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Cupped ear

MedGen UID:
335186
Concept ID:
C1845447
Congenital Abnormality
Synonyms: CUP EAR; Cup-shaped ears; Cupped ears; Simple cup-shaped ears; Simple, cup-shaped ears
 
HPO: HP:0000378
OMIM®: 128600

Definition

Laterally protruding ear that lacks antihelical folding (including absence of inferior and superior crura). [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVCupped ear

Conditions with this feature

Blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome
MedGen UID:
66312
Concept ID:
C0220663
Disease or Syndrome
Blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is defined by a complex eyelid malformation characterized by four major features, all present at birth: blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus, and telecanthus. BPES type I includes the four major features and primary ovarian insufficiency; BPES type II includes only the four major features. Other ophthalmic manifestations that can be associated with BPES include dysplastic eyelids, lacrimal duct anomalies, strabismus, refractive errors, and amblyopia. Other craniofacial features may include a broad nasal bridge and low-set ears.
Miller syndrome
MedGen UID:
120522
Concept ID:
C0265257
Disease or Syndrome
Miller syndrome, or postaxial acrofacial dysostosis, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by severe micrognathia, cleft lip and/or palate, hypoplasia or aplasia of the postaxial elements of the limbs, coloboma of the eyelids, and supernumerary nipples (summary by Ng et al., 2010).
Levy-Hollister syndrome
MedGen UID:
78545
Concept ID:
C0265269
Disease or Syndrome
Lacrimoauriculodentodigital syndrome-1 (LADD1) is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder mainly affecting lacrimal glands and ducts, salivary glands and ducts, ears, teeth, and distal limb segments (summary by Rohmann et al., 2006). Genetic Heterogeneity of Lacrimoauriculodentodigital Syndrome LADD syndrome-2 (LADD2; 620192) is caused by mutation in the FGFR3 gene (134934) on chromosome 4p16, and LADD syndrome-3 (LADD3; 620193) is caused by mutation in the FGF10 gene, an FGFR ligand, on chromosome 5p12.
CHARGE association
MedGen UID:
75567
Concept ID:
C0265354
Disease or Syndrome
CHD7 disorder encompasses the entire phenotypic spectrum of heterozygous CHD7 pathogenic variants that includes CHARGE syndrome as well as subsets of features that comprise the CHARGE syndrome phenotype. The mnemonic CHARGE syndrome, introduced in the premolecular era, stands for coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies (including deafness). Following the identification of the genetic cause of CHD7 disorder, the phenotypic spectrum expanded to include cranial nerve anomalies, vestibular defects, cleft lip and/or palate, hypothyroidism, tracheoesophageal anomalies, brain anomalies, seizures, and renal anomalies. Life expectancy highly depends on the severity of manifestations; mortality can be high in the first few years when severe birth defects (particularly complex heart defects) are present and often complicated by airway and feeding issues. In childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, decreased life expectancy is likely related to a combination of residual heart defects, infections, aspiration or choking, respiratory issues including obstructive and central apnea, and possibly seizures. Despite these complications, the life expectancy for many individuals can be normal.
Megalocornea-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
162904
Concept ID:
C0796086
Disease or Syndrome
A rare intellectual disability syndrome with most common characteristics of megalocornea, congenital hypotonia, varying degrees of intellectual disability, psychomotor/developmental delay, seizures, and mild facial dysmorphism (including round face, frontal bossing, antimongoloid slant of the eyes, epicanthal folds, large low set ears, broad nasal base, anteverted nostrils, and long upper lip). Interfamilial and intrafamilial clinical variability has been reported.
