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Pointed chin

MedGen UID:
336193
Concept ID:
C1844505
Finding
Synonyms: Pointy chin; Small pointed chin
 
HPO: HP:0000307

Definition

A marked tapering of the lower face to the chin. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVPointed chin

Conditions with this feature

Focal dermal hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
42055
Concept ID:
C0016395
Disease or Syndrome
Focal dermal hypoplasia is a multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. Skin manifestations present at birth include atrophic and hypoplastic areas of skin; cutis aplasia; fat nodules in the dermis manifesting as soft, yellow-pink cutaneous nodules; and pigmentary changes. Verrucoid papillomas of the skin and mucous membranes may appear later. The nails can be ridged, dysplastic, or hypoplastic; hair can be sparse or absent. Limb malformations include oligo-/syndactyly and split hand/foot. Developmental abnormalities of the eye can include anophthalmia/microphthalmia, iris and chorioretinal coloboma, and lacrimal duct abnormalities. Craniofacial findings can include facial asymmetry, notched alae nasi, cleft lip and palate, and pointed chin. Occasional findings include dental anomalies, abdominal wall defects, diaphragmatic hernia, and renal anomalies. Psychomotor development is usually normal; some individuals have cognitive impairment.
Sotos syndrome
MedGen UID:
61232
Concept ID:
C0175695
Disease or Syndrome
Sotos syndrome is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance (broad and prominent forehead with a dolichocephalic head shape, sparse frontotemporal hair, downslanting palpebral fissures, malar flushing, long and narrow face, long chin); learning disability (early developmental delay, mild-to-severe intellectual impairment); and overgrowth (height and/or head circumference =2 SD above the mean). These three clinical features are considered the cardinal features of Sotos syndrome. Major features of Sotos syndrome include behavioral problems (most notably autistic spectrum disorder), advanced bone age, cardiac anomalies, cranial MRI/CT abnormalities, joint hyperlaxity with or without pes planus, maternal preeclampsia, neonatal complications, renal anomalies, scoliosis, and seizures.
KBG syndrome
MedGen UID:
66317
Concept ID:
C0220687
Disease or Syndrome
KBG syndrome is typically characterized by macrodontia (especially of the upper central incisors), characteristic facial features (triangular face, brachycephaly, synophrys, widely spaced eyes, broad or bushy eyebrows, prominent ears, prominent nasal bridge, bulbous nose, anteverted nares, long philtrum, and thin vermilion of the upper lip), short stature, developmental delay / intellectual disability, and behavioral issues. Affected individuals may have feeding difficulties (particularly in infancy), skeletal anomalies (brachydactyly, large anterior fontanelle with delayed closure, scoliosis), hearing loss (conductive, mixed, and sensorineural), seizure disorder, and brain malformations. There is significant variability in the clinical findings, even between affected members of the same family.
Neonatal pseudo-hydrocephalic progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
140806
Concept ID:
C0406586
Disease or Syndrome
Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WDRTS) is a rare autosomal recessive neonatal progeroid disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, failure to thrive, short stature, a progeroid appearance, hypotonia, and variable mental impairment (summary by Toriello, 1990). Average survival in WDRTS is 7 months, although survival into the third decade of life has been reported (Akawi et al., 2013).
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type 2
MedGen UID:
107893
Concept ID:
C0574083
Disease or Syndrome
Barth syndrome is characterized in affected males by cardiomyopathy, neutropenia, skeletal myopathy, prepubertal growth delay, and distinctive facial gestalt (most evident in infancy); not all features may be present in a given affected male. Cardiomyopathy, which is almost always present before age five years, is typically dilated cardiomyopathy with or without endocardial fibroelastosis or left ventricular noncompaction; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can also occur. Heart failure is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality; risk of arrhythmia and sudden death is increased. Neutropenia is most often associated with mouth ulcers, pneumonia, and sepsis. The nonprogressive myopathy predominantly affects the proximal muscles, and results in early motor delays. Prepubertal growth delay is followed by a postpubertal growth spurt with remarkable "catch-up" growth. Heterozygous females who have a normal karyotype are asymptomatic and have normal biochemical studies.
Costello syndrome
MedGen UID:
108454
Concept ID:
C0587248
Disease or Syndrome
While the majority of individuals with Costello syndrome share characteristic findings affecting multiple organ systems, the phenotypic spectrum is wide, ranging from a milder or attenuated phenotype to a severe phenotype with early lethal complications. Costello syndrome is typically characterized by failure to thrive in infancy as a result of severe postnatal feeding difficulties; short stature; developmental delay or intellectual disability; coarse facial features (full lips, large mouth, full nasal tip); curly or sparse, fine hair; loose, soft skin with deep palmar and plantar creases; papillomata of the face and perianal region; diffuse hypotonia and joint laxity with ulnar deviation of the wrists and fingers; tight Achilles tendons; and cardiac involvement including: cardiac hypertrophy (usually typical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), congenital heart defect (usually valvar pulmonic stenosis), and arrhythmia (usually supraventricular tachycardia, especially chaotic atrial rhythm/multifocal atrial tachycardia or ectopic atrial tachycardia). Relative or absolute macrocephaly is typical, and postnatal cerebellar overgrowth can result in the development of a Chiari I malformation with associated anomalies including hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. Individuals with Costello syndrome have an approximately 15% lifetime risk for malignant tumors including rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroblastoma in young children and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in adolescents and young adults.
Elsahy-Waters syndrome
MedGen UID:
923028
Concept ID:
C0809936
Disease or Syndrome
The core phenotype of Elsahy-Waters syndrome consists of brachycephaly, facial asymmetry, marked hypertelorism, proptosis, blepharochalasis, midface hypoplasia, broad nose with concave nasal ridge, and prognathism; radicular dentin dysplasia with consequent obliterated pulp chambers, apical translucent cysts, recurrent infections, and early loss of teeth; vertebral fusions, particularly at C2-C3; and moderate mental retardation. Skin wrinkling over the glabellar region seems common, and in males, hypospadias has always been present. Inter- and intrafamilial variability has been reported regarding the presence of vertebral fusions, hearing loss, and dentigerous cysts. Midface hypoplasia, facial asymmetry, progressive dental anomalies, and impaired cognitive development become more evident in adulthood (summary by Castori et al., 2010).
Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334629
Concept ID:
C1842870
Disease or Syndrome
The constitutional deletion of chromosome 1p36 results in a syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (Shapira et al., 1997). Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome in humans, occurring in 1 in 5,000 births (Shaffer and Lupski, 2000; Heilstedt et al., 2003). See also neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH; 616975), which shows overlapping features and is caused by heterozygous mutation in the RERE gene (605226) on proximal chromosome 1p36. See also Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS; 619312), caused by mutation in the SPEN gene (613484) on chromosome 1p36, which shows overlapping features.
