U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 15(SPG15)

MedGen UID:
341387
Concept ID:
C1849128
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Kjellin syndrome; Recessive spastic paraplegia with retinal degeneration; Spastic paraplegia 15; SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA 15, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE; Spastic paraplegia and retinal degeneration; SPG15
SNOMED CT: Spastic paraplegia, retinal degeneration syndrome (764686003); Kjellin syndrome (764686003); Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia type 15 (764686003); Hereditary spastic paraparesis type 15 (764686003)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): ZFYVE26 (14q24.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0010044
OMIM®: 270700
Orphanet: ORPHA100996

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Spastic Paraplegia 15
Spastic paraplegia 15 (SPG15), typically an early-onset complex hereditary spastic paraplegia, is characterized by progressive spasticity that begins in the lower extremities and is associated with several manifestations resulting from central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction. While onset of spasticity is typically in mid- to late childhood or adolescence (i.e., between ages 5 and 18 years), other manifestations, such as developmental delay or learning disability, may be present earlier, often preceding motor involvement. Individuals with adult onset have also been reported. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari  |  Julian E Alecu  |  Craig Blackstone   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Spastic paraplegia-15 (SPG15) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive spasticity primarily affecting the lower limbs. It is a complex form of spastic paraplegia, associated with other neurologic dysfunction, including variable mental retardation, hearing and visual defects, and thin corpus callosum (summary by Goizet et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive SPG, see SPG5A (270800).  http://www.omim.org/entry/270700
From MedlinePlus Genetics
People with this form of spastic paraplegia can have numbness, tingling, or pain in the arms and legs (sensory neuropathy); impairment of the nerves used for muscle movement (motor neuropathy); exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia) of the lower limbs; muscle wasting (amyotrophy); or reduced bladder control. Rarely, spastic paraplegia type 15 is associated with a group of movement abnormalities called parkinsonism, which includes tremors, rigidity, and unusually slow movement (bradykinesia). People with spastic paraplegia type 15 may have an eye condition called pigmentary maculopathy that often impairs vision. This condition results from the breakdown (degeneration) of tissue at the back of the eye called the macula, which is responsible for sharp central vision.

Most people with spastic paraplegia type 15 experience a decline in intellectual ability and an increase in muscle weakness and nerve abnormalities over time. As the condition progresses, many people require walking aids or wheelchair assistance in adulthood.

Spastic paraplegia type 15 usually becomes apparent in childhood or adolescence with the development of weak muscle tone (hypotonia), difficulty walking, or intellectual disability. In almost all affected individuals, the tissue connecting the left and right halves of the brain (corpus callosum) is abnormally thin and becomes thinner over time. Additionally, there is often a loss (atrophy) of nerve cells in several parts of the brain, including the cerebral cortex, which controls thinking and emotions, and the cerebellum, which coordinates movement.

Spastic paraplegia type 15 is part of a group of genetic disorders known as hereditary spastic paraplegias. These disorders are characterized by progressive muscle stiffness (spasticity) and the development of paralysis of the lower limbs (paraplegia). Spastic paraplegia type 15 is classified as a complex hereditary spastic paraplegia because it involves all four limbs as well as additional features, including abnormalities of the brain. In addition to the muscles and brain, spastic paraplegia type 15 affects the peripheral nervous system, which consists of nerves connecting the brain and spinal cord to muscles and sensory cells that detect sensations such as touch, pain, heat, and sound.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/spastic-paraplegia-type-15