Renpenning syndrome
MedGen UID:
208670
Concept ID:
C0796135
Disease or Syndrome
Renpenning syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome with clinically recognizable features. Affected individuals have microcephaly, short stature, small testes, and dysmorphic facies, including tall narrow face, upslanting palpebral fissures, abnormal nasal configuration, cupped ears, and short philtrum. The nose may appear long or bulbous, with overhanging columella. Less consistent manifestations include ocular colobomas, cardiac malformations, cleft palate, and anal anomalies. Stevenson et al. (2005) proposed that the various X-linked mental retardation syndromes due to PQBP1 mutations be combined under the name of Renpenning syndrome.
Atrioventricular defect-blepharophimosis-radial and anal defect syndrome
MedGen UID:
374010
Concept ID:
C1838606
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic multiple congenital anomalies syndrome characterized by atrioventricular septal defects and blepharophimosis, in addition to radial (e.g. aplastic radius, shortened ulna, fifth finger clinodactyly, absent first metacarpal and thumb) and anal (e.g. imperforate or anteriorly place anus, rectovaginal fistula) defects.
Corpus callosum agenesis-intellectual disability-coloboma-micrognathia syndrome
MedGen UID:
335185
Concept ID:
C1845446
Disease or Syndrome
Corpus callosum agenesis-intellectual disability-coloboma-micrognathia syndrome is a developmental anomalies syndrome characterized by coloboma of the iris and optic nerve, facial dysmorphism (high forehead, microretrognathia, low-set ears), intellectual deficit, agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC), sensorineural hearing loss, skeletal anomalies and short stature.
Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome
MedGen UID:
337547
Concept ID:
C1846265
Disease or Syndrome
Oculofaciocardiodental (OFCD) syndrome is a condition that affects the development of the eyes (oculo-), facial features (facio-), heart (cardio-) and teeth (dental). This condition occurs only in females.\n\nThe eye abnormalities associated with OFCD syndrome can affect one or both eyes. Many people with this condition are born with eyeballs that are abnormally small (microphthalmia). Other eye problems can include clouding of the lens (cataract) and a higher risk of glaucoma, an eye disease that increases the pressure in the eye. These abnormalities can lead to vision loss or blindness.\n\nPeople with OFCD syndrome often have a long, narrow face with distinctive facial features, including deep-set eyes and a broad nasal tip that is divided by a cleft. Some affected people have an opening in the roof of the mouth called a cleft palate.\n\nHeart defects are another common feature of OFCD syndrome. Babies with this condition may be born with a hole between two chambers of the heart (an atrial or ventricular septal defect) or a leak in one of the valves that controls blood flow through the heart (mitral valve prolapse).\n\nTeeth with very large roots (radiculomegaly) are characteristic of OFCD syndrome. Additional dental abnormalities can include delayed loss of primary (baby) teeth, missing or abnormally small teeth, misaligned teeth, and defective tooth enamel.
Bartsocas-Papas syndrome
MedGen UID:
337894
Concept ID:
C1849718
Disease or Syndrome
Bartsocas-Papas syndrome-1 (BPS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple popliteal pterygia, ankyloblepharon, filiform bands between the jaws, cleft lip and palate, and syndactyly. Early lethality is common, although survival into childhood and beyond has been reported (summary by Mitchell et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bartsocas-Papas Syndrome Bartsocas-Papas syndrome-2 (BPS2) is caused by mutation in the CHUK gene (600664). A less severe form of popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS; 119500) is caused by mutation in the IRF6 gene (607199).
Mowat-Wilson syndrome
MedGen UID:
341067
Concept ID:
C1856113
Disease or Syndrome
Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is characterized by distinctive facial features (widely spaced eyes, broad eyebrows with a medial flare, low-hanging columella, prominent or pointed chin, open-mouth expression, and uplifted earlobes with a central depression), congenital heart defects with predilection for abnormalities of the pulmonary arteries and/or valves, Hirschsprung disease or chronic constipation, genitourinary anomalies (particularly hypospadias in males), and hypogenesis or agenesis of the corpus callosum. Most affected individuals have moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. Speech is typically limited to a few words or is absent, with relative preservation of receptive language skills. Growth restriction with microcephaly and seizure disorder are also common. Most affected people have a happy demeanor and a wide-based gait that can sometimes be confused with Angelman syndrome.
