U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Hypoplastic male external genitalia

MedGen UID:
338952
Concept ID:
C1852534
Finding
Synonym: Hypoplastic male genitalia
 
HPO: HP:0000050

Definition

Underdevelopment of part or all of the male external reproductive organs (which include the penis, the scrotum and the urethra). [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

CHARGE association
MedGen UID:
75567
Concept ID:
C0265354
Disease or Syndrome
CHD7 disorder encompasses the entire phenotypic spectrum of heterozygous CHD7 pathogenic variants that includes CHARGE syndrome as well as subsets of features that comprise the CHARGE syndrome phenotype. The mnemonic CHARGE syndrome, introduced in the premolecular era, stands for coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies (including deafness). Following the identification of the genetic cause of CHD7 disorder, the phenotypic spectrum expanded to include cranial nerve anomalies, vestibular defects, cleft lip and/or palate, hypothyroidism, tracheoesophageal anomalies, brain anomalies, seizures, and renal anomalies. Life expectancy highly depends on the severity of manifestations; mortality can be high in the first few years when severe birth defects (particularly complex heart defects) are present and often complicated by airway and feeding issues. In childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, decreased life expectancy is likely related to a combination of residual heart defects, infections, aspiration or choking, respiratory issues including obstructive and central apnea, and possibly seizures. Despite these complications, the life expectancy for many individuals can be normal.
Prominent glabella-microcephaly-hypogenitalism syndrome
MedGen UID:
162900
Concept ID:
C0796024
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare syndrome described in two siblings with manifestation of prenatal onset of growth deficiency, microcephaly, hypoplastic genitalia, and birth onset of convulsions.
Joubert syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
334114
Concept ID:
C1842577
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Testes, rudimentary
MedGen UID:
336448
Concept ID:
C1848901
Anatomical Abnormality
Bartsocas-Papas syndrome
MedGen UID:
337894
Concept ID:
C1849718
Disease or Syndrome
Bartsocas-Papas syndrome-1 (BPS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple popliteal pterygia, ankyloblepharon, filiform bands between the jaws, cleft lip and palate, and syndactyly. Early lethality is common, although survival into childhood and beyond has been reported (summary by Mitchell et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bartsocas-Papas Syndrome Bartsocas-Papas syndrome-2 (BPS2) is caused by mutation in the CHUK gene (600664). A less severe form of popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS; 119500) is caused by mutation in the IRF6 gene (607199).
Cerebrooculonasal syndrome
MedGen UID:
340138
Concept ID:
C1854108
Disease or Syndrome
A multisystem malformation syndrome that has been reported in about 10 patients. The clinical features include bilateral anophthalmia, abnormal nares, central nervous system anomalies, and neurodevelopmental delay. Additional features include brachycephaly and other facial anomalies. Non-facial anomalies have also been reported: postaxial polydactyly, genital hypoplasia. All cases reported so far have been sporadic, suggesting that the syndrome may be due to a new dominant mutation.
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A1
MedGen UID:
924974
Concept ID:
C4284790
