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Microcephaly 1, primary, autosomal recessive

Primary microcephaly refers to the clinical finding of a head circumference more than than 3 standard deviations (SD) below the age- and sex-related mean, present at birth. Primary microcephaly is a static developmental anomaly, distinguished from secondary microcephaly, which refers to a progressive neurodegenerative condition. Microcephaly is a disorder of fetal brain growth; individuals with microcephaly have small brains and almost always have mental retardation, although rare individuals with mild microcephaly (-3 SD) and normal intelligence have been reported. Additional clinical features may include short stature or mild seizures. MCPH is associated with a simplification of the cerebral cortical gyral pattern and a slight reduction in the volume of the white matter, consistent with the small size of the brain, but the architecture of the brain in general is normal, with no evidence of a neuronal migration defect (review by Woods et al., 2005). Most cases of primary microcephaly show an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Because MCPH directly affects neurogenesis, or neurogenic mitosis, rather than growth of the skull, some prefer the term 'micrencephaly' (Hofman, 1984). MCPH1 in particular is associated with premature chromosome condensation in cell studies (Darvish et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Primary Microcephaly Primary microcephaly is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. See MCPH2 (604317), caused by mutation in the WDR62 gene (613583) on chromosome 19q13; MCPH3 (604804), caused by mutation in the CDK5RAP2 gene (608201) on 9q33; MCPH4 (604321), caused by mutation in the CASC5 gene (609173) on 15q14; MCPH5 (608716), caused by mutation in the ASPM gene (605481) on 1q31; MCPH6 (608393), caused by mutation in the CENPJ gene (609279) on 13q12; MCPH7 (612703), caused by mutation in the STIL gene (181590) on 1p33; MCPH8 (614673), caused by mutation in the CEP135 gene (611423) on 4q12; MCPH9 (614852), caused by mutation in the CEP152 gene (613529) on 15q21; MCPH10 (615095), caused by mutation in the ZNF335 gene (610827) on 20q13; MCPH11 (615414), caused by mutation in the PHC1 gene (602978) on 12p13; MCPH12 (616080), caused by mutation in the CDK6 gene (603368) on 7q21; MCPH13 (616051), caused by mutation in the CENPE gene (117143) on 4q24; MCPH14 (616402), caused by mutation in the SASS6 gene (609321) on 1p21; MCPH15 (616486), caused by mutation in the MFSD2A gene (614397) on 1p34; MCPH16 (616681), caused by mutation in the ANKLE2 gene (616062) on 12q24; MCPH17 (617090), caused by mutation in the CIT gene (605629) on 12q24; MCPH18 (617520), caused by mutation in the WDFY3 gene (617485) on 4q21; MCPH19 (617800), caused by mutation in the COPB2 gene (606990) on 3q23; MCPH20 (617914), caused by mutation in the KIF14 gene (611279) on 1q31; MCPH21 (617983), caused by mutation in the NCAPD2 gene (615638) on 12p13; MCPH22 (617984), caused by mutation in the NCAPD3 gene (609276) on 11q25; MCPH23 (617985), caused by mutation in the NCAPH gene (602332) on 2q11; MCPH24 (618179), caused by mutation in the NUP37 gene (609264) on 12q23; MCPH25 (618351), caused by mutation in the MAP11 gene (618350) on 7q22; MCPH26 (619179), caused by mutation in the LMNB1 gene (150340) on 5q23; MCPH27 (619180), caused by mutation in the LMNB2 gene (150341) on 19p13; MCPH28 (619453), caused by mutation in the RRP7A gene (619449) on 22q13; MCPH29 (620047), caused by mutation in the PDCD6IP gene (608074) on 3p22; and MCPH30 (620183), caused by mutation in the BUB1 gene (602452) on 2q14. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
344415
Concept ID:
C1855081
Disease or Syndrome

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