katalanic A, Ludwig A, Mehta M, Lim J, Basatemur E, Ludwig M
Reprod Biomed Online 2010 Jan;20(1):138-43. Epub 2009 Nov 10 doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2009.10.023. PMID: 20158999

Therapy

Shangguan H, Xu Y, Chen R
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Aug 25;50(4):500-505. doi: 10.3724/zdxbyxb-2021-0263. PMID: 34704406Free PMC Article
Liu J, Qi J, Liu Z, Ning Q, Luo X
Comput Med Imaging Graph 2008 Dec;32(8):678-84. Epub 2008 Oct 2 doi: 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2008.08.005. PMID: 18835130

Prognosis

Qi YF, Ma X, Lin SZ, Wang WQ, Li JY, Chen QD, Liu L
Medicine (Baltimore) 2023 Dec 22;102(51):e36357. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000036357. PMID: 38134094Free PMC Article
Naran S, Imbriglia JE
Hand (N Y) 2016 Dec;11(4):NP38-NP40. Epub 2016 Jul 28 doi: 10.1177/1558944716658748. PMID: 28149225Free PMC Article
Sutcliffe AG, Manning JT, Katalanic A, Ludwig A, Mehta M, Lim J, Basatemur E, Ludwig M
Reprod Biomed Online 2010 Jan;20(1):138-43. Epub 2009 Nov 10 doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2009.10.023. PMID: 20158999

Clinical prediction guides

Naran S, Imbriglia JE
Hand (N Y) 2016 Dec;11(4):NP38-NP40. Epub 2016 Jul 28 doi: 10.1177/1558944716658748. PMID: 28149225Free PMC Article
Sutcliffe AG, Manning JT, Katalanic A, Ludwig A, Mehta M, Lim J, Basatemur E, Ludwig M
Reprod Biomed Online 2010 Jan;20(1):138-43. Epub 2009 Nov 10 doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2009.10.023. PMID: 20158999
Liu J, Qi J, Liu Z, Ning Q, Luo X
Comput Med Imaging Graph 2008 Dec;32(8):678-84. Epub 2008 Oct 2 doi: 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2008.08.005. PMID: 18835130
Freitas D, Maia J, Beunen G, Lefevre J, Claessens A, Marques A, Rodrigues A, Silva C, Crespo M, Thomis M, Sousa A, Malina R
Ann Hum Biol 2004 Jul-Aug;31(4):408-20. doi: 10.1080/03014460410001713050. PMID: 15513692
Drayer NM, Cox LA
Acta Paediatr Suppl 1994 Dec;406:77-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1994.tb13429.x. PMID: 7734816

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