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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 2, juvenile(ALS2; ALSJ)

MedGen UID:
349246
Concept ID:
C1859807
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: ALS, JUVENILE; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 2
 
Gene (location): ALS2 (2q33.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0008780
OMIM®: 205100

Definition

ALS2-related disorder involves retrograde degeneration of the upper motor neurons of the pyramidal tracts and comprises a clinical continuum of the following three phenotypes: Infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia (IAHSP), characterized by onset of spasticity with increased reflexes and sustained clonus of the lower limbs within the first two years of life, progressive weakness and spasticity of the upper limbs by age seven to eight years, and wheelchair dependence in the second decade with progression toward severe spastic tetraparesis and a pseudobulbar syndrome caused by progressive cranial nerve involvement. Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS), characterized by upper motor neuron findings of pseudobulbar palsy and spastic quadriplegia without dementia or cerebellar, extrapyramidal, or sensory signs. Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS or ALS2), characterized by onset between ages three and 20 years. All affected individuals show a spastic pseudobulbar syndrome (spasticity of speech and swallowing) together with spastic paraplegia. Some individuals are bedridden by age 12 to 50 years. [from GeneReviews]

Clinical features

From HPO
Urinary incontinence
MedGen UID:
22579
Concept ID:
C0042024
Finding
Loss of the ability to control the urinary bladder leading to involuntary urination.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
Difficulty in swallowing.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
MedGen UID:
274
Concept ID:
C0002736
Disease or Syndrome
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease that affects motor neurons, which are specialized nerve cells that control muscle movement. These nerve cells are found in the spinal cord and the brain. In ALS, motor neurons die (atrophy) over time, leading to muscle weakness, a loss of muscle mass, and an inability to control movement.\n\nThere are many different types of ALS; these types are distinguished by their signs and symptoms and their genetic cause or lack of clear genetic association. Most people with ALS have a form of the condition that is described as sporadic, which means it occurs in people with no apparent history of the disorder in their family. People with sporadic ALS usually first develop features of the condition in their late fifties or early sixties. A small proportion of people with ALS, estimated at 5 to 10 percent, have a family history of ALS or a related condition called frontotemporal dementia (FTD), which is a progressive brain disorder that affects personality, behavior, and language. The signs and symptoms of familial ALS typically first appear in one's late forties or early fifties. Rarely, people with familial ALS develop symptoms in childhood or their teenage years. These individuals have a rare form of the disorder known as juvenile ALS.\n\nThe first signs and symptoms of ALS may be so subtle that they are overlooked. The earliest symptoms include muscle twitching, cramping, stiffness, or weakness. Affected individuals may develop slurred speech (dysarthria) and, later, difficulty chewing or swallowing (dysphagia). Many people with ALS experience malnutrition because of reduced food intake due to dysphagia and an increase in their body's energy demands (metabolism) due to prolonged illness. Muscles become weaker as the disease progresses, and arms and legs begin to look thinner as muscle tissue atrophies. Individuals with ALS eventually lose muscle strength and the ability to walk. Affected individuals eventually become wheelchair-dependent and increasingly require help with personal care and other activities of daily living. Over time, muscle weakness causes affected individuals to lose the use of their hands and arms. Breathing becomes difficult because the muscles of the respiratory system weaken. Most people with ALS die from respiratory failure within 2 to 10 years after the signs and symptoms of ALS first appear; however, disease progression varies widely among affected individuals.\n\nApproximately 20 percent of individuals with ALS also develop FTD. Changes in personality and behavior may make it difficult for affected individuals to interact with others in a socially appropriate manner. Communication skills worsen as the disease progresses. It is unclear how the development of ALS and FTD are related. Individuals who develop both conditions are diagnosed as having ALS-FTD.\n\nA rare form of ALS that often runs in families is known as ALS-parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS-PDC). This disorder is characterized by the signs and symptoms of ALS, in addition to a pattern of movement abnormalities known as parkinsonism, and a progressive loss of intellectual function (dementia). Signs of parkinsonism include unusually slow movements (bradykinesia), stiffness, and tremors. Affected members of the same family can have different combinations of signs and symptoms.
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Clonus
MedGen UID:
40341
Concept ID:
C0009024
Sign or Symptom
A series of rhythmic and involuntary muscle contractions (at a frequency of about 5 to 7 Hz) that occur in response to an abruptly applied and sustained stretch.
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Dystonic disorder
MedGen UID:
3940
Concept ID:
C0013421
Sign or Symptom