Phelan-McDermid syndrome
MedGen UID:
339994
Concept ID:
C1853490
Disease or Syndrome
Phelan-McDermid syndrome is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, absent to severely delayed speech, developmental delay, and minor dysmorphic facial features. Most affected individuals have moderate to profound intellectual disability. Other features include large fleshy hands, dysplastic toenails, and decreased perspiration that results in a tendency to overheat. Normal stature and normal head size distinguishes Phelan-McDermid syndrome from other autosomal chromosome disorders. Behavior characteristics include mouthing or chewing non-food items, decreased perception of pain, and autism spectrum disorder or autistic-like affect and behavior.
Noonan syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
344290
Concept ID:
C1854469
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Baraitser-Winter syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
340943
Concept ID:
C1855722
Disease or Syndrome
Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial (BWCFF) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial features and intellectual disability. Many (but not all) affected individuals have pachygyria that is predominantly frontal, wasting of the shoulder girdle muscles, and sensory impairment due to iris or retinal coloboma and/or sensorineural deafness. Intellectual disability, which is common but variable, is related to the severity of the brain malformations. Seizures, congenital heart defects, renal malformations, and gastrointestinal dysfunction are also common.
Mowat-Wilson syndrome
MedGen UID:
341067
Concept ID:
C1856113
Disease or Syndrome
Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is characterized by distinctive facial features (widely spaced eyes, broad eyebrows with a medial flare, low-hanging columella, prominent or pointed chin, open-mouth expression, and uplifted earlobes with a central depression), congenital heart defects with predilection for abnormalities of the pulmonary arteries and/or valves, Hirschsprung disease or chronic constipation, genitourinary anomalies (particularly hypospadias in males), and hypogenesis or agenesis of the corpus callosum. Most affected individuals have moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. Speech is typically limited to a few words or is absent, with relative preservation of receptive language skills. Growth restriction with microcephaly and seizure disorder are also common. Most affected people have a happy demeanor and a wide-based gait that can sometimes be confused with Angelman syndrome.
Alagille syndrome due to a NOTCH2 point mutation
MedGen UID:
341844
Concept ID:
C1857761
Disease or Syndrome
Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is a multisystem disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical variability; this variability is seen even among individuals from the same family. The major clinical manifestations of ALGS are bile duct paucity on liver biopsy, cholestasis, congenital cardiac defects (primarily involving the pulmonary arteries), butterfly vertebrae, ophthalmologic abnormalities (most commonly posterior embryotoxon), and characteristic facial features. Renal abnormalities, growth failure, developmental delays, splenomegaly, and vascular abnormalities may also occur.
Brachymorphism-onychodysplasia-dysphalangism syndrome
MedGen UID:
350585
Concept ID:
C1862082
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare malformation syndrome with characteristics of short stature, hypoplastic fifth digits with tiny dysplastic nails, facial dysmorphism with coarse features including a wide mouth and broad nose, and mild intellectual disability. It has been suggested that Coffin-Siris syndrome and BOD syndrome are perhaps allelic variants.
Chromosome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
393913
Concept ID:
C2675897
Congenital Abnormality
The 1q21.1 recurrent microdeletion itself does not appear to lead to a clinically recognizable syndrome as some persons with the deletion have no obvious clinical findings and others have variable findings that most commonly include microcephaly (50%), mild intellectual disability (30%), mildly dysmorphic facial features, and eye abnormalities (26%). Other findings can include cardiac defects, genitourinary anomalies, skeletal malformations, and seizures (~15%). Psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities can include autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autistic features, and sleep disturbances.
Bone fragility with contractures, arterial rupture, and deafness
MedGen UID:
382811
Concept ID:
C2676285
Disease or Syndrome
BCARD syndrome is an autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder characterized by bone abnormalities, including low bone mineral density, scoliosis, contractures of the fingers and other joints, prominent knees, and rare pathologic fractures; cataract and other ocular abnormalities, including high myopia, optically empty vitreous, and risk for retinal detachment; risk of arterial rupture due to vascular aneurysm or dissection; and sensorineural deafness. Affected individuals also exhibit recognizable craniofacial dysmorphisms, and variable skin features have been observed, including reduced palmar creases, soft skin with easy bruising, and blistering. Developmental delay, which is present in most patients, may be attributable to sensory deficits or medical complications (Ewans et al., 2019).
3M syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
395592
Concept ID:
C2678312
Disease or Syndrome
Three M syndrome is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency (final height 5-6 SD below the mean; i.e., 120-130 cm), characteristic facies, and normal intelligence. Additional features of three M syndrome include short broad neck, prominent trapezii, deformed sternum, short thorax, square shoulders, winged scapulae, hyperlordosis, short fifth fingers, prominent heels, and loose joints. Males with three M syndrome have hypogonadism and occasionally hypospadias.
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, distal
MedGen UID:
395634
Concept ID:
C2678480
Disease or Syndrome
A rare chromosomal anomaly syndrome, resulting from the partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 22, outside the DiGeorge critical region. The phenotype is characterized by prematurity, pre- and post-natal growth retardation, developmental delay (particularly speech), mild intellectual disability, variable cardiac defects, and minor skeletal anomalies (such as clinodactyly). Dysmorphic features present in half of the individuals include microcephaly, arched eyebrows, deep set eyes, narrow upslanting palpebral fissures, ear abnormalities (low-set ears, tags and pits), hypoplastic alae nasi, smooth philtrum, down-turned mouth, thin upper lip, retro/micrognatia and pointed chin. For certain very distal deletions including the <i>SMARCB1</i> gene, there is a risk of developing malignant rhabdoid tumours. Most deletions are <i>de novo </i>.
3M syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
414168
Concept ID:
C2752041
Disease or Syndrome
Three M syndrome is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency (final height 5-6 SD below the mean; i.e., 120-130 cm), characteristic facies, and normal intelligence. Additional features of three M syndrome include short broad neck, prominent trapezii, deformed sternum, short thorax, square shoulders, winged scapulae, hyperlordosis, short fifth fingers, prominent heels, and loose joints. Males with three M syndrome have hypogonadism and occasionally hypospadias.
Clark-Baraitser syndrome
MedGen UID:
443983
Concept ID:
C2931130
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, obesity, macrocephaly, behavioral abnormalities (such as aggressive tantrums and autistic-like behavior), and delayed speech development. Dysmorphic facial features include large, square forehead, prominent supraorbital ridges, broad nasal tip, large ears, prominent lower lip, and minor dental anomalies such as small upper lateral incisors and central incisor gap.