Yunis-Varon syndrome
MedGen UID:
341818
Concept ID:
C1857663
Disease or Syndrome
Yunis-Varon syndrome is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal defects, including cleidocranial dysplasia and digital anomalies, and severe neurologic involvement with neuronal loss. Enlarged cytoplasmic vacuoles are found in neurons, muscle, and cartilage. The disorder is usually lethal in infancy (summary by Campeau et al., 2013).
Split-hand/foot malformation with long bone deficiency 1
MedGen UID:
349310
Concept ID:
C1861553
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature and Facioauriculothoracic malformations
MedGen UID:
351216
Concept ID:
C1864791
Disease or Syndrome
Frias syndrome
MedGen UID:
400621
Concept ID:
C1864825
Disease or Syndrome
Frias syndrome is characterized by mild exophthalmia, palpebral ptosis, hypertelorism, short square hands with minimal proximal syndactyly between the second and third fingers, small broad great toes, and short stature. Some patients may exhibit bilateral pedunculated postminimi (summary by Martinez-Fernandez et al., 2014).
Brachyphalangy, polydactyly, and tibial aplasia/hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
355340
Concept ID:
C1864965
Disease or Syndrome
Branchiootic syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
351307
Concept ID:
C1865143
Disease or Syndrome
Branchiootorenal spectrum disorder (BORSD) is characterized by malformations of the outer, middle, and inner ear associated with conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing impairment, branchial fistulae and cysts, and renal malformations ranging from mild renal hypoplasia to bilateral renal agenesis. Some individuals progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) later in life. Extreme variability can be observed in the presence, severity, and type of branchial arch, otologic, audiologic, and renal abnormality from right side to left side in an affected individual and also among individuals in the same family.
Desmosterolosis
MedGen UID:
400801
Concept ID:
C1865596
Disease or Syndrome
Desmosterolosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and elevated levels of the cholesterol precursor desmosterol in plasma, tissue, and cultured cells (summary by Waterham et al., 2001).
Scalp-ear-nipple syndrome
MedGen UID:
357183
Concept ID:
C1867020
Disease or Syndrome
Scalp-ear-nipple syndrome is characterized by aplasia cutis congenita of the scalp, breast anomalies that range from hypothelia or athelia to amastia, and minor anomalies of the external ears. Less frequent clinical characteristics include nail dystrophy, dental anomalies, cutaneous syndactyly of the digits, and renal malformations. Penetrance appears to be high, although there is substantial variable expressivity within families (Marneros et al., 2013).
Nasopalpebral lipoma-coloboma syndrome
MedGen UID:
358378
Concept ID:
C1868660
Disease or Syndrome
Nasopalpebral lipoma-coloboma syndrome (NPLCS) is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by upper eyelid and nasopalpebral lipomas, colobomas of upper and lower eyelids, telecanthus, and maxillary hypoplasia (summary by Suresh et al., 2011).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
409857
Concept ID:
C1969562
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
MBD5 haploinsufficiency is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, seizures, sleep disturbances, and abnormal behaviors. Most children lack speech entirely or have single words, short phrases, or short sentences. Seizures are present in more than 80% of children; onset is usually around age two years. Sleep disturbances, present in about 90%, can result in excessive daytime drowsiness. Abnormal behaviors can include autistic-like behaviors (80%) and self-injury and aggression (>60%).
Pitt-Hopkins syndrome
MedGen UID:
370910
Concept ID:
C1970431
Disease or Syndrome
Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is characterized by significant developmental delays with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability and behavioral differences, characteristic facial features, and episodic hyperventilation and/or breath-holding while awake. Speech is significantly delayed and most individuals are nonverbal with receptive language often stronger than expressive language. Other common findings are autism spectrum disorder symptoms, sleep disturbance, stereotypic hand movements, seizures, constipation, and severe myopia.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 93
MedGen UID:
410164
Concept ID:
C1970841
Disease or Syndrome
Any non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BRWD3 gene.