An abnormally increased muscular tone that causes fixed abnormal postures. There is a slow, intermittent twisting motion that leads to exaggerated turning and posture of the extremities and trunk.
Spastic diplegia
MedGen UID:
44181
Concept ID:
C0023882
Disease or Syndrome
Spasticity (neuromuscular hypertonia) primarily in the muscles of the legs, hips, and pelvis.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Babinski sign
MedGen UID:
19708
Concept ID:
C0034935
Finding
Upturning of the big toe (and sometimes fanning of the other toes) in response to stimulation of the sole of the foot. If the Babinski sign is present it can indicate damage to the corticospinal tract.
Abnormality of speech or vocalization
MedGen UID:
11531
Concept ID:
C0037822
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormalities in the sound of a person's speech or vocalization are not necessarily associated with a known physical cause or due to stuttering or stammering.
Opisthotonus
MedGen UID:
56246
Concept ID:
C0151818
Sign or Symptom
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles.
Spastic gait
MedGen UID:
115907
Concept ID:
C0231687
Finding
Spasticity is manifested by increased stretch reflex which is intensified with movement velocity. This results in excessive and inappropriate muscle activation which can contribute to muscle hypertonia. Spastic gait is characterized by manifestations such as muscle hypertonia, stiff knee, and circumduction of the leg.
Anarthria
MedGen UID:
68604
Concept ID:
C0234517
Disease or Syndrome
A defect in the motor ability that enables speech.
Tip-toe gait
MedGen UID:
98104
Concept ID:
C0427144
Finding
An abnormal gait pattern characterized by the failure of the heel to contact the floor at the onset of stance during gait.
Spastic dysarthria
MedGen UID:
105312
Concept ID:
C0454596
Finding
A type of dysarthria related to bilateral damage of the upper motor neuron tracts of the pyramidal and extra- pyramidal tracts. Speech of affected individuals is slow, effortful, and has a harsh vocal quality.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Spastic tetraparesis
MedGen UID:
658719
Concept ID:
C0575059
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic weakness affecting all four limbs.
Lower limb spasticity
MedGen UID:
220865
Concept ID:
C1271100
Finding
Spasticity (velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone and hyperexcitable tendon reflexes) in the muscles of the lower limbs, hips, and pelvis
Upper limb spasticity
MedGen UID:
220882
Concept ID:
C1273957
Finding
Head titubation
MedGen UID:
299071
Concept ID:
C1608410
Sign or Symptom
A head tremor of moderate speed (3 to 4 Hz) in the anterior-posterior direction.
Generalized dystonia
MedGen UID:
341342
Concept ID:
C1848954
Finding
A type of dystonia that affects all or most of the body.
Spasticity of pharyngeal muscles
MedGen UID:
342872
Concept ID:
C1853398
Finding
Spasticity of facial muscles
MedGen UID:
344036
Concept ID:
C1853404
Finding
Spasticity of one or more muscles innervated by the facial nerve.
Abnormal lower motor neuron morphology
MedGen UID:
356272
Concept ID:
C1865412
Finding
Any structural anomaly of the lower motor neuron.
Retrocollis
MedGen UID:
854508
Concept ID:
C3887667
Disease or Syndrome
A form of torticollis in which the head is drawn back, either due to a permanent contractures of neck extensor muscles, or to a spasmodic contracture.
Abnormal upper motor neuron morphology
MedGen UID:
871241
Concept ID:
C4025723
Anatomical Abnormality
Any structural anomaly that affects the upper motor neuron.
Arm dystonia
MedGen UID:
1671069
Concept ID:
C4732776
Finding
A type of dystonia (abnormally increased muscular tone causing fixed abnormal postures) that affects muscles of the arms.
Hypertonia
MedGen UID:
10132
Concept ID:
C0026826
Finding
A condition in which there is increased muscle tone so that arms or legs, for example, are stiff and difficult to move.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
57735
Concept ID:
C0151786
Finding
Reduced strength of muscles.
Proximal muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
113169
Concept ID:
C0221629
Finding
A lack of strength of the proximal muscles.
Hand muscle atrophy
MedGen UID:
116091
Concept ID:
C0239830
Finding
Muscular atrophy involving the muscles of the hand.
Difficulty walking
MedGen UID:
86319
Concept ID:
C0311394
Finding
Reduced ability to walk (ambulate).
Distal muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
140883
Concept ID:
C0427065
Finding
Reduced strength of the musculature of the distal extremities.
Muscular atrophy
MedGen UID:
892680
Concept ID:
C0541794
Pathologic Function
The presence of skeletal muscular atrophy (which is also known as amyotrophy).
Distal lower limb amyotrophy
MedGen UID:
324515
Concept ID:
C1836451
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular atrophy of distal leg muscles.
Distal amyotrophy
MedGen UID:
338530
Concept ID:
C1848736
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular atrophy affecting muscles in the distal portions of the extremities.
Limb joint contracture
MedGen UID:
369611
Concept ID:
C1969879
Anatomical Abnormality
A contracture (chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in muscle, tendons, ligaments, or skin) that prevent normal movement of one or more joints of the limbs.
EMG: chronic denervation signs
MedGen UID:
871143
Concept ID:
C4025614
Finding
Evidence of chronic denervation on electromyography.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Drooling
MedGen UID:
8484
Concept ID:
C0013132
Finding
Habitual flow of saliva out of the mouth.
Difficulty in tongue movements
MedGen UID:
377897
Concept ID:
C1853406
Finding
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Festoff BW, Yang SX, Vaught J, Bryan C, Ma JY
J Neurol Sci 1995 May;129 Suppl:114-21. doi: 10.1016/0022-510x(95)00080-l. PMID: 7595601

