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Abnormal cortical gyration

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Anatomical Abnormality; Finding
Synonyms: Abnormal gyration; Abnormal gyrations; Cerebral gyral anomalies; Gyral disorganization
HPO: HP:0002536


An abnormality of the gyri (i.e., the ridges) of the cerebral cortex of the brain. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • Abnormal cortical gyration

Conditions with this feature

Merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy
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Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy is an autosomal recessive form of muscular dystrophy characterized by muscle weakness apparent at birth or in the first 6 months of life. Patients show hypotonia, poor suck and cry, and delayed motor development; most never achieve independent ambulation. Most patients also have periventricular white matter abnormalities on brain imaging, but mental retardation and/or seizures occur only rarely (summary by Xiong et al., 2015).
Orofaciodigital syndrome I
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Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I (OFD1) is usually male lethal during gestation and predominantly affects females. OFD1 is characterized by the following features: Oral (lobulated tongue, tongue nodules, cleft of the hard or soft palate, accessory gingival frenulae, hypodontia, and other dental abnormalities). Facial (widely spaced eyes or telecanthus, hypoplasia of the alae nasi, median cleft or pseudocleft upper lip, micrognathia). Digital (brachydactyly, syndactyly, clinodactyly of the fifth finger; duplicated hallux [great toe]). Kidney (polycystic kidney disease). Brain (e.g., intracerebral cysts, agenesis of the corpus callosum, cerebellar agenesis with or without Dandy-Walker malformation). Intellectual disability (in ~50% of individuals).
Holoprosencephaly 9
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Holoprosencephaly-9 refers to a disorder characterized by a wide phenotypic spectrum of brain developmental defects, with or without overt forebrain cleavage abnormalities. It usually includes midline craniofacial anomalies involving the first branchial arch and/or orbits, pituitary hypoplasia with panhypopituitarism, and postaxial polydactyly. The disorder shows incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity (summary by Roessler et al., 2003 and Bertolacini et al., 2012). For general phenotypic information and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100).
Hydrolethalus syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Hydrolethalus-1 (HLS1) is an autosomal recessive lethal malformation syndrome characterized by hydrocephaly with absent upper midline structures of the brain, micrognathia, and polydactyly. Various other features such as cleft lip or palate, club feet, anomalies of the ears, eyes, and nose, keyhole-shaped defect in the occipital bone, abnormal genitalia, and congenital heart and respiratory organ defects have also been observed in affected individuals. Affected individuals are stillborn or die shortly after birth (summary by Mee et al., 2005). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hydrolethalus Syndrome See also HLS2 (614120), caused by mutation in the KIF7 gene (611254) on chromosome 15q26.
Osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Congenital Abnormality
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I (MOPD1) is a severe autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by dwarfism, microcephaly, and neurologic abnormalities, including mental retardation, brain malformations, and ocular/auditory sensory deficits. Patients often die in early childhood (summary by Pierce and Morse, 2012).
Short stature-craniofacial anomalies-genital hypoplasia syndrome
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Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Pterygia, impaired intellectual development, and distinctive craniofacial features is a chromosomal disorder characterized by these cardinal features. Craniofacial features include trigonocephaly and retrognathia. Intellectual development may be severely impaired (summary by Devriendt et al., 2000).
Seckel syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Seckel syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by proportionate short stature, severe microcephaly, mental retardation, and a typical 'bird-head' facial appearance (summary by Kalay et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Seckel syndrome, see 210600.
COG6-ongenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
CDG2L is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder apparent from birth or early infancy. It is characterized by poor growth, gastrointestinal and liver abnormalities, delayed psychomotor development, hypotonia, recurrent infections, hematologic abnormalities, increased bleeding tendency, and hyperhidrosis or hyperkeratosis. More variable features include nonspecific dysmorphic facial features and cardiac septal defects. The disorder often results in death in infancy or the first years of life (summary by Rymen et al., 2015). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066).
Spinal muscular atrophy with congenital bone fractures 2
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal muscular atrophy with congenital bone fractures is an autosomal recessive severe neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset of severe hypotonia with fetal hypokinesia in utero. This results in congenital contractures, consistent with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, and increased incidence of prenatal fracture of the long bones. Affected infants have difficulty breathing and feeding and often die in the first days or months of life (summary by Knierim et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of spinal muscular atrophy with congenital bone fractures, see SMABF1 (616866).
Intellectual disability, X-linked 99, syndromic, female-restricted
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Female-restricted X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder-99 (MRXS99F) is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and mild to moderate intellectual disability. Affected females can have a wide range of additional congenital anomalies, including scoliosis, postaxial polydactyly, mild cardiac or urogenital anomalies, dysmorphic facial features, and mild structural brain abnormalities (summary by Reijnders et al., 2016).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and brain anomalies
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Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and brain anomalies (NDMSBA) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by infantile onset of progressive microcephaly and spasticity and severe global developmental delay resulting in profoundly impaired intellectual development and severely impaired or absent motor function. More variable features include seizures and optic atrophy. Brain imaging may show myelinating abnormalities and white matter lesions consistent with a leukoencephalopathy, as well as structural anomalies, including thin corpus callosum, gyral abnormalities, and cerebral or cerebellar atrophy. Some patients die in early childhood (summary by Falik Zaccai et al., 2017 and Hall et al., 2017).
Fraser syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Fraser syndrome is an autosomal recessive malformation disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, syndactyly, and abnormalities of the respiratory and urogenital tract (summary by van Haelst et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Fraser Syndrome Fraser syndrome-2 (FRASRS2) is caused by mutation in the FREM2 gene (608945) on chromosome 13q13, and Fraser syndrome-3 (FRASRS3; 617667) is caused by mutation in the GRIP1 gene (604597) on chromosome 12q14. See Bowen syndrome (211200) for a comparable but probably distinct syndrome of multiple congenital malformations.
Fetal akinesia, respiratory insufficiency, microcephaly, polymicrogyria, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Fetal akinesia, respiratory insufficiency, microcephaly, polymicrogyria, and dysmorphic facies (FARIMPD) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by hypotonia in utero resulting in fetal akinesia with generalized joint contractures and arthrogryposis at birth. Affected newborns have severe respiratory insufficiency at birth requiring ventilation and significant dysmorphic facial features; seizures may also occur. Brain imaging shows variable malformations of cortical development, most commonly polymicrogyria or other gyral anomalies. Death in infancy usually occurs (summary by Monteiro et al., 2020).