Chromosome 16p13.3 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
462058
Concept ID:
C3150708
Disease or Syndrome
16p13.3 microduplication syndrome is a rare chromosomal anomaly syndrome resulting from a partial duplication of the short arm of chromosome 16 and manifesting with a variable phenotype which is mostly characterized by: mild to moderate intellectual deficit and developmental delay (particularly speech), normal growth, short, proximally implanted thumbs and other hand and feet malformations (such as camptodactyly, syndactyly, club feet), mild arthrogryposis and characteristic facies (upslanting, narrow palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, mid face hypoplasia, bulbous nasal tip and low set ears). Other reported manifestations include cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia and behavioral problems.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 51
MedGen UID:
462406
Concept ID:
C3151056
Disease or Syndrome
AP-4-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as AP-4 deficiency syndrome, is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a progressive, complex spastic paraplegia with onset typically in infancy or early childhood. Early-onset hypotonia evolves into progressive lower-extremity spasticity. The majority of children become nonambulatory and usually wheelchair bound. Over time spasticity progresses to involve the upper extremities, resulting in a spastic tetraplegia. Associated complications include dysphagia, contractures, foot deformities, dysregulation of bladder and bowel function, and a pseudobulbar affect. About 50% of affected individuals have seizures. Postnatal microcephaly (usually in the -2SD to -3SD range) is common. All have developmental delay. Speech development is significantly impaired and many affected individuals remain nonverbal. Intellectual disability in older children is usually moderate to severe.
Rafiq syndrome
MedGen UID:
481757
Concept ID:
C3280127
Disease or Syndrome
Rafiq syndrome (RAFQS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by variably impaired intellectual and motor development, a characteristic facial dysmorphism, truncal obesity, and hypotonia. The facial dysmorphism comprises prominent eyebrows with lateral thinning, downward-slanting palpebral fissures, bulbous tip of the nose, large ears, and a thin upper lip. Behavioral problems, including overeating, verbal and physical aggression, have been reported in some cases. Serum transferrin isoelectric focusing shows a type 2 pattern (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2019).
3M syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
481776
Concept ID:
C3280146
Disease or Syndrome
Three M syndrome is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency (final height 5-6 SD below the mean; i.e., 120-130 cm), characteristic facies, and normal intelligence. Additional features of three M syndrome include short broad neck, prominent trapezii, deformed sternum, short thorax, square shoulders, winged scapulae, hyperlordosis, short fifth fingers, prominent heels, and loose joints. Males with three M syndrome have hypogonadism and occasionally hypospadias.
Encephalopathy, lethal, due to defective mitochondrial peroxisomal fission 1
MedGen UID:
482290
Concept ID:
C3280660
Disease or Syndrome
Encephalopathy due to defective mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission-1 (EMPF1) is characterized by delayed psychomotor development and hypotonia that may lead to death in childhood. Many patients develop refractory seizures, consistent with an epileptic encephalopathy, and thereafter show neurologic decline. The age at onset, features, and severity are variable, and some patients may not have clinical evidence of mitochondrial or peroxisomal dysfunction (summary by Sheffer et al., 2016; Fahrner et al., 2016). Genetic Heterogeneity of Encephalopathy Due to Defective Mitochondrial And Peroxisomal Fission See also EMPF2 (617086), caused by mutation in the MFF gene (614785) on chromosome 2q36.
Baraitser-winter syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
482865
Concept ID:
C3281235
Disease or Syndrome
Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial (BWCFF) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial features and intellectual disability. Many (but not all) affected individuals have pachygyria that is predominantly frontal, wasting of the shoulder girdle muscles, and sensory impairment due to iris or retinal coloboma and/or sensorineural deafness. Intellectual disability, which is common but variable, is related to the severity of the brain malformations. Seizures, congenital heart defects, renal malformations, and gastrointestinal dysfunction are also common.
Short stature-onychodysplasia-facial dysmorphism-hypotrichosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
762199
Concept ID:
C3542022
Disease or Syndrome
SOFT syndrome is characterized by severely short long bones, peculiar facies associated with paucity of hair, and nail anomalies. Growth retardation is evident on prenatal ultrasound as early as the second trimester of pregnancy, and affected individuals reach a final stature consistent with a height age of 6 years to 8 years. Relative macrocephaly is present during early childhood but head circumference is markedly low by adulthood. Psychomotor development is normal. Facial dysmorphism includes a long, triangular face with prominent nose and small ears, and affected individuals have an unusual high-pitched voice. Clinodactyly, brachydactyly, and hypoplastic distal phalanges and fingernails are present in association with postpubertal sparse and short hair. Typical skeletal findings include short and thick long bones with mild irregular metaphyseal changes, short femoral necks, and hypoplastic pelvis and sacrum. All long bones of the hand are short, with major delay of carpal ossification and cone-shaped epiphyses. Vertebral body ossification is also delayed (summary by Sarig et al., 2012).
Cerebellar dysfunction with variable cognitive and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
766575
Concept ID:
C3553661
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar dysfunction with variable cognitive and behavioral abnormalities (CECBA) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder with significant phenotypic heterogeneity, even within families. The disorder is most often diagnosed through genetic analysis with retrospective clinical phenotyping. Symptom onset is usually in early childhood, although later onset, even in adulthood, has been reported. Most affected individuals show global developmental delay from early childhood, particularly of motor and language skills. Many have mild intellectual disability; behavioral and psychiatric abnormalities such as autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder are also often observed. The movement disorder is prominent and may include cerebellar signs such as ataxia, tremor, dysmetria, poor coordination, and dysarthria. Other abnormal movements including spasticity, myoclonus, and dystonia have been reported, thus widening the phenotypic spectrum. Brain imaging is usually normal, but may show cerebellar atrophy or nonspecific white matter lesions. Variable dysmorphic facial features may also be present (summary by Thevenon et al., 2012; Jacobs et al., 2021; Wijnen et al., 2020).
Intellectual developmental disorder with autism and macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
767287
Concept ID:
C3554373
Disease or Syndrome
CHD8-related neurodevelopmental disorder with overgrowth (CHD8-NDD) is characterized by generalized overgrowth, developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), neuropsychiatric issues, neurologic problems, sleep disturbance, and gastrointestinal issues The most common findings are the development of macrocephaly (most often during infancy) and tall stature (most typically during puberty), which is often accompanied by ASD and/or DD/ID. Most, if not all, affected individuals have some degree of DD, most commonly speech and motor delays. When present, ID is most often in the mild-to-moderate range. Sleep disturbance is characterized by difficulty with both initiation (delayed sleep onset) and maintenance (frequent night awakenings) of sleep. The most common gastrointestinal issue is constipation with or without periods of diarrhea. Less common features are hypotonia (about 30% of affected individuals), seizures (10%-15%), dystonia (rare), and Chiari I malformation (rare).