Curated

Orphanet, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 2007

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Zambon AA, Pini V, Bosco L, Falzone YM, Munot P, Muntoni F, Previtali SC
Brain 2023 Mar 1;146(3):806-822. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac452. PMID: 36445400Free PMC Article
Young CA, McDermott CJ, Williams TL, Ealing J, Majeed T, Al-Chalabi A, Dick DJ, Talbot K, Harrower T, Pinto A, Hanemann CO, Burke G, Roberts R, Mills RJ, Tennant A; TONiC study group
J Neurol Sci 2021 Feb 15;421:117285. Epub 2020 Dec 29 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2020.117285. PMID: 33385753
Lei L, Chen H, Lu Y, Zhu W, Ouyang Y, Duo J, Chen Z, Da Y
J Neurol 2021 Mar;268(3):1050-1058. Epub 2020 Sep 30 doi: 10.1007/s00415-020-10246-2. PMID: 32997296
Montecchiani C, Pedace L, Lo Giudice T, Casella A, Mearini M, Gaudiello F, Pedroso JL, Terracciano C, Caltagirone C, Massa R, St George-Hyslop PH, Barsottini OG, Kawarai T, Orlacchio A
Brain 2016 Jan;139(Pt 1):73-85. Epub 2015 Nov 10 doi: 10.1093/brain/awv320. PMID: 26556829Free PMC Article
Dastur DK, Razzak ZA
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1973 Jun;36(3):399-410. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.36.3.399. PMID: 4714102Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Zambon AA, Pini V, Bosco L, Falzone YM, Munot P, Muntoni F, Previtali SC
Brain 2023 Mar 1;146(3):806-822. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac452. PMID: 36445400Free PMC Article
Johnson JO, Chia R, Miller DE, Li R, Kumaran R, Abramzon Y, Alahmady N, Renton AE, Topp SD, Gibbs JR, Cookson MR, Sabir MS, Dalgard CL, Troakes C, Jones AR, Shatunov A, Iacoangeli A, Al Khleifat A, Ticozzi N, Silani V, Gellera C, Blair IP, Dobson-Stone C, Kwok JB, Bonkowski ES, Palvadeau R, Tienari PJ, Morrison KE, Shaw PJ, Al-Chalabi A, Brown RH Jr, Calvo A, Mora G, Al-Saif H, Gotkine M, Leigh F, Chang IJ, Perlman SJ, Glass I, Scott AI, Shaw CE, Basak AN, Landers JE, Chiò A, Crawford TO, Smith BN, Traynor BJ; FALS Sequencing Consortium; American Genome Center; International ALS Genomics Consortium; and ITALSGEN Consortium, Smith BN, Ticozzi N, Fallini C, Gkazi AS, Topp SD, Scotter EL, Kenna KP, Keagle P, Tiloca C, Vance C, Troakes C, Colombrita C, King A, Pensato V, Castellotti B, Baas F, Ten Asbroek ALMA, McKenna-Yasek D, McLaughlin RL, Polak M, Asress S, Esteban-Pérez J, Stevic Z, D'Alfonso S, Mazzini L, Comi GP, Del Bo R, Ceroni M, Gagliardi S, Querin G, Bertolin C, van Rheenen W, Rademakers R, van Blitterswijk M, Lauria G, Duga S, Corti S, Cereda C, Corrado L, Sorarù G, Williams KL, Nicholson GA, Blair IP, Leblond-Manry C, Rouleau GA, Hardiman O, Morrison KE, Veldink JH, van den Berg LH, Al-Chalabi A, Pall H, Shaw PJ, Turner MR, Talbot K, Taroni F, García-Redondo A, Wu Z, Glass JD, Gellera C, Ratti A, Brown RH Jr, Silani V, Shaw CE, Landers JE, Dalgard