Clinical features

From HPO
Bowel incontinence
MedGen UID:
41977
Concept ID:
C0015732
Disease or Syndrome
Involuntary fecal soiling in adults and children who have usually already been toilet trained.
Urinary incontinence
MedGen UID:
22579
Concept ID:
C0042024
Finding
Loss of the ability to control the urinary bladder leading to involuntary urination.
Urinary urgency
MedGen UID:
39315
Concept ID:
C0085606
Finding
Urge incontinence is the strong, sudden need to urinate.
Urinary bladder sphincter dysfunction
MedGen UID:
334804
Concept ID:
C1843663
Finding
Abnormal function of a sphincter of the urinary bladder.
Pes cavus
MedGen UID:
675590
Concept ID:
C0728829
Congenital Abnormality
An increase in height of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot that does not flatten on weight bearing (i.e., a distinctly hollow form of the sole of the foot when it is bearing weight).
Lower limb muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
324478
Concept ID:
C1836296
Finding
Weakness of the muscles of the legs.
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Clonus
MedGen UID:
40341
Concept ID:
C0009024
Sign or Symptom
A series of rhythmic and involuntary muscle contractions (at a frequency of about 5 to 7 Hz) that occur in response to an abruptly applied and sustained stretch.
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Paraplegia
MedGen UID:
45323
Concept ID:
C0030486
Disease or Syndrome
Severe or complete weakness of both lower extremities with sparing of the upper extremities.
Psychotic disorder
MedGen UID:
19568
Concept ID:
C0033975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A condition characterized by changes in personality and thought patterns, often accompanied by hallucinations and delusional beliefs, is known as psychosis.
Babinski sign
MedGen UID:
19708
Concept ID:
C0034935
Finding
Upturning of the big toe (and sometimes fanning of the other toes) in response to stimulation of the sole of the foot. If the Babinski sign is present it can indicate damage to the corticospinal tract.
Spastic paraplegia
MedGen UID:
20882
Concept ID:
C0037772
Disease or Syndrome
Spasticity and weakness of the leg and hip muscles.
Emotional lability
MedGen UID:
39319
Concept ID:
C0085633
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Unstable emotional experiences and frequent mood changes; emotions that are easily aroused, intense, and/or disproportionate to events and circumstances.
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles.
Spastic gait
MedGen UID:
115907
Concept ID:
C0231687
Finding
Spasticity is manifested by increased stretch reflex which is intensified with movement velocity. This results in excessive and inappropriate muscle activation which can contribute to muscle hypertonia. Spastic gait is characterized by manifestations such as muscle hypertonia, stiff knee, and circumduction of the leg.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Peripheral axonal neuropathy
MedGen UID:
266071
Concept ID:
C1263857
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality characterized by disruption of the normal functioning of peripheral axons.
Lower limb spasticity
MedGen UID:
220865
Concept ID:
C1271100
Finding
Spasticity (velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone and hyperexcitable tendon reflexes) in the muscles of the lower limbs, hips, and pelvis
Abnormal cerebellum morphology
MedGen UID:
400925
Concept ID:
C1866129
Anatomical Abnormality
Any structural abnormality of the cerebellum.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Distal amyotrophy
MedGen UID:
338530
Concept ID:
C1848736
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular atrophy affecting muscles in the distal portions of the extremities.
Macular degeneration
MedGen UID:
7434
Concept ID:
C0024437
Disease or Syndrome
A nonspecific term denoting degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium and/or retinal photoreceptor cells of the macula lutea.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Retinal degeneration
MedGen UID:
48432
Concept ID:
C0035304
Finding
A nonspecific term denoting degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium and/or retinal photoreceptor cells.
Reduced visual acuity
MedGen UID:
65889
Concept ID:
C0234632
Finding
Diminished clarity of vision.
Visual impairment
MedGen UID:
777085
Concept ID:
C3665347
Finding
Visual impairment (or vision impairment) is vision loss (of a person) to such a degree as to qualify as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means, such as refractive correction, medication, or surgery.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVHereditary spastic paraplegia 15
Follow this link to review classifications for Hereditary spastic paraplegia 15 in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Meyyazhagan A, Kuchi Bhotla H, Pappuswamy M, Orlacchio A
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jul 11;23(14) doi: 10.3390/ijms23147665. PMID: 35887006Free PMC Article
Wali G, Berkovsky S, Whiten DR, Mackay-Sim A, Sue CM
Sci Rep 2021 Aug 17;11(1):16635. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-95995-4. PMID: 34404843Free PMC Article
Zaghloul A, Manoukian D, Barrett MC, Geronta I, Maizen C
J Pediatr Orthop 2021 Oct 1;41(9):559-565. doi: 10.1097/BPO.0000000000001942. PMID: 34387232