Macrocephaly/megalencephaly syndrome, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
812742
Concept ID:
C3806412
Disease or Syndrome
Macrocephaly refers to an abnormally enlarged head inclusive of the scalp, cranial bones, and intracranial contents. Macrocephaly may be due to megalencephaly (true enlargement of the brain parenchyma), and the 2 terms are often used interchangeably in the genetic literature (reviews by Olney, 2007 and Williams et al., 2008). Autosomal recessive macrocephaly/megalencephaly syndrome is characterized by an enlarged cranium apparent at birth or in early childhood. Affected individuals have intellectual disability and may have dysmorphic facial features resulting from the macrocephaly (summary by Alfaiz et al., 2014).
Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
816693
Concept ID:
C3810363
Disease or Syndrome
Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome (BBSOAS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by delayed development, moderately impaired intellectual development, and optic atrophy. Most patients also have evidence of cerebral visual impairment. Dysmorphic facial features are variable and nonspecific (summary by Bosch et al., 2014).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 29
MedGen UID:
863578
Concept ID:
C4015141
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
SETBP1 haploinsufficiency disorder (SETBP1-HD) is characterized by hypotonia and mild motor developmental delay; intellectual abilities ranging from normal to severe disability; speech and language disorder; behavioral problems (most commonly attention/concentration deficits and hyperactivity, impulsivity), and refractive errors and strabismus. Typically children with SETBP1-HD whose intellect is in the normal or borderline range (IQ 80-90) were diagnosed following genetic testing for behavioral problems and/or severe speech and language disorders (respectively: the inability to produce sounds in words correctly, and deficits in the understanding and/or expression of words and sentences). To date, 47 individuals with SETBP1-HD have been reported.
Luscan-Lumish syndrome
MedGen UID:
898669
Concept ID:
C4085873
Disease or Syndrome
Luscan-Lumish syndrome (LLS) is characterized by macrocephaly, intellectual disability, speech delay, low sociability, and behavioral problems. More variable features include postnatal overgrowth, obesity, advanced carpal ossification, developmental delay, and seizures (Luscan et al., 2014; Lumish et al., 2015)
Skeletal overgrowth-craniofacial dysmorphism-hyperelastic skin-white matter lesions syndrome
MedGen UID:
896409
Concept ID:
C4225270
Disease or Syndrome
Kosaki overgrowth syndrome (KOGS) is characterized by a facial gestalt involving prominent forehead, proptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures, broad nasal bridge, thin upper lip, and pointed chin. Affected individuals are tall, with an elongated lower segment, and have large hands and feet. Skin is hyperelastic and fragile. Patients exhibit progressive dilatory and vascular changes in basilar/vertebral and coronary arteries starting in the teenage years (Takenouchi et al., 2015; Takenouchi et al., 2021).
Intellectual disability-microcephaly-strabismus-behavioral abnormalities syndrome
MedGen UID:
897984
Concept ID:
C4225351
Disease or Syndrome
White-Sutton syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of cognitive dysfunction, developmental delays (particularly in speech and language acquisition), hypotonia, autism spectrum disorder, and other behavioral problems. Additional features commonly reported include seizures, refractive errors and strabismus, hearing loss, sleep disturbance (particularly sleep apnea), feeding and gastrointestinal problems, mild genital abnormalities in males, and urinary tract involvement in both males and females.
Autosomal dominant intellectual disability-craniofacial anomalies-cardiac defects syndrome
MedGen UID:
903767
Concept ID:
C4225396
Disease or Syndrome
Arboleda-Tham syndrome (ARTHS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with the core features of impaired intellectual development, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications (summary by Kennedy et al., 2019).
Intellectual disability, X-linked, syndromic 33
MedGen UID:
895979
Concept ID:
C4225418
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder-33 (MRXS33) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features (summary by O'Rawe et al., 2015).
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
923943
Concept ID:
C4281559
Congenital Abnormality
The X-linked otopalatodigital (X-OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia type 1 (FMD1). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD1, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience a progressive skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. MNS in males results in perinatal lethality in all recorded cases. TODPD, seen only in females, is characterized by a skeletal dysplasia that is most prominent in the digits, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata.
15q14 microdeletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
930899
Concept ID:
C4305230
Disease or Syndrome
A recently described syndrome with characteristics of developmental delay, short stature and facial dysmorphism. Dysmorphic features include bi-temporal narrowing, smooth philtrum, pointed chin and dysmorphic ears. All reported patients had a cleft palate, whereas congenital heart defects or epilepsy are observed in patients with large deletions. Deletions are located within chromosome band 15q14, distal to the Prader-Willi/Angelman region. They have a variable size with the smallest deletion being 1.6 Mb in length.
Global developmental delay, absent or hypoplastic corpus callosum, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
934611
Concept ID:
C4310644
Disease or Syndrome
GDACCF is an intellectual disability syndrome apparent soon after birth with neonatal hypotonia, poor feeding, and respiratory insufficiency followed by delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability with poor speech. Brain imaging shows aplasia or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Affected individuals have variable dysmorphic facial features, and some may have dysplastic, cystic kidneys or mild cardiac defects (summary by Stevens et al., 2016).
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
934664
Concept ID:
C4310697
Disease or Syndrome
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD) is a progressive sclerosing skeletal dysplasia characterized by supraorbital hyperostosis, undermodeling of the small bones, and small and large joint contractures, as well as extraskeletal developmental abnormalities, primarily of the cardiorespiratory system and genitourinary tract. Patients with FMD2 appear to have a propensity for keloid formation (summary by Wade et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of frontometaphyseal dysplasia, see FMD1 (305620).
SIN3A-related intellectual disability syndrome due to a point mutation
MedGen UID:
934771
Concept ID:
C4310804
Disease or Syndrome
Witteveen-Kolk syndrome (WITKOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with characteristic distinctive facial features, microcephaly, short stature, and mildly impaired intellectual development with delayed cognitive and motor development and subtle anomalies on MRI-brain imaging (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2021).
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2C
MedGen UID:
1385755
Concept ID:
C4479387
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type IIC (ARCL2C) is characterized by generalized skin wrinkling with sparse subcutaneous fat and dysmorphic progeroid facial features. Most patients also exhibit severe hypotonia as well as cardiovascular involvement (summary by Van Damme et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100).
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2D
MedGen UID:
1376619
Concept ID:
C4479409
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type IID (ARCL2D) is characterized by generalized skin wrinkling with sparse subcutaneous fat and dysmorphic progeroid facial features. Most patients also exhibit severe hypotonia as well as cardiovascular and neurologic involvement (summary by Van Damme et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100).