Professional guidelines


Masnada S, Chiara D, Giana I, Manuela F, Marco S, Andrea A, Patrizia A, Nadia BB, Valeria C, Mara C, Bernardo DB, Francesca D, Valentina G, Elisa F, Miguel FRL, Carlo F, Lucio G, Simona O, Lorenzo P, Erika R, Antonino R, Mariasavina S, Carlotta S, Pierangelo V, Anna P, Andrea R, Cecilia P
Neuropediatrics 2020 Aug;51(4):276-285. Epub 2020 Jul 3 doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1710528. PMID: 32620025
De Catte L, De Keersmaeker B, Claus F
Paediatr Drugs 2012 Jun 1;14(3):143-55. doi: 10.2165/11597030-000000000-00000. PMID: 22242843
Di Rocco C, Battaglia D, Pietrini D, Piastra M, Massimi L
Childs Nerv Syst 2006 Aug;22(8):852-66. Epub 2006 Jul 5 doi: 10.1007/s00381-006-0149-9. PMID: 16821075

Recent clinical studies


Magen D, Ofir A, Berger L, Goldsher D, Eran A, Katib N, Nijem Y, Vlodavsky E, Tzur S, Behar DM, Fellig Y, Mandel H
Hum Genet 2015 Mar;134(3):305-14. Epub 2015 Jan 6 doi: 10.1007/s00439-014-1522-5. PMID: 25560765


Conway KS, Ghafoor F, Gottschalk AC, Laakman J, Eigsti RL, Nashelsky M, Blau J, Hefti MM
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2021 Sep 27;80(9):856-860. doi: 10.1093/jnen/nlab072. PMID: 34363665Free PMC Article
Mikati MA, Chaaban HR, Karam PE, Krishnamoorthy KS
Pediatr Neurol 2007 Jan;36(1):48-50. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2006.08.008. PMID: 17162197

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