Intellectual disability, X-linked syndromic, Turner type
MedGen UID:
394425
Concept ID:
C2678046
Disease or Syndrome
Turner-type X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXST) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some affected families show X-linked recessive inheritance, with only males being affected and carrier females having no abnormal findings. In other affected families, males are severely affected, and female mutation carriers show milder cognitive abnormalities or dysmorphic features. In addition, there are female patients with de novo mutations who show the full phenotype, despite skewed X-chromosome inactivation. Affected individuals show global developmental delay from infancy, with variably impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, often with delayed walking. Dysmorphic features are common and can include macrocephaly, microcephaly, deep-set eyes, hypotelorism, small palpebral fissures, dysplastic, large, or low-set ears, long face, bitemporal narrowing, high-arched palate, thin upper lip, and scoliosis or mild distal skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly or tapered fingers. Males tend to have cryptorchidism. Other features, such as hypotonia, seizures, and delayed bone age, are more variable (summary by Moortgat et al., 2018).
Chromosome 6q24-q25 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
461565
Concept ID:
C3150215
Disease or Syndrome
6q25 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by developmental delay, facial dysmorphism and hearing loss.
Warsaw breakage syndrome
MedGen UID:
462008
Concept ID:
C3150658
Disease or Syndrome
Warsaw syndrome is characterized by the clinical triad of severe congenital microcephaly, growth restriction, and sensorineural hearing loss due to cochlear hypoplasia. Intellectual disability is typically in the mild-to-moderate range. Severe speech delay is common. Gross and fine motor milestones are usually attained at the usual time, although a few individuals have mild delays. Additional common features include skeletal anomalies and cardiovascular anomalies. Abnormal skin pigmentation and genitourinary malformations have also been reported. Some individuals have had increased chromosome breakage and radial forms on cytogenetic testing of lymphocytes treated with diepoxybutane and mitomycin C.
Hirschsprung disease, cardiac defects, and autonomic dysfunction
MedGen UID:
462587
Concept ID:
C3151237
Disease or Syndrome
Kabuki syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
477126
Concept ID:
C3275495
Disease or Syndrome
Kabuki syndrome (KS) is characterized by typical facial features (long palpebral fissures with eversion of the lateral third of the lower eyelid; arched and broad eyebrows; short columella with depressed nasal tip; large, prominent, or cupped ears), minor skeletal anomalies, persistence of fetal fingertip pads, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and postnatal growth deficiency. Other findings may include: congenital heart defects, genitourinary anomalies, cleft lip and/or palate, gastrointestinal anomalies including anal atresia, ptosis and strabismus, and widely spaced teeth and hypodontia. Functional differences can include: increased susceptibility to infections and autoimmune disorders, seizures, endocrinologic abnormalities (including isolated premature thelarche in females), feeding problems, and hearing loss.
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
481405
Concept ID:
C3279775
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, lack of psychomotor development, seizures, dysmorphic features, and variable congenital anomalies involving the cardiac, urinary, and gastrointestinal systems. Most affected individuals die before 3 years of age (summary by Maydan et al., 2011). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis; see GPIBD1 (610293). Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia-Seizures Syndrome MCAHS2 (300868) is caused by mutation in the PIGA gene (311770) on chromosome Xp22, MCAHS3 (615398) is caused by mutation in the PIGT gene (610272) on chromosome 20q13, and MCAHS4 (618548) is caused by mutation in the PIGQ gene (605754) on chromosome 16p13. Knaus et al. (2018) provided a review of the main clinical features of the different types of MCAHS, noting that patients with mutations in the PIGN, PIGA, and PIGT genes have distinct patterns of facial anomalies that can be detected by computer-assisted comparison. Some individuals with MCAHS may have variable increases in alkaline phosphatase (AP) as well as variable decreases in GPI-linked proteins that can be detected by flow cytometry. However, there was no clear correlation between AP levels or GPI-linked protein abnormalities and degree of neurologic involvement, mutation class, or gene involved. Knaus et al. (2018) concluded that a distinction between MCAHS and HPMRS1 (239300), which is also caused by mutation in genes involved in GPI biosynthesis, may be artificial and even inaccurate, and that all these disorders should be considered and classified together under the more encompassing term of 'GPI biosynthesis defects' (GPIBD).
