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GNPTG-mucolipidosis

MedGen UID:
340743
Concept ID:
C1854896
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: ML III GAMMA; ML IIIC; MUCOLIPIDOSIS III, COMPLEMENTATION GROUP C; MUCOLIPIDOSIS III, IRANIAN VARIANT FORM; MUCOLIPIDOSIS III, VARIANT FORM; Mucolipidosis type III gamma
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): GNPTG (16p13.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0009652
OMIM®: 252605
Orphanet: ORPHA423470

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Mucolipidosis III Gamma
Mucolipidosis III gamma (ML IIIγ) is a slowly progressive inborn error of metabolism mainly affecting skeletal, joint, and connective tissues. Clinical onset is in early childhood; the progressive course results in severe functional impairment and significant morbidity from chronic pain. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease from thoracic involvement, and thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves) are rarely clinically significant. A few (probably <10%) affected individuals display mild cognitive impairment. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Annick Raas-Rothschild  |  Ronen Spiegel   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Mucolipidosis type III gamma is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by short stature, skeletal abnormalities, cardiomegaly, and developmental delay. The disorder is caused by a defect in proper lysosomal enzyme phosphorylation and localization, which results in accumulation of lysosomal substrates (summary by Raas-Rothschild et al., 2000).  http://www.omim.org/entry/252605
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Mucolipidosis III gamma is a slowly progressive disorder that affects many parts of the body. Signs and symptoms of this condition typically appear around age 3.

Individuals with mucolipidosis III gamma grow slowly and have short stature. They also have stiff joints and dysostosis multiplex, which refers to multiple skeletal abnormalities seen on x-ray. Many affected individuals develop low bone mineral density (osteoporosis), which weakens the bones and makes them prone to fracture. Osteoporosis and progressive joint problems in people with mucolipidosis III gamma also cause pain, which becomes more severe over time.

People with mucolipidosis III gamma often have heart valve abnormalities and mild clouding of the clear covering of the eye (cornea). Their facial features become slightly thickened or "coarse" as they get older. A small percentage of people with this condition have mild intellectual disability or learning problems. Individuals with mucolipidosis III gamma generally survive into adulthood, but they may have a shortened lifespan.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/mucolipidosis-iii-gamma

Clinical features

From HPO
Arthralgia
MedGen UID:
13917
Concept ID:
C0003862
Sign or Symptom
Joint pain.
Mucopolysacchariduria
MedGen UID:
870284
Concept ID:
C4024726
Finding
Excessive amounts of mucopolysaccharide in the urine.
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Genu valgum
MedGen UID:
154364
Concept ID:
C0576093
Anatomical Abnormality
The legs angle inward, such that the knees are close together and the ankles far apart.
Aortic regurgitation
MedGen UID:
8153
Concept ID:
C0003504
Disease or Syndrome
An insufficiency of the aortic valve, leading to regurgitation (backward flow) of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle.
Aortic valve stenosis
MedGen UID:
1621
Concept ID:
C0003507
Pathologic Function
The presence of a stenosis (narrowing) of the aortic valve.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Intellectual disability, mild
MedGen UID:
10044
Concept ID:
C0026106
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Mild intellectual disability is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 50-69.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Kyphosis
MedGen UID:
44042
Concept ID:
C0022821
Anatomical Abnormality
Exaggerated anterior convexity of the thoracic vertebral column.
Hyperlordosis
MedGen UID:
9805
Concept ID:
C0024003
Finding
Abnormally increased curvature (anterior concavity) of the lumbar or cervical spine.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Hurler syndrome
MedGen UID:
39698
Concept ID:
C0086795
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome), no easily measurable biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap. Affected individuals are best described as having either a phenotype consistent with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common and often noted within the first year. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal, as is progressive arthropathy involving most joints. By age three years, linear growth decreases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound but may not be readily apparent in the first year of life. Progressive cardiorespiratory involvement, hearing loss, and corneal clouding are common. Without treatment, death (typically from cardiorespiratory failure) usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decade, to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations and cardiorespiratory disease. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities and psychiatric manifestations can be present later in life. Hearing loss, cardiac valvular disease, respiratory involvement, and corneal clouding are common.
Pectus carinatum
MedGen UID:
57643
Concept ID:
C0158731
Finding
A deformity of the chest caused by overgrowth of the ribs and characterized by protrusion of the sternum.
Joint stiffness
MedGen UID:
56403
Concept ID:
C0162298
Sign or Symptom
Joint stiffness is a perceived sensation of tightness in a joint or joints when attempting to move them after a period of inactivity. Joint stiffness typically subsides over time.
Finger joint contracture
MedGen UID:
575400
Concept ID:
C0343146
Acquired Abnormality
Lack of full passive range of motion (restrictions in flexion, extension, or other movements) of a finger joint resulting from structural changes of non-bony tissues, such as muscles, tendons, ligaments, joint capsules and/or skin.
Flat capital femoral epiphysis
MedGen UID:
334001
Concept ID:
C1842155
Finding
An abnormal flattening of the proximal epiphysis of the femur.
Shoulder contracture
MedGen UID:
341231
Concept ID:
C1848475
Acquired Abnormality
Lack of full passive range of motion (restrictions in flexion, extension, or other movements) of the shoulder joint resulting from structural changes of non-bony tissues, such as muscles, tendons, ligaments, joint capsules and/or skin.
Flared iliac wing
MedGen UID:
356097
Concept ID:
C1865841
Finding
Widening of the ilium ala, that is of the wing of the ilium, combined with external rotation, leading to a flared appearance of the iliac wing.
Claw hand deformity
MedGen UID:
1814631
Concept ID:
C5702555
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of the hand characterized by metacarpophalangeal (MCP) hyperextension and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) flexion. The position of the affected hand is said to resemble a claw.
Increased serum beta-hexosaminidase
MedGen UID:
435911
Concept ID:
C2673361
Finding
Increased iduronate sulfatase level
MedGen UID:
892439
Concept ID:
C4025599
Finding
An increased level of iduronate-2-sulfatase activity in the blood.
Short neck
MedGen UID:
99267
Concept ID:
C0521525
Finding
Diminished length of the neck.
Coarse facial features
MedGen UID:
335284
Concept ID:
C1845847
Finding
Absence of fine and sharp appearance of brows, nose, lips, mouth, and chin, usually because of rounded and heavy features or thickened skin with or without thickening of subcutaneous and bony tissues.
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
Opacification of the corneal stroma
MedGen UID:
602191
Concept ID:
C0423250
Finding
Reduced transparency of the stroma of cornea.

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