Gabriele de Vries syndrome
MedGen UID:
1375401
Concept ID:
C4479652
Disease or Syndrome
Gabriele-de Vries syndrome is characterized by mild-to-profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID) in all affected individuals and a wide spectrum of functional and morphologic abnormalities. Intrauterine growth restriction or low birth weight and feeding difficulties are common. Congenital brain, eye, heart, kidney, genital, and/or skeletal system anomalies have also been reported. About half of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations, including hypotonia and gait abnormalities. Behavioral issues can include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, autism or autistic behavior, and schizoaffective disorder.
Congenital heart defects and skeletal malformations syndrome
MedGen UID:
1618340
Concept ID:
C4539857
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital heart defects and skeletal malformations syndrome (CHDSKM) is characterized by atrial and ventricular septal defects, with aortic root dilation in adulthood. Skeletal defects are variable and include pectus excavatum, scoliosis, and finger contractures, and some patients exhibit joint laxity. Failure to thrive is observed during infancy and early childhood (Wang et al., 2017).
Pilarowski-Bjornsson syndrome
MedGen UID:
1619150
Concept ID:
C4540131
Disease or Syndrome
Pilarowski-Bjornsson syndrome (PILBOS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed development, impaired intellectual development, often with autistic features, speech apraxia, and mild dysmorphic features. Some patients may have seizures. The phenotype is somewhat variable (summary by Pilarowski et al., 2018).
Al Kaissi syndrome
MedGen UID:
1611968
Concept ID:
C4540156
Disease or Syndrome
Al Kaissi syndrome (ALKAS) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by growth retardation, spine malformation, particularly of the cervical spine, dysmorphic facial features, and delayed psychomotor development with moderate to severe intellectual disability (summary by Windpassinger et al., 2017).
Anauxetic dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
1638106
Concept ID:
C4551965
Disease or Syndrome
The cartilage-hair hypoplasia – anauxetic dysplasia (CHH-AD) spectrum disorders are a continuum that includes the following phenotypes: Metaphyseal dysplasia without hypotrichosis (MDWH). Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH). Anauxetic dysplasia (AD). CHH-AD spectrum disorders are characterized by severe disproportionate (short-limb) short stature that is usually recognized in the newborn, and occasionally prenatally because of the short extremities. Other findings include joint hypermobility, fine silky hair, immunodeficiency, anemia, increased risk for malignancy, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and impaired spermatogenesis. The most severe phenotype, AD, has the most pronounced skeletal phenotype, may be associated with atlantoaxial subluxation in the newborn, and may include cognitive deficiency. The clinical manifestations of the CHH-AD spectrum disorders are variable, even within the same family.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 57
MedGen UID:
1648280
Concept ID:
C4748003
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
MRD57 is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Most affected individuals have delayed psychomotor development apparent in infancy or early childhood, language delay, and behavioral abnormalities. Additional features may include hypotonia, feeding problems, gastrointestinal issues, and dysmorphic facial features (summary by Reijnders et al., 2018).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 58
MedGen UID:
1648488
Concept ID:
C4748195
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, and ataxia
MedGen UID:
1648291
Concept ID:
C4749014
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with cardiac defects and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1675627
Concept ID:
C5193024
Disease or Syndrome
IDDCDF is an autosomal recessive syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by globally impaired development with intellectual disability and speech delay, congenital cardiac malformations, and dysmorphic facial features. Additional features, such as distal skeletal anomalies, may also be observed (Stephen et al., 2018).
Intellectual developmental disorder with abnormal behavior, microcephaly, and short stature
MedGen UID:
1675423
Concept ID:
C5193039
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome 11
MedGen UID:
1681177
Concept ID:
C5193130
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 80
MedGen UID:
1684779
Concept ID:
C5231418
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-80 (DEE80) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory seizures in the first year of life. Patients have severe global developmental delay and may have additional variable features, including dysmorphic or coarse facial features, distal skeletal abnormalities, and impaired hearing or vision. At the cellular level, the disorder is caused by a defect in the synthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), and thus affects the expression of GPI-anchored proteins at the cell surface (summary by Murakami et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defect 21
MedGen UID:
1684749
Concept ID:
C5231419
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with brain anomalies, seizures, and scoliosis (NEDBSS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severely impaired psychomotor development, hypotonia, seizures, and structural brain anomalies, including thin corpus callosum and cerebellar atrophy. Other features include scoliosis, dysmorphic facies, and visual impairment. Affected individuals are usually unable to walk or speak and may require tube feeding in severe cases. The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis (summary by Knaus et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Osteogenesis imperfecta, type 20
MedGen UID:
1684751
Concept ID:
C5231439
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta type XX (OI20) is a progressive deforming bone disorder characterized by osteopenia, skeletal deformity, and both healed and new fractures on radiography. Several patients have died due to respiratory failure (Moosa et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with brain anomalies and with or without vertebral or cardiac anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684772
Concept ID:
C5231481
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 84
MedGen UID:
1720141
Concept ID:
C5394081
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-84 (DEE84) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first months or years of life. Affected individuals have severely impaired global development with impaired intellectual development, absent speech, and inability to walk. Other features include axial hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, feeding difficulties that sometimes necessitate tube feeding, and mild dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging may show nonspecific findings such as cerebral/cerebellar atrophy and/or hypomyelination. The severity of the disorder is variable (summary by Hengel et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1719418
Concept ID:
C5394218
Disease or Syndrome
Nabais Sa-de Vries syndrome type 1 (NSDVS1) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, variable behavioral abnormalities, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facial features, including round face, small palpebral fissures, highly arched eyebrows, and short nose. The severity is variable (summary by Nabais Sa et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with relative macrocephaly and with or without cardiac or endocrine anomalies
MedGen UID:
1714169
Concept ID:
C5394221
Disease or Syndrome
Nabais Sa-de Vries syndrome type 2 (NSDVS2) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from birth and distinctive dysmorphic facial features. Most patients have additional anomalies, including congenital heart defects, sleep disturbances, hypotonia, and variable endocrine abnormalities, such as hypothyroidism (summary by Nabais Sa et al., 2020).
Diets-Jongmans syndrome
MedGen UID:
1714920
Concept ID:
C5394263
Disease or Syndrome
Diets-Jongmans syndrome (DIJOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by mild to moderately impaired intellectual development with a recognizable facial gestalt (summary by Diets et al., 2019).
Nizon-Isidor syndrome
MedGen UID:
1715748
Concept ID:
C5394350
Disease or Syndrome
Nizon-Isidor syndrome (NIZIDS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, mildly delayed walking, poor speech and language, variably impaired intellectual development, and behavioral abnormalities, such as autistic features or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Some patients may have additional features, including nonspecific facial dysmorphism, gastrointestinal difficulties, distal hand anomalies, and thin corpus callosum on brain imaging (summary by Nizon et al., 2019).
Agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac, ocular, and genital syndrome
MedGen UID:
1718475
Concept ID:
C5394523
Disease or Syndrome
Agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac, ocular, and genital syndrome (ACOGS) is a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphisms, and ocular, cardiac, and genital anomalies (Accogli et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, impaired speech, and hypotonia
MedGen UID:
1776912
Concept ID:
C5436585
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, impaired speech, and hypotonia (NEDDISH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay and mildly to severely impaired intellectual development with poor speech and language acquisition. Some patients may have early normal development with onset of the disorder in the first years of life. More variable neurologic abnormalities include hypotonia, seizures, apnea, mild signs of autonomic or peripheral neuropathy, and autism. Aside from dysmorphic facial features and occasional findings such as scoliosis or undescended testes, other organ systems are not involved (summary by Schneeberger et al., 2020).
Noonan syndrome 13
MedGen UID:
1761918
Concept ID:
C5436773
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Coffin-Siris syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
1782096
Concept ID:
C5444111
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome-12 (CSS12) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development, speech and language delay, and behavioral abnormalities, such as autism or hyperactivity. Affected individuals may have hypotonia and poor feeding in infancy. There are variable dysmorphic facial features, although most patients do not have the classic hypoplastic fifth digit/nail abnormalities that are often observed in other forms of CSS (Barish et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900).
Multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1788942
Concept ID:
C5542341
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome (MCAND) is an X-linked recessive congenital multisystemic disorder characterized by poor growth, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, and variable abnormalities of the cardiac, skeletal, and genitourinary systems. Most affected individuals also have hypotonia and dysmorphic craniofacial features. Brain imaging typically shows enlarged ventricles and thin corpus callosum; some have microcephaly, whereas others have hydrocephalus. The severity of the disorder is highly variable, ranging from death in early infancy to survival into the second or third decade. Pathogenetically, the disorder results from disrupted gene expression and signaling during embryogenesis, thus affecting multiple systems (summary by Tripolszki et al., 2021 and Beck et al., 2021). Beck et al. (2021) referred to the disorder as LINKED syndrome (LINKage-specific deubiquitylation deficiency-induced Embryonic Defects).
Microcephaly 26, primary, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1779629
Concept ID:
C5543048
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant primary microcephaly-26 (MCPH26) is characterized by progressive microcephaly beginning at birth and associated with global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development. Some patients may have only mild learning difficulties or speech delay, whereas other are more severely affected with the inability to walk or speak. Additional features may include short stature, spasticity, feeding difficulties requiring tube feeding, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging in some patients shows a simplified gyral pattern or dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, suggesting abnormal neuronal migration (summary by Cristofoli et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
Short stature, facial dysmorphism, and skeletal anomalies with or without cardiac anomalies 2
MedGen UID:
1782253
Concept ID:
C5543057
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature, facial dysmorphism, and skeletal anomalies with or without cardiac anomalies-2 (SSFSC2) is characterized by thin and short long bones, distinctive facial dysmorphism, and dental and skeletal abnormalities, in the absence of developmental delay or intellectual disability. Cardiac anomalies have been reported in some patients (Lin et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of SSFSC, see SSFSC1 (617877).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 64
MedGen UID:
1784554
Concept ID:
C5543067
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-64 (MRD64) is characterized by mildly to severely impaired intellectual development (ID) with speech delays. Most patients also have autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additional features are highly variable but may include motor delay, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and nonspecific dysmorphic features (summary by Mirzaa et al., 2020).
Neurofacioskeletal syndrome with or without renal agenesis
MedGen UID:
1778926
Concept ID:
C5543070
Disease or Syndrome
Neurofacioskeletal syndrome with or without renal agenesis (NFSRA) is characterized by developmental delay and/or intellectual disability; corpus callosum hypoplasia or agenesis; facial dysmorphism, including upslanting palpebral fissures, broad nasal tip, and wide mouth; and skeletal abnormalities, including short stature, scoliosis, and flexion contractures, with broad fingertips and/or toes. Renal agenesis, unilateral or bilateral, has also been observed in some patients (Schneeberger et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebral atrophy and variable facial dysmorphism
MedGen UID:
1786662
Concept ID:
C5543228
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebral atrophy and facial dysmorphism (NEDCAFD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from birth. Affected individuals have hypotonia with inability to walk and severely impaired intellectual development with absent language. Most patients have variable dysmorphic facial features including prominent eyes, protruding and low-set ears, and thin upper lip. Brain imaging shows cerebral atrophy, corpus callosum hypoplasia, and a simplified gyral pattern (summary by Rasheed et al., 2021).
Hiatt-Neu-Cooper neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1785187
Concept ID:
C5543338
Disease or Syndrome
Hiatt-Neu-Cooper neurodevelopmental syndrome (HINCONS) is characterized by global developmental delay with delayed walking or inability to walk and impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Affected individuals have axial hypotonia and dysmorphic facies. Additional more variable features may include seizures, autistic or behavioral abnormalities, and brain abnormalities, such as dysplastic corpus callosum or polymicrogyria (summary by Hiatt et al., 2018).
Radio-Tartaglia syndrome
MedGen UID:
1778557
Concept ID:
C5543339
Disease or Syndrome
Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, speech delay, and variable behavioral abnormalities. Affected individuals show hypotonia, mild motor difficulties, and craniofacial dysmorphism. Brain imaging may show nonspecific defects; rare patients have seizures or pyramidal signs. A subset of individuals may have congenital heart defects, precocious puberty, and obesity in females. Some of the features are similar to those observed in patients with chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome (607872) (summary by Radio et al., 2021).
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IIw
MedGen UID:
1794196
Concept ID:
C5561986
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIw (CDG2W) is an autosomal dominant metabolic disorder characterized by liver dysfunction, coagulation deficiencies, and profound abnormalities in N-glycosylation of serum specific proteins. All reported patients carry the same mutation (602671.0017) (summary by Ng et al., 2021). For an overview of congenital disorders of glycosylation, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066).
Acromesomelic dysplasia 4
MedGen UID:
1794238
Concept ID:
C5562028
Disease or Syndrome
Acromesomelic dysplasia-4 (AMD4) is characterized by disproportionate short stature due to mesomelic shortening of the limbs. Radiographic hallmarks include mild to moderate platyspondyly, moderate brachydactyly, iliac flaring, and metaphyseal alterations of the long bones that progressively increase with age (Diaz-Gonzalez et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of acromesomelic dysplasia, see AMD1 (602875).
Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome, proximal
MedGen UID:
1794324
Concept ID:
C5562114
Disease or Syndrome
Proximal 1p36 deletion syndrome is a multisystem developmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, poor overall growth with microcephaly, axial hypotonia, and dysmorphic facial features. Most patients have congenital cardiac malformations or cardiac dysfunction. Additional more variable features may include distal skeletal anomalies, seizures, and cleft palate. The phenotype shows some overlap with distal chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome (summary by Kang et al., 2007).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 40
MedGen UID:
1810363
Concept ID:
C5676894
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, impaired language, and dysmorphic features (NEDHILD) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder associated with impaired intellectual development, speech and language impairment, microcephaly, seizures, hypotonia, ophthalmologic issues, constipation/gastroesophageal reflux, and behavioral problems, including autism and sleep disturbances (summary by Garrity et al., 2021).
Noonan syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
1807988
Concept ID:
C5676916
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-14 (NS14) is a recessive developmental disorder within the RASopathy clinical spectrum. Patients exhibit developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and short stature, as well as distinctive dysmorphic features including bitemporal narrowing, hypertelorism, low-set posteriorly rotated ears, prominent nasal bridge, low posterior hairline with a short webbed neck, and pectus excavatum (Motta et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Noonan syndrome, see NS1 (163950).
Dentici-Novelli neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1810366
Concept ID:
C5676987
Disease or Syndrome
Dentici-Novelli neurodevelopmental syndrome (DENNED) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development apparent from infancy. The severity of the phenotype is highly variable: more severely affected individuals have axial hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, microcephaly, early-onset seizures, brain imaging abnormalities, and are unable to walk or speak. Those with a less severe phenotype may achieve some developmental goals and show less severe intellectual disability (Dentici et al., 2022).
Microcephaly 29, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1823993
Concept ID:
C5774220
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly-29 (MCPH29) is characterized by small head circumference apparent at birth and associated with global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, speech delay, and behavioral abnormalities. Affected individuals also have poor overall growth with short stature, mild dysmorphic facial features, and seizures (Khan et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
Developmental delay with variable intellectual disability and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1824015
Concept ID:
C5774242
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with variable intellectual disability and dysmorphic facies (DIDDF) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by neurologic deficits and characteristic dysmorphic facial features apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals usually show impaired intellectual development, speech delay, learning difficulties, and/or behavioral problems. Additional features may include hypotonia, hand or foot deformities, and palatal defects (Verberne et al., 2021; Verberne et al., 2022).
Cleidocranial dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
1824016
Concept ID:
C5774243
Disease or Syndrome
Cleidocranial dysplasia-2 (CLCD2) is characterized by clavicular anomalies, ranging from unilateral 'clavicula bipartita' to bilateral clavicular aplasia, and dental anomalies, including delayed or absent eruption of deciduous teeth and supernumerary teeth. Skull abnormalities such as delayed closure of fontanels have been reported; other skeletal features include delayed bone age, short distal phalanges, and pseudoepiphyses of the metacarpals and/or metatarsals. Phenotypic variability, including intrafamilial, has been observed (Beyltjens et al., 2023). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of cleidocranial dysplasia, see CLCD1 (119600).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with growth retardation, dysmorphic facies, and corpus callosum abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1824024
Concept ID:
C5774251
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with growth retardation, dysmorphic facies, and corpus callosum abnormalities (NEDGFC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by these cardinal features apparent from infancy. There is phenotypic variability both in disease manifestations and severity. More severely affected individuals are unable to walk independently, are nonverbal, and may have other anomalies, including congenital heart defects, feeding difficulties, or skeletal defects, whereas others show mildly delayed motor and speech acquisition with mild or borderline intellectual disability (summary by von Elsner et al., 2022).
Rabin-Pappas syndrome
MedGen UID:
1824042
Concept ID:
C5774269
Disease or Syndrome
Rabin-Pappas syndrome (RAPAS) is a multisystemic disorder characterized by severely impaired global development apparent from infancy, feeding difficulties with failure to thrive, small head circumference, and dysmorphic facial features. Affected individuals have impaired intellectual development and hypotonia; they do not achieve walking or meaningful speech. Other neurologic findings may include seizures, hearing loss, ophthalmologic defects, and brain imaging abnormalities. There is variable involvement of other organ systems, including skeletal, genitourinary, cardiac, and possibly endocrine (Rabin et al., 2020).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 70
MedGen UID:
1824044
Concept ID:
C5774271
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-70 (MRD70) is characterized by mild global developmental delay, moderately impaired intellectual disability with speech difficulties, and behavioral abnormalities. More variable findings may include hypotonia and dysmorphic features (Rabin et al., 2020)
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skin abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1824058
Concept ID:
C5774285
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skin abnormalities (NEDHFS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech. Affected individuals have dysmorphic facies, including large abnormally shaped ears and strabismus, hypotonia, and dry skin with keratosis pilaris. Some patients develop seizures. Metabolic studies are unremarkable (Morava et al., 2021).