Otofaciocervical syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
811516
Concept ID:
C3714941
Disease or Syndrome
Otofaciocervical syndrome (OTFCS) is a rare disorder characterized by facial anomalies, cup-shaped low-set ears, preauricular fistulas, hearing loss, branchial defects, skeletal anomalies including vertebral defects, low-set clavicles, winged scapulae, sloping shoulders, and mild intellectual disability (summary by Pohl et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Otofaciocervical Syndrome OTFCS2 (615560) is caused by mutation in the PAX1 gene (167411) on chromosome 20p11.
Lymphatic malformation 6
MedGen UID:
908120
Concept ID:
C4225184
Disease or Syndrome
Lymphatic malformation-6 is a form of generalized lymphatic dysplasia (GLD), which is characterized by a uniform, widespread lymphedema affecting all segments of the body, with systemic involvement such as intestinal and/or pulmonary lymphangiectasia, pleural effusions, chylothoraces and/or pericardial effusions. In LMPHM6, there is a high incidence of nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) with either death or complete resolution of the neonatal edema, but childhood onset of lymphedema with or without systemic involvement also occurs. Mild facial edema is often present. Patients have normal intelligence and no seizures (summary by Fotiou et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lymphatic malformation, see 153100.
Mandibulofacial dysostosis with alopecia
MedGen UID:
898794
Concept ID:
C4225349
Disease or Syndrome
A rare mandibulofacial dysostosis with the association with scalp alopecia and sparse eyebrows and eyelashes. Craniofacial dysmorphic features include zygomatic and mandibular dysplasia or hypoplasia, cleft palate, micrognathia, dental anomalies, auricular dysmorphism and eyelid anomalies among others. Patients may experience limited jaw mobility, glossoptosis, upper airway obstruction and conductive hearing loss.
Shashi-Pena syndrome
MedGen UID:
934639
Concept ID:
C4310672
Disease or Syndrome
Shashi-Pena syndrome is a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by delayed psychomotor development, variable intellectual disability, hypotonia, facial dysmorphism, and some unusual features, including enlarged head circumference, glabellar nevus flammeus, and deep palmar creases. Some patients may also have atrial septal defect, episodic hypoglycemia, changes in bone mineral density, and/or seizures (summary by Shashi et al., 2016).
Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome
MedGen UID:
934655
Concept ID:
C4310688
Disease or Syndrome
CHD4 neurodevelopmental disorder (CHD4-NDD) is associated with developmental delay, speech delay, and usually mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Variability between individuals with CHD4-NDD is significant, and a few have normal intelligence. Other manifestations can include brain anomalies, heart defects, and skeletal abnormalities; less common features are hypogonadism in males, hearing impairment, and ophthalmic abnormalities. Most affected individuals have mild nonspecific dysmorphic facial features with or without macrocephaly.
Bone marrow failure syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
934711
Concept ID:
C4310744
Disease or Syndrome
Bone marrow failure syndrome-3 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of pancytopenia in early childhood. Patients may have additional variable nonspecific somatic abnormalities, including poor growth, microcephaly, and skin anomalies (summary by Tummala et al., 2016). BMFS3 has a distinct phenotype and may include features that overlap with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS1; 260400), such as pancreatic insufficiency and short stature, and with dyskeratosis congenita (see, e.g., DKCA1, 127550), such as dental and hair abnormalities and shortened telomeres. In addition, some patients may have joint and skeletal abnormalities, impaired development, and retinal dysplasia (summary by D'Amours et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of BMFS, see BMFS1 (614675).