CL, Adeleye A, Soltis AR, Alba C, Viollet C, Bacikova D, Hupalo DN, Sukumar G, Pollard HB, Wilkerson MD, Martinez EM, Abramzon Y, Ahmed S, Arepalli S, Baloh RH, Bowser R, Brady CB, Brice A, Broach J, Campbell RH, Camu W, Chia R, Cooper-Knock J, Ding J, Drepper C, Drory VE, Dunckley TL, Eicher JD, England BK, Faghri F, Feldman E, Floeter MK, Fratta P, Geiger JT, Gerhard G, Gibbs JR, Gibson SB, Glass JD, Hardy J, Harms MB, Heiman-Patterson TD, Hernandez DG, Jansson L, Kirby J, Kowall NW, Laaksovirta H, Landeck N, Landi F, Le Ber I, Lumbroso S, MacGowan DJL, Maragakis NJ, Mora G, Mouzat K, Murphy NA, Myllykangas L, Nalls MA, Orrell RW, Ostrow LW, Pamphlett R, Pickering-Brown S, Pioro EP, Pletnikova O, Pliner HA, Pulst SM, Ravits JM, Renton AE, Rivera A, Robberecht W, Rogaeva E, Rollinson S, Rothstein JD, Scholz SW, Sendtner M, Shaw PJ, Sidle KC, Simmons Z, Singleton AB, Smith N, Stone DJ, Tienari PJ, Troncoso JC, Valori M, Van Damme P, Van Deerlin VM, Van Den Bosch L, Zinman L, Landers JE, Chiò A, Traynor BJ, Angelocola SM, Ausiello FP, Barberis M, Bartolomei I, Battistini S, Bersano E, Bisogni G, Borghero G, Brunetti M, Cabona C, Calvo A, Canale F, Canosa A, Cantisani TA, Capasso M, Caponnetto C, Cardinali P, Carrera P, Casale F, Chiò A, Colletti T, Conforti FL, Conte A, Conti E, Corbo M, Cuccu S, Dalla Bella E, D'Errico E, DeMarco G, Dubbioso R, Ferrarese C, Ferraro PM, Filippi M, Fini N, Floris G, Fuda G, Gallone S, Gianferrari G, Giannini F, Grassano M, Greco L, Iazzolino B, Introna A, La Bella V, Lattante S, Lauria G, Liguori R, Logroscino G, Logullo FO, Lunetta C, Mandich P, Mandrioli J, Manera U, Manganelli F, Marangi G, Marinou K, Marrosu MG, Martinelli I, Messina S, Moglia C, Mora G, Mosca L, Murru MR, Origone P, Passaniti C, Petrelli C, Petrucci A, Pozzi S, Pugliatti M, Quattrini A, Ricci C, Riolo G, Riva N, Russo M, Sabatelli M, Salamone P, Salivetto M, Salvi F, Santarelli M, Sbaiz L, Sideri R, Simone I, Simonini C, Spataro R, Tanel R, Tedeschi G, Ticca A, Torriello A, Tranquilli S, Tremolizzo L, Trojsi F, Vasta R, Vacchiano V, Vita G, Volanti P, Zollino M, Zucchi E
JAMA Neurol 2021 Oct 1;78(10):1236-1248. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.2598. PMID: 34459874Free PMC Article
Spataro R, Kousi M, Farhan SMK, Willer JR, Ross JP, Dion PA, Rouleau GA, Daly MJ, Neale BM, La Bella V, Katsanis N
Hum Genomics 2019 Apr 16;13(1):19. doi: 10.1186/s40246-019-0203-9. PMID: 30992063Free PMC Article
Haider A, Spinelli F, Herde AM, Mu B, Keller C, Margelisch M, Weber M, Schibli R, Mu L, Ametamey SM
Eur J Med Chem 2018 Feb 10;145:746-759. Epub 2018 Jan 5 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2017.12.097. PMID: 29353725
Vantaggiato C, Bondioni S, Airoldi G, Bozzato A, Borsani G, Rugarli EI, Bresolin N, Clementi E, Bassi MT
Brain 2011 Jun;134(Pt 6):1808-28. Epub 2011 May 15 doi: 10.1093/brain/awr084. PMID: 21576111