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Jacinto-Scudeiro LA, Rothe-Neves R, Dos Santos VB, Machado GD, Burguêz D, Padovani MMP, Ayres A, Rech RS, González-Salazar C, Junior MCF, Saute JAM, Olchik MR
Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2023;78:100128. Epub 2022 Dec 3 doi: 10.1016/j.clinsp.2022.100128. PMID: 36473366Free PMC Article
Perić S, Marković V, Candayan A, De Vriendt E, Momčilović N, Savić A, Dragašević-Mišković N, Svetel M, Stević Z, Božović I, Mesaroš Š, Drulović J, Basta I, Petrović I, Tamaš O, Mijajlović M, Novaković I, Sokić D, Jordanova A
Cells 2022 Sep 8;11(18) doi: 10.3390/cells11182804. PMID: 36139378Free PMC Article
Van de Vondel L, De Winter J, Beijer D, Coarelli G, Wayand M, Palvadeau R, Pauly MG, Klein K, Rautenberg M, Guillot-Noël L, Deconinck T, Vural A, Ertan S, Dogu O, Uysal H, Brankovic V, Herzog R, Brice A, Durr A, Klebe S, Stock F, Bischoff AT, Rattay TW, Sobrido MJ, De Michele G, De Jonghe P, Klopstock T, Lohmann K, Zanni G, Santorelli FM, Timmerman V, Haack TB, Züchner S; PREPARE Consortium, Schüle R, Stevanin G, Synofzik M, Basak AN, Baets J
Mov Disord 2022 Jun;37(6):1175-1186. Epub 2022 Feb 12 doi: 10.1002/mds.28959. PMID: 35150594Free PMC Article
Saputra L, Kumar KR
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2021 Feb 28;21(4):15. doi: 10.1007/s11910-021-01099-x. PMID: 33646413Free PMC Article
Ruano L, Melo C, Silva MC, Coutinho P
Neuroepidemiology 2014;42(3):174-83. Epub 2014 Mar 5 doi: 10.1159/000358801. PMID: 24603320

Diagnosis

Pellerin D, Danzi MC, Wilke C, Renaud M, Fazal S, Dicaire MJ, Scriba CK, Ashton C, Yanick C, Beijer D, Rebelo A, Rocca C, Jaunmuktane Z, Sonnen JA, Larivière R, Genís D, Molina Porcel L, Choquet K, Sakalla R, Provost S, Robertson R, Allard-Chamard X, Tétreault M, Reiling SJ, Nagy S, Nishadham V, Purushottam M, Vengalil S, Bardhan M, Nalini A, Chen Z, Mathieu J, Massie R, Chalk CH, Lafontaine AL, Evoy F, Rioux MF, Ragoussis J, Boycott KM, Dubé MP, Duquette A, Houlden H, Ravenscroft G, Laing NG, Lamont PJ, Saporta MA, Schüle R, Schöls L, La Piana R, Synofzik M, Zuchner S, Brais B
N Engl J Med 2023 Jan 12;388(2):128-141. Epub 2022 Dec 14 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2207406. PMID: 36516086Free PMC Article
Perić S, Marković V, Candayan A, De Vriendt E, Momčilović N, Savić A, Dragašević-Mišković N, Svetel M, Stević Z, Božović I, Mesaroš Š, Drulović J, Basta I, Petrović I, Tamaš O, Mijajlović M, Novaković I, Sokić D, Jordanova A
Cells 2022 Sep 8;11(18) doi: 10.3390/cells11182804. PMID: 36139378Free PMC Article
Panwala TF, Garcia-Santibanez R, Vizcarra JA, Garcia AG, Verma S
Pediatr Neurol 2022 May;130:7-13. Epub 2022 Mar 3 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2022.02.007. PMID: 35303589
Saputra L, Kumar KR
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2021 Feb 28;21(4):15. doi: 10.1007/s11910-021-01099-x. PMID: 33646413Free PMC Article
Ruano L, Melo C, Silva MC, Coutinho P
Neuroepidemiology 2014;42(3):174-83. Epub 2014 Mar 5 doi: 10.1159/000358801. PMID: 24603320

