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Bulging of the costochondral junction

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Synonym: 'Bulging' of the costochondral junction
HPO: HP:0000893


Abnormal outward curving (protuberance) of the junction of ribs and costal cartilage. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVBulging of the costochondral junction

Conditions with this feature

Vitamin D-dependent rickets, type 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Vitamin D-dependent rickets is a disorder of bone development that leads to softening and weakening of the bones (rickets). There are several forms of the condition that are distinguished primarily by their genetic causes: type 1A (VDDR1A), type 1B (VDDR1B), and type 2A (VDDR2A). There is also evidence of a very rare form of the condition, called type 2B (VDDR2B), although not much is known about this form.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of vitamin D-dependent rickets begin within months after birth, and most are the same for all types of the condition. The weak bones often cause bone pain and delayed growth and have a tendency to fracture. When affected children begin to walk, they may develop abnormally curved (bowed) legs because the bones are too weak to bear weight. Impaired bone development also results in widening of the areas near the ends of bones where new bone forms (metaphyses), especially in the knees, wrists, and ribs. Some people with vitamin D-dependent rickets have dental abnormalities such as thin tooth enamel and frequent cavities. Poor muscle tone (hypotonia) and muscle weakness are also common in this condition, and some affected individuals develop seizures.\n\nIn vitamin D-dependent rickets, there is an imbalance of certain substances in the blood. An early sign in all types of the condition is low levels of the mineral calcium (hypocalcemia), which is essential for the normal formation of bones and teeth. Affected individuals also develop high levels of a hormone involved in regulating calcium levels called parathyroid hormone (PTH), which leads to a condition called secondary hyperparathyroidism. Low levels of a mineral called phosphate (hypophosphatemia) also occur in affected individuals. Vitamin D-dependent rickets types 1 and 2 can be grouped by blood levels of a hormone called calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D; individuals with VDDR1A and VDDR1B have abnormally low levels of calcitriol and individuals with VDDR2A and VDDR2B have abnormally high levels.\n\nHair loss (alopecia) can occur in VDDR2A, although not everyone with this form of the condition has alopecia. Affected individuals can have sparse or patchy hair or no hair at all on their heads. Some affected individuals are missing body hair as well.
Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with alopecia
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2A (VDDR2A) is caused by a defect in the vitamin D receptor gene. This defect leads to an increase in the circulating ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Most patients have total alopecia in addition to rickets. VDDR2B (600785) is a form of vitamin D-dependent rickets with a phenotype similar to VDDR2A but a normal vitamin D receptor, in which end-organ resistance to vitamin D has been shown to be caused by a nuclear ribonucleoprotein that interferes with the vitamin D receptor-DNA interaction. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of rickets due to disorders in vitamin D metabolism or action, see vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A; 264700).
Vitamin D hydroxylation-deficient rickets, type 1B
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Vitamin D hydroxylation-deficient rickets type 1B (VDDR1B) is caused by a defect in vitamin D 25-hydroxylation (Molin et al., 2017). The major function of vitamin D is to maintain calcium and phosphate levels in the normal range to support metabolic functions, neuromuscular transmission, and bone mineralization. Disorders of vitamin D metabolism or action lead to defective bone mineralization and clinical features including intestinal malabsorption of calcium, hypocalcemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased renal clearance of phosphorus, and hypophosphatemia. The combination of hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia causes impaired mineralization of bone that results in rickets and osteomalacia (summary by Liberman and Marx, 2001). Rickets can occur because of inadequate dietary intake or sun exposure or because of genetic disorders. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is taken in the diet or synthesized in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol by ultraviolet irradiation. For vitamin D to be active, it needs to be converted to its active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Vitamin D is transported in the blood by the vitamin D binding protein (DBP; 139200) to the liver, where vitamin D 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1; 608713) is the key enzyme for 25-hydroxylation. Vitamin D 25(OH)D3, the major circulating form of vitamin D, is then transported to the kidney, where 25(OH)D3 is hydroxylated at the position of carbon 1 of the A ring, resulting in the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) (summary by Christakos et al., 2010).
Autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic bone disease
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the presence of hypophosphatemia secondary to renal phosphate wasting, radiographic and/or histologic evidence of rickets, limb deformities, muscle weakness, and bone pain. HHRH is distinct from other forms of hypophosphatemic rickets in that affected individuals present with hypercalciuria due to increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels and increased intestinal calcium absorption (summary by Bergwitz et al., 2006).

Recent clinical studies


Blondeel PN
Br J Plast Surg 1999 Mar;52(2):104-11. doi: 10.1054/bjps.1998.3033. PMID: 10434888


Blondeel PN
Br J Plast Surg 1999 Mar;52(2):104-11. doi: 10.1054/bjps.1998.3033. PMID: 10434888


Blondeel PN
Br J Plast Surg 1999 Mar;52(2):104-11. doi: 10.1054/bjps.1998.3033. PMID: 10434888

Clinical prediction guides

Asami T, Kawasaki T, Uchiyama M
Acta Paediatr Jpn 1995 Apr;37(2):182-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-200x.1995.tb03294.x. PMID: 7793252

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