SIN3A-related intellectual disability syndrome due to a point mutation
MedGen UID:
934771
Concept ID:
C4310804
Disease or Syndrome
Witteveen-Kolk syndrome (WITKOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with characteristic distinctive facial features, microcephaly, short stature, and mildly impaired intellectual development with delayed cognitive and motor development and subtle anomalies on MRI-brain imaging (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2021).
Dias-Logan syndrome
MedGen UID:
934800
Concept ID:
C4310833
Disease or Syndrome
BCL11A-related intellectual disability (BCL11A-ID) is characterized by developmental delay / intellectual disability of variable degree, neonatal hypotonia, microcephaly, distinctive but variable facial characteristics, behavior problems, and asymptomatic persistence of fetal hemoglobin. Growth delay, seizures, and autism spectrum disorder have also been reported in some affected individuals.
Townes-Brocks syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1381939
Concept ID:
C4479534
Disease or Syndrome
Sweeney-Cox syndrome
MedGen UID:
1625659
Concept ID:
C4540299
Disease or Syndrome
Sweeney-Cox syndrome is characterized by striking facial dysostosis, including hypertelorism, deficiencies of the eyelids and facial bones, cleft palate/velopharyngeal insufficiency, and low-set cupped ears (Kim et al., 2017).
Fraser syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639061
Concept ID:
C4551480
Disease or Syndrome
Fraser syndrome is an autosomal recessive malformation disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, syndactyly, and abnormalities of the respiratory and urogenital tract (summary by van Haelst et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Fraser Syndrome Fraser syndrome-2 (FRASRS2) is caused by mutation in the FREM2 gene (608945) on chromosome 13q13, and Fraser syndrome-3 (FRASRS3; 617667) is caused by mutation in the GRIP1 gene (604597) on chromosome 12q14. See Bowen syndrome (211200) for a comparable but probably distinct syndrome of multiple congenital malformations.
Branchiootorenal syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1632634
Concept ID:
C4551702
Disease or Syndrome
Branchiootorenal spectrum disorder (BORSD) is characterized by malformations of the outer, middle, and inner ear associated with conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing impairment, branchial fistulae and cysts, and renal malformations ranging from mild renal hypoplasia to bilateral renal agenesis. Some individuals progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) later in life. Extreme variability can be observed in the presence, severity, and type of branchial arch, otologic, audiologic, and renal abnormality from right side to left side in an affected individual and also among individuals in the same family.
Auriculocondylar syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639644
Concept ID:
C4551996
Disease or Syndrome
Auriculocondylar syndrome (ARCND) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the first and second pharyngeal arches and is characterized by malformed ears (question mark ears), prominent cheeks, microstomia, abnormal temporomandibular joint, and mandibular condyle hypoplasia (summary by Masotti et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Auriculocondylar Syndrome Auriculocondylar syndrome-2 (ARCND2; 614669) is caused by mutation in the PLCB4 gene (600810) on chromosome 20p12.3-p12.2. ARCND3 (615706) is caused by mutation in the EDN1 gene (131240) on chromosome 6p24. See also 612798 for isolated question mark ears.
Ververi-Brady syndrome
MedGen UID:
1647785
Concept ID:
C4693824
Disease or Syndrome
Ververi-Brady syndrome (VEBRAS) is characterized by mild developmental delay, mildly impaired intellectual development and speech delay, and mild dysmorphic facial features. Affected individuals can usually attend mainstream schools with support, and may also show autistic features (summary by Ververi et al., 2018).