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A), which includes both the more severe Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and the slightly less severe muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, congenital muscular dystrophy, and early death. The phenotype commonly includes cobblestone (type II) lissencephaly, cerebellar malformations, and retinal malformations. More variable features include macrocephaly or microcephaly, hypoplasia of midline brain structures, ventricular dilatation, microphthalmia, cleft lip/palate, and congenital contractures (Dobyns et al., 1989). Those with a more severe phenotype characterized as Walker-Warburg syndrome often die within the first year of life, whereas those characterized as having muscle-eye-brain disease may rarely acquire the ability to walk and to speak a few words. These are part of a group of disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of DAG1 (128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Godfrey et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy-Dystroglycanopathy with Brain and Eye Anomalies (Type A) Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A) is genetically heterogeneous and can be caused by mutation in other genes involved in DAG1 glycosylation: see MDDGA2 (613150), caused by mutation in the POMT2 gene (607439); MDDGA3 (253280), caused by mutation in the POMGNT1 gene (606822); MDDGA4 (253800), caused by mutation in the FKTN gene (607440); MDDGA5 (613153), caused by mutation in the FKRP gene (606596); MDDGA6 (613154), caused by mutation in the LARGE gene (603590); MDDGA7 (614643), caused by mutation in the ISPD gene (CRPPA; 614631); MDDGA8 (614830) caused by mutation in the GTDC2 gene (POMGNT2; 614828); MDDGA9 (616538), caused by mutation in the DAG1 gene (128239); MDDGA10 (615041), caused by mutation in the TMEM5 gene (RXYLT1; 605862); MDDGA11 (615181), caused by mutation in the B3GALNT2 gene (610194); MDDGA12 (615249), caused by mutation in the SGK196 gene (POMK; 615247); MDDGA13 (615287), caused by mutation in the B3GNT1 gene (B4GAT1; 605517); and MDDGA14 (615350), caused by mutation in the GMPPB gene (615320).
Cornelia de Lange syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1645760
Concept ID:
C4551851
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia.
Myopathy, congenital proximal, with minicore lesions
MedGen UID:
1717569
Concept ID:
C5394193
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital proximal myopathy with minicore lesions (MYOPMIL) is an autosomal recessive early-onset muscular disorder affecting mainly the proximal muscles. Affected individuals have neonatal hypotonia followed by mildly delayed walking in childhood. They show slowly progressive, primarily proximal muscle weakness with Gowers sign and difficulty running or climbing, but they remain ambulatory. Cardiac function is unaffected, but most patients have obstructive sleep apnea. Muscle biopsy shows type 1 fiber predominance with disorganized Z-lines and multiminicore myopathy with areas devoid of NADH enzymatic activity and mitochondria, suggestive of abnormal early muscle development (summary by Estan et al., 2019).
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
1790409
Concept ID:
C5551352
Disease or Syndrome
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome-8 (AGS8) is a type I interferonopathy characterized by severe developmental delay and progressive neurologic deterioration ending in premature death. Brain imaging shows diffusely abnormal white matter, severe cerebral atrophy, and intracranial calcification (Uggenti et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, see AGS1 (225750).