Congenital disorder of deglycosylation 1
MedGen UID:
989503
Concept ID:
CN306977
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with NGLY1-related congenital disorder of deglycosylation (NGLY1-CDDG) typically display a clinical tetrad of developmental delay / intellectual disability in the mild to profound range, hypo- or alacrima, elevated liver transaminases that may spontaneously resolve in childhood, and a complex hyperkinetic movement disorder that can include choreiform, athetoid, dystonic, myoclonic, action tremor, and dysmetric movements. About half of affected individuals will develop clinical seizures. Other findings may include obstructive and/or central sleep apnea, oral motor defects that affect feeding ability, auditory neuropathy, constipation, scoliosis, and peripheral neuropathy.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Carli D, Giorgio E, Pantaleoni F, Bruselles A, Barresi S, Riberi E, Licciardi F, Gazzin A, Baldassarre G, Pizzi S, Niceta M, Radio FC, Molinatto C, Montin D, Calvo PL, Ciolfi A, Fleischer N, Ferrero GB, Brusco A, Tartaglia M
Hum Mutat 2019 Jun;40(6):721-728. Epub 2019 Mar 18 doi: 10.1002/humu.23734. PMID: 30825388
Adam MP, Schelley S, Gallagher R, Brady AN, Barr K, Blumberg B, Shieh JT, Graham J, Slavotinek A, Martin M, Keppler-Noreuil K, Storm AL, Hudgins L
Am J Med Genet A 2006 Dec 15;140(24):2730-41. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.31530. PMID: 17103451
de Boer L, Kant SG, Karperien M, van Beers L, Tjon J, Vink GR, van Tol D, Dauwerse H, le Cessie S, Beemer FA, van der Burgt I, Hamel BC, Hennekam RC, Kuhnle U, Mathijssen IB, Veenstra-Knol HE, Stumpel CT, Breuning MH, Wit JM
Horm Res 2004;62(4):197-207. Epub 2004 Sep 24 doi: 10.1159/000081063. PMID: 15452385

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Pascual P, Tenorio-Castano J, Mignot C, Afenjar A, Arias P, Gallego-Zazo N, Parra A, Miranda L, Cazalla M, Silván C, Heron D, Keren B, Popa I, Palomares M, Rikeros E, Ramos FJ, Almoguera B, Ayuso C, Swafiri ST, Barbero AIS, Srinivasan VM, Gowda VK, Morleo M, Nigro V, D'Arrigo S, Ciaccio C, Martin Mesa C, Paumard B, Guillen G, Anton ATS, Jimenez MD, Seidel V, Suárez J, Cormier-Daire V, Consortium TS, Nevado J, Lapunzina P
Genes (Basel) 2023 Aug 23;14(9) doi: 10.3390/genes14091664. PMID: 37761804Free PMC Article
Amenta S, Frangella S, Marangi G, Lattante S, Ricciardi S, Doronzio PN, Orteschi D, Veredice C, Contaldo I, Zampino G, Gentile M, Scarano E, Graziano C, Zollino M
J Med Genet 2022 Feb;59(2):189-195. Epub 2020 Dec 24 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107225. PMID: 33361104
Alias A, Ibrahim A, Abu Bakar SN, Swarhib Shafie M, Das S, Abdullah N, Noor HM, Liao IY, Mohd Nor F
Clin Ter 2018 Sep-Oct;169(5):e217-e223. doi: 10.7417/CT.2018.2082. PMID: 30393808
Carvalho MR, Vianna G, Oliveira Lde F, Costa AJ, Pinheiro-Chagas P, Sturzenecker R, Zen PR, Rosa RF, de Aguiar MJ, Haase VG
Am J Med Genet A 2014 Sep;164A(9):2256-62. Epub 2014 Jul 2 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36649. PMID: 24989330
Garavelli L, Mainardi PC
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Oct 24;2:42. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-42. PMID: 17958891Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Mondkar SA, Khadilkar V, Kasegaonkar P, Khadilkar A
J Postgrad Med 2024 Jan-Mar;70(1):56-59. doi: 10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_1001_22. PMID: 37706418Free PMC Article
Amenta S, Frangella S, Marangi G, Lattante S, Ricciardi S, Doronzio PN, Orteschi D, Veredice C, Contaldo I, Zampino G, Gentile M, Scarano E, Graziano C, Zollino M
J Med Genet 2022 Feb;59(2):189-195. Epub 2020 Dec 24 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107225. PMID: 33361104
Phelan MC
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2008 May 27;3:14. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-3-14. PMID: 18505557Free PMC Article
Garavelli L, Mainardi PC
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Oct 24;2:42. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-42. PMID: 17958891Free PMC Article
Verloes A, Bonneau D, Guidi O, Berthier M, Oriot D, Van Maldergem L, Koulischer L
J Med Genet 1993 Feb;30(2):158-61. doi: 10.1136/jmg.30.2.158. PMID: 8445623Free PMC Article

Therapy

Keskin M, Muratoğlu Şahin N, Kurnaz E, Bayramoğlu E, Savaş Erdeve Ş, Aycan Z, Çetinkaya S
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2017 Mar 1;9(1):91-94. Epub 2016 Oct 31 doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.3238. PMID: 27796265Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Pascual P, Tenorio-Castano J, Mignot C, Afenjar A, Arias P, Gallego-Zazo N, Parra A, Miranda L, Cazalla M, Silván C, Heron D, Keren B, Popa I, Palomares M, Rikeros E, Ramos FJ, Almoguera B, Ayuso C, Swafiri ST, Barbero AIS, Srinivasan VM, Gowda VK, Morleo M, Nigro V, D'Arrigo S, Ciaccio C, Martin Mesa C, Paumard B, Guillen G, Anton ATS, Jimenez MD, Seidel V, Suárez J, Cormier-Daire V, Consortium TS, Nevado J, Lapunzina P
Genes (Basel) 2023 Aug 23;14(9) doi: 10.3390/genes14091664. PMID: 37761804Free PMC Article
Amenta S, Frangella S, Marangi G, Lattante S, Ricciardi S, Doronzio PN, Orteschi D, Veredice C, Contaldo I, Zampino G, Gentile M, Scarano E, Graziano C, Zollino M
J Med Genet 2022 Feb;59(2):189-195. Epub 2020 Dec 24 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107225. PMID: 33361104
Alias A, Ibrahim A, Abu Bakar SN, Swarhib Shafie M, Das S, Abdullah N, Noor HM, Liao IY, Mohd Nor F
Clin Ter 2018 Sep-Oct;169(5):e217-e223. doi: 10.7417/CT.2018.2082. PMID: 30393808
Phelan MC
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2008 May 27;3:14. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-3-14. PMID: 18505557Free PMC Article
Garavelli L, Mainardi PC
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Oct 24;2:42. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-42. PMID: 17958891Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Pascual P, Tenorio-Castano J, Mignot C, Afenjar A, Arias P, Gallego-Zazo N, Parra A, Miranda L, Cazalla M, Silván C, Heron D, Keren B, Popa I, Palomares M, Rikeros E, Ramos FJ, Almoguera B, Ayuso C, Swafiri ST, Barbero AIS, Srinivasan VM, Gowda VK, Morleo M, Nigro V, D'Arrigo S, Ciaccio C, Martin Mesa C, Paumard B, Guillen G, Anton ATS, Jimenez MD, Seidel V, Suárez J, Cormier-Daire V, Consortium TS, Nevado J, Lapunzina P
Genes (Basel) 2023 Aug 23;14(9) doi: 10.3390/genes14091664. PMID: 37761804Free PMC Article
Amenta S, Frangella S, Marangi G, Lattante S, Ricciardi S, Doronzio PN, Orteschi D, Veredice C, Contaldo I, Zampino G, Gentile M, Scarano E, Graziano C, Zollino M
J Med Genet 2022 Feb;59(2):189-195. Epub 2020 Dec 24 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107225. PMID: 33361104
Garavelli L, Mainardi PC
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Oct 24;2:42. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-42. PMID: 17958891Free PMC Article
Gajecka M, Mackay KL, Shaffer LG
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2007 Nov 15;145C(4):346-56. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.30154. PMID: 17918734
Slavotinek A, Shaffer LG, Shapira SK
J Med Genet 1999 Sep;36(9):657-63. PMID: 10507720Free PMC Article

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