Vertebral anomalies and variable endocrine and T-cell dysfunction
MedGen UID:
1648299
Concept ID:
C4748741
Disease or Syndrome
Vertebral anomalies and variable endocrine and T-cell dysfunction is a syndrome characterized by an overlapping spectrum of features. Skeletal malformations primarily involve the vertebrae, and endocrine abnormalities involving parathyroid hormone (PTH; 168450), growth hormone (GH1; 139250), and the thyroid gland have been reported. T-cell abnormalities have been observed, with some patients showing thymus gland aplasia or hypoplasia. Patients have mild craniofacial dysmorphism, and some show developmental delay or behavioral problems. Cardiac defects may be present (Liu et al., 2018).
Snijders blok-fisher syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684801
Concept ID:
C5231424
Disease or Syndrome
Snijders Blok-Fisher syndrome (SNIBFIS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, hypotonia, variable impaired intellectual development, and specifically impaired speech and language acquisition. Patients achieve independent ambulation and most have mildly to moderately impaired cognition with autistic features, although a few may develop seizures and have a more severe phenotype. Dysmorphic features include abnormal, cupped, or prominent ears and ocular anomalies. Mutations usually occur de novo, although 1 family with autosomal dominant inheritance has been reported (summary by Snijders Blok et al., 2019).
Weiss-kruszka syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684748
Concept ID:
C5231429
Disease or Syndrome
Weiss-Kruszka syndrome is characterized by metopic ridging or synostosis, ptosis, nonspecific dysmorphic features, developmental delay, and autistic features. Brain imaging may identify abnormalities of the corpus callosum. Developmental delay can present as global delay, motor delay, or speech delay. Affected individuals may also have ear anomalies, feeding difficulties (sometimes requiring placement of a gastrostomy tube), and congenital heart defects. There is significant variability in the clinical features, even between affected members of the same family.
Neurodevelopmental, jaw, eye, and digital syndrome
MedGen UID:
1712714
Concept ID:
C5394477
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental, jaw, eye, and digital syndrome (NEDJED) is characterized by phenotypic diversity, with patients exhibiting a range of overlapping phenotypes. Most patients show developmental delay ranging from mild to severe, and often have behavioral disorders as well. Brain imaging shows hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, prominence of lateral ventricles, and/or white matter abnormalities. Many patients have retro- or micrognathia, but mild prognathism has also been observed. Ocular anomalies are variably present, and may be severe and complex; however, some patients show only mild myopia. Abnormalities of fingers and toes include brachydactyly, clinodactyly, syndactyly, and contractures; polydactyly is rarely seen (Holt et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with alopecia and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1775930
Concept ID:
C5436741
Disease or Syndrome
Bachmann-Bupp syndrome (BABS) is characterized by a distinctive type of alopecia, global developmental delay in the moderate to severe range, hypotonia, nonspecific dysmorphic features, behavioral abnormalities (autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) and feeding difficulties. Hair is typically present at birth but may be sparse and of an unexpected color with subsequent loss of hair in large clumps within the first few weeks of life. Rare findings may include seizures with onset in later childhood and conductive hearing loss.
Otofaciocervical syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1782278
Concept ID:
C5442121
Disease or Syndrome
Otofaciocervical syndrome-2 with T-cell deficiency (OTFCS2) is a rare disorder characterized by facial anomalies, cup-shaped low-set ears, preauricular fistulas, hearing loss, branchial defects, skeletal anomalies including vertebral defects, low-set clavicles, winged scapulae, sloping shoulders, and mild intellectual disability (summary by Pohl et al., 2013). Patients have been reported who also exhibit altered thymus development with T-cell immunodeficiency and recurrent, sometimes fatal, infections (Paganini et al., 2017; Yamazaki et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of otofaciocervical syndrome, see OTFCS1 (166780).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 64
MedGen UID:
1784554
Concept ID:
C5543067
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-64 (MRD64) is characterized by mildly to severely impaired intellectual development (ID) with speech delays. Most patients also have autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additional features are highly variable but may include motor delay, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and nonspecific dysmorphic features (summary by Mirzaa et al., 2020).