Therapy

van de Venis L, van de Warrenburg B, Weerdesteyn V, Geurts ACH, Nonnekes J
Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2023 Jan;37(1):27-36. Epub 2023 Jan 25 doi: 10.1177/15459683221147839. PMID: 36695288Free PMC Article
Saffari A, Kellner M, Jordan C, Rosengarten H, Mo A, Zhang B, Strelko O, Neuser S, Davis MY, Yoshikura N, Futamura N, Takeuchi T, Nabatame S, Ishiura H, Tsuji S, Aldeen HS, Cali E, Rocca C, Houlden H, Efthymiou S, Assmann B, Yoon G, Trombetta BA, Kivisäkk P, Eichler F, Nan H, Takiyama Y, Tessa A, Santorelli FM, Sahin M, Blackstone C, Yang E, Schüle R, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D
Brain 2023 May 2;146(5):2003-2015. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac391. PMID: 36315648Free PMC Article
Meyyazhagan A, Kuchi Bhotla H, Pappuswamy M, Orlacchio A
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jul 11;23(14) doi: 10.3390/ijms23147665. PMID: 35887006Free PMC Article
van de Venis L, van de Warrenburg BPC, Weerdesteyn V, van Lith BJH, Geurts ACH, Nonnekes J
Trials 2021 Jan 7;22(1):32. doi: 10.1186/s13063-020-04932-9. PMID: 33413555Free PMC Article
Züchner S
Expert Opin Pharmacother 2007 Jul;8(10):1433-9. doi: 10.1517/14656566.8.10.1433. PMID: 17661726

Prognosis

Schlüter A, Vélez-Santamaría V, Verdura E, Rodríguez-Palmero A, Ruiz M, Fourcade S, Planas-Serra L, Launay N, Guilera C, Martínez JJ, Homedes-Pedret C, Albertí-Aguiló MA, Zulaika M, Martí I, Troncoso M, Tomás-Vila M, Bullich G, García-Pérez MA, Sobrido-Gómez MJ, López-Laso E, Fons C, Del Toro M, Macaya A; HSP/ataxia workgroup, Beltran S, Gutiérrez-Solana LG, Pérez-Jurado LA, Aguilera-Albesa S, de Munain AL, Casasnovas C, Pujol A
Genome Med 2023 Sep 7;15(1):68. doi: 10.1186/s13073-023-01214-2. PMID: 37679823Free PMC Article
Chen J, Zhao Z, Shen H, Bing Q, Li N, Guo X, Hu J
BMC Neurol 2022 May 16;22(1):180. doi: 10.1186/s12883-022-02708-z. PMID: 35578252Free PMC Article
Eltoum A, O'Rourke D, Sharif F
BMJ Case Rep 2022 Jan 17;15(1) doi: 10.1136/bcr-2020-240941. PMID: 35039335Free PMC Article
Yu W, Jin H, Deng J, Nan D, Huang Y
BMC Med Genet 2020 Jun 3;21(1):123. doi: 10.1186/s12881-020-01053-7. PMID: 32493220Free PMC Article
Laurá M, Pipis M, Rossor AM, Reilly MM
Curr Opin Neurol 2019 Oct;32(5):641-650. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000735. PMID: 31343428