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Shah K, Nayak SS, Shukla A, Girisha KM
Congenit Anom (Kyoto) 2016 May;56(3):119-26. doi: 10.1111/cga.12149. PMID: 26663027
Gîngu C, Dick A, Pătrăşcoiu S, Domnişor L, Mihai M, Hârza M, Sinescu I
Rom J Morphol Embryol 2014;55(1):177-81. PMID: 24715185
Philibert P, Audran F, Pienkowski C, Morange I, Kohler B, Flori E, Heinrich C, Dacou-Voutetakis C, Joseph MG, Guedj AM, Journel H, Hecart-Bruna AC, Khotchali I, Ten S, Bouchard P, Paris F, Sultan C
Fertil Steril 2010 Jul;94(2):472-6. Epub 2009 May 21 doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.03.057. PMID: 19463997
Hsiao HP, Tsai LP, Chao MC, Tseng HI, Chang YC
J Formos Med Assoc 2006 Dec;105(12):1013-6. doi: 10.1016/S0929-6646(09)60286-2. PMID: 17185244
Türkmen M, Temoçin K, Acar C, Levi E, Karaman C, Inan G, Elçioğlu N
Turk J Pediatr 2003 Oct-Dec;45(4):359-62. PMID: 14768808

Diagnosis

Berhane M, Abera G, Alemu S, Eshetu B
Ethiop J Health Sci 2019 May;29(3):409-412. doi: 10.4314/ejhs.v29i3.14. PMID: 31447510Free PMC Article
Chen CP, Yip HK, Wang LK, Chern SR, Chen SW, Lai ST, Wu PS, Wang W
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Jun;56(3):385-389. doi: 10.1016/j.tjog.2017.04.023. PMID: 28600056
Fukami M, Tsuchiya T, Takada S, Kanbara A, Asahara H, Igarashi A, Kamiyama Y, Nishimura G, Ogata T
Am J Med Genet A 2012 Jul;158A(7):1529-34. Epub 2012 Apr 23 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35308. PMID: 22529047
Voigt HR, Wentzel SW
Int J Urol 2005 Jul;12(7):702-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2042.2005.01131.x. PMID: 16045569
Lapointe SP, Wei DC, Hricak H, Varghese SL, Kogan BA, Baskin LS
Urology 2001 Sep;58(3):452-6. doi: 10.1016/s0090-4295(01)01232-8. PMID: 11549498

Therapy

Hétu V, Caron E, Francoeur D
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2010 Feb;23(1):e43-5. Epub 2009 Jul 29 doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2009.03.004. PMID: 19643642
Muroya K, Okuyama T, Goishi K, Ogiso Y, Fukuda S, Kameyama J, Sato H, Suzuki Y, Terasaki H, Gomyo H, Wakui K, Fukushima Y, Ogata T
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000 Sep;85(9):3094-100. doi: 10.1210/jcem.85.9.6771. PMID: 10999792
Abad L, Parrilla JJ, Marcos J, Gimeno F, López Bernal A
Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1980 Dec;87(12):1162-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.1980.tb04491.x. PMID: 6254560

Prognosis

Berhane M, Abera G, Alemu S, Eshetu B
Ethiop J Health Sci 2019 May;29(3):409-412. doi: 10.4314/ejhs.v29i3.14. PMID: 31447510Free PMC Article
Türkmen M, Temoçin K, Acar C, Levi E, Karaman C, Inan G, Elçioğlu N
Turk J Pediatr 2003 Oct-Dec;45(4):359-62. PMID: 14768808
Killeen OG, Kelehan P, Reardon W
Clin Dysmorphol 2002 Jan;11(1):25-8. doi: 10.1097/00019605-200201000-00005. PMID: 11822701
Lapointe SP, Wei DC, Hricak H, Varghese SL, Kogan BA, Baskin LS
Urology 2001 Sep;58(3):452-6. doi: 10.1016/s0090-4295(01)01232-8. PMID: 11549498
Gilbert-Barness E, Debich-Spicer D, Cohen MM Jr, Opitz JM
Am J Med Genet 2001 Jul 15;101(4):382-7. PMID: 11471162

Clinical prediction guides

Duijkers FA, McDonald A, Janssens GE, Lezzerini M, Jongejan A, van Koningsbruggen S, Leeuwenburgh-Pronk WG, Wlodarski MW, Moutton S, Tran-Mau-Them F, Thauvin-Robinet C, Faivre L, Monaghan KG, Smol T, Boute-Benejean O, Ladda RL, Sell SL, Bruel AL, Houtkooper RH, MacInnes AW
Am J Hum Genet 2019 Jun 6;104(6):1040-1059. Epub 2019 May 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.03.024. PMID: 31079900Free PMC Article
Asafa MA, Bolarinwa RA, Eluwole OA, Ibitoye BO, Adegoke AM, Ogunlade O
J Med Case Rep 2018 Sep 17;12(1):268. doi: 10.1186/s13256-018-1793-x. PMID: 30220253Free PMC Article
Delle Piane L, Rinaudo PF, Miller WL
Endocrinology 2015 Apr;156(4):1210-7. Epub 2015 Jan 30 doi: 10.1210/en.2014-1879. PMID: 25635623
Hsiao HP, Tsai LP, Chao MC, Tseng HI, Chang YC
J Formos Med Assoc 2006 Dec;105(12):1013-6. doi: 10.1016/S0929-6646(09)60286-2. PMID: 17185244
Gromoll J, Schulz A, Borta H, Gudermann T, Teerds KJ, Greschniok A, Nieschlag E, Seif FJ
Eur J Endocrinol 2002 Nov;147(5):597-608. doi: 10.1530/eje.0.1470597. PMID: 12444891

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Consumer resources

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...
    Support Center