FAUNDES-BANKA SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
1782083
Concept ID:
C5543554
Disease or Syndrome
Faundes-Banka syndrome (FABAS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by variable combinations of developmental delay and microcephaly, as well as micrognathia and other dysmorphic features (Faundes et al., 2021).
NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER WITH DYSMORPHIC FACIES AND THIN CORPUS CALLOSUM
MedGen UID:
1790413
Concept ID:
C5551361
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and thin corpus callosum (NEDDFAC) is characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech and language, and dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging tends to show thin corpus callosum and decreased white matter volume. Additional features such as seizures, cardiac defects, and behavioral abnormalities may also occur. The phenotype is variable (summary by Bina et al., 2020).
Neuroocular syndrome
MedGen UID:
1790414
Concept ID:
C5551362
Disease or Syndrome
Neuroocular syndrome (NOC) encompasses a broad spectrum of overlapping anomalies, with developmental delay or impaired intellectual development as a consistent finding. Eye abnormalities show marked variability in the type and severity of defects, and include anophthalmia, microphthalmia, and coloboma. Other common systemic features include congenital heart and kidney defects, hypotonia, failure to thrive, and microcephaly (summary by Chowdhury et al., 2021).
VISS SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
1794165
Concept ID:
C5561955
Disease or Syndrome
VISS syndrome is a generalized connective tissue disorder characterized by early-onset thoracic aortic aneurysm and other connective tissue findings, such as aneurysm and tortuosity of other arteries, joint hypermobility, skin laxity, and hernias, as well as craniofacial dysmorphic features, structural cardiac defects, skeletal anomalies, and motor developmental delay (Van Gucht et al., 2021). Immune dysregulation has been observed in some patients (Ziegler et al., 2021).
DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY, IMPAIRED SPEECH, AND BEHAVIORAL ABNORMALITIES
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
ZAKI SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
1794247
Concept ID:
C5562037
Disease or Syndrome
Zaki syndrome (ZKS) is characterized by developmental delay, progressive microcephaly, and short stature, as well as dysmorphic features including sparse scalp hair, cupped ears, wide nose and mouth, short philtrum, and high-arched palate. Other variable features have been observed, including ocular, skeletal, cardiac, and renal anomalies (Chai et al., 2021).
Parenti-Mignot neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1808333
Concept ID:
C5676984
Disease or Syndrome
Parenti-Mignot neurodevelopmental syndrome (PMNDS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder frequently characterized by impaired intellectual development, speech delay, motor delay, behavioral problems, and epilepsy (Parenti et al., 2021).
Dworschak-Punetha neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1800957
Concept ID:
C5677017
Disease or Syndrome
Dworschak-Punetha neurodevelopmental syndrome (DWOPNED) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized mainly by global developmental delay and mildly impaired intellectual development (IQ range 77 to 85), often with behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder and hyperactivity. Some affected individuals may have only speech delay or behavioral manifestations. More variable additional features include optic disc hypoplasia, ptosis, hypo- or hyperpigmented skin lesions, nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, and brain imaging abnormalities of the ventricles or corpus callosum. Of note, not all patients exhibit all features, and there is significant inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability (Dworschak et al., 2021).

Recent clinical studies

Diagnosis

Ryu YH, Kyun Chae J, Kim JW, Lee S
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 Oct;8(10):e1412. Epub 2020 Jul 26 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.1412. PMID: 32715658Free PMC Article
Okur V, LeDuc CA, Guzman E, Valivullah ZM, Anyane-Yeboa K, Chung WK
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2019 Jun;5(3) Epub 2019 Jun 3 doi: 10.1101/mcs.a004101. PMID: 31010896Free PMC Article
Oliver JD, Menapace DC, Cofer SA
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Jul;98:4-8. Epub 2017 Apr 24 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.04.035. PMID: 28583501

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