Clinical prediction guides

Schlüter A, Vélez-Santamaría V, Verdura E, Rodríguez-Palmero A, Ruiz M, Fourcade S, Planas-Serra L, Launay N, Guilera C, Martínez JJ, Homedes-Pedret C, Albertí-Aguiló MA, Zulaika M, Martí I, Troncoso M, Tomás-Vila M, Bullich G, García-Pérez MA, Sobrido-Gómez MJ, López-Laso E, Fons C, Del Toro M, Macaya A; HSP/ataxia workgroup, Beltran S, Gutiérrez-Solana LG, Pérez-Jurado LA, Aguilera-Albesa S, de Munain AL, Casasnovas C, Pujol A
Genome Med 2023 Sep 7;15(1):68. doi: 10.1186/s13073-023-01214-2. PMID: 37679823Free PMC Article
Chen YJ, Wang MW, Qiu YS, Yuan RY, Wang N, Lin X, Chen WJ
Mov Disord 2023 Sep;38(9):1750-1755. Epub 2023 Jul 2 doi: 10.1002/mds.29522. PMID: 37394769
Saffari A, Kellner M, Jordan C, Rosengarten H, Mo A, Zhang B, Strelko O, Neuser S, Davis MY, Yoshikura N, Futamura N, Takeuchi T, Nabatame S, Ishiura H, Tsuji S, Aldeen HS, Cali E, Rocca C, Houlden H, Efthymiou S, Assmann B, Yoon G, Trombetta BA, Kivisäkk P, Eichler F, Nan H, Takiyama Y, Tessa A, Santorelli FM, Sahin M, Blackstone C, Yang E, Schüle R, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D
Brain 2023 May 2;146(5):2003-2015. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac391. PMID: 36315648Free PMC Article
Meyyazhagan A, Kuchi Bhotla H, Pappuswamy M, Orlacchio A
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jul 11;23(14) doi: 10.3390/ijms23147665. PMID: 35887006Free PMC Article
Du J
J Clin Neurosci 2021 Mar;85:67-71. Epub 2021 Jan 15 doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2020.11.036. PMID: 33581793

Recent systematic reviews

Vecchia SD, Tessa A, Dosi C, Baldacci J, Pasquariello R, Antenora A, Astrea G, Bassi MT, Battini R, Casali C, Cioffi E, Conti G, De Michele G, Ferrari AR, Filla A, Fiorillo C, Fusco C, Gallone S, Germiniasi C, Guerrini R, Haggiag S, Lopergolo D, Martinuzzi A, Melani F, Mignarri A, Panzeri E, Pini A, Pinto AM, Pochiero F, Primiano G, Procopio E, Renieri A, Romaniello R, Sancricca C, Servidei S, Spagnoli C, Ticci C, Rubegni A, Santorelli FM
J Neurol 2022 Jan;269(1):437-450. Epub 2021 Sep 6 doi: 10.1007/s00415-021-10792-3. PMID: 34487232
Neuser S, Brechmann B, Heimer G, Brösse I, Schubert S, O'Grady L, Zech M, Srivastava S, Sweetser DA, Dincer Y, Mall V, Winkelmann J, Behrends C, Darras BT, Graham RJ, Jayakar P, Byrne B, Bar-Aluma BE, Haberman Y, Szeinberg A, Aldhalaan HM, Hashem M, Al Tenaiji A, Ismayl O, Al Nuaimi AE, Maher K, Ibrahim S, Khan F, Houlden H, Ramakumaran VS, Pagnamenta AT, Posey JE, Lupski JR, Tan WH, ElGhazali G, Herman I, Muñoz T, Repetto GM, Seitz A, Krumbiegel M, Poli MC, Kini U, Efthymiou S, Meiler J, Maroofian R, Alkuraya FS, Abou Jamra R, Popp B, Ben-Zeev B, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D
Hum Mutat 2021 Jun;42(6):762-776. Epub 2021 May 11 doi: 10.1002/humu.24206. PMID: 33847017
Du J
J Clin Neurosci 2021 Mar;85:67-71. Epub 2021 Jan 15 doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2020.11.036. PMID: 33581793
Ruano L, Melo C, Silva MC, Coutinho P
Neuroepidemiology 2014;42(3):174-83. Epub 2014 Mar 5 doi: 10.1159/000358801. PMID: 24603320

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...