Therapy

Festoff BW, Yang SX, Vaught J, Bryan C, Ma JY
J Neurol Sci 1995 May;129 Suppl:114-21. doi: 10.1016/0022-510x(95)00080-l. PMID: 7595601

Prognosis

Shimakura K, Sato K, Mitsui S, Ono S, Otomo A, Hadano S
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Sep 10;569:106-111. Epub 2021 Jul 6 doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.06.095. PMID: 34243065
Lei L, Chen H, Lu Y, Zhu W, Ouyang Y, Duo J, Chen Z, Da Y
J Neurol 2021 Mar;268(3):1050-1058. Epub 2020 Sep 30 doi: 10.1007/s00415-020-10246-2. PMID: 32997296
Chen X, Liu J, Wei QQ, Ou RW, Cao B, Yuan X, Hou Y, Zhang L, Shang H
BMC Neurol 2020 Jan 3;20(1):2. doi: 10.1186/s12883-019-1593-y. PMID: 31900114Free PMC Article
Montecchiani C, Pedace L, Lo Giudice T, Casella A, Mearini M, Gaudiello F, Pedroso JL, Terracciano C, Caltagirone C, Massa R, St George-Hyslop PH, Barsottini OG, Kawarai T, Orlacchio A
Brain 2016 Jan;139(Pt 1):73-85. Epub 2015 Nov 10 doi: 10.1093/brain/awv320. PMID: 26556829Free PMC Article
Vantaggiato C, Bondioni S, Airoldi G, Bozzato A, Borsani G, Rugarli EI, Bresolin N, Clementi E, Bassi MT
Brain 2011 Jun;134(Pt 6):1808-28. Epub 2011 May 15 doi: 10.1093/brain/awr084. PMID: 21576111

Clinical prediction guides

Johnson JO, Chia R, Miller DE, Li R, Kumaran R, Abramzon Y, Alahmady N, Renton AE, Topp SD, Gibbs JR, Cookson MR, Sabir MS, Dalgard CL, Troakes C, Jones AR, Shatunov A, Iacoangeli A, Al Khleifat A, Ticozzi N, Silani V, Gellera C, Blair IP, Dobson-Stone C, Kwok JB, Bonkowski ES, Palvadeau R, Tienari PJ, Morrison KE, Shaw PJ, Al-Chalabi A, Brown RH Jr, Calvo A, Mora G, Al-Saif H, Gotkine M, Leigh F, Chang IJ, Perlman SJ, Glass I, Scott AI, Shaw CE, Basak AN, Landers JE, Chiò A, Crawford TO, Smith BN, Traynor BJ; FALS Sequencing Consortium; American Genome Center; International ALS Genomics Consortium; and ITALSGEN Consortium, Smith BN, Ticozzi N, Fallini C, Gkazi AS, Topp SD, Scotter EL, Kenna KP, Keagle P, Tiloca C, Vance C, Troakes C, Colombrita C, King A, Pensato V, Castellotti B, Baas F, Ten Asbroek ALMA, McKenna-Yasek D, McLaughlin RL, Polak M, Asress S, Esteban-Pérez J, Stevic Z, D'Alfonso S, Mazzini L, Comi GP, Del Bo R, Ceroni M, Gagliardi S, Querin G, Bertolin C, van Rheenen W, Rademakers R, van Blitterswijk M, Lauria G, Duga S, Corti S, Cereda C, Corrado L, Sorarù G, Williams KL, Nicholson GA, Blair IP, Leblond-Manry C, Rouleau GA, Hardiman O, Morrison KE, Veldink JH, van den Berg LH, Al-Chalabi A, Pall H, Shaw PJ, Turner MR, Talbot K, Taroni F, García-Redondo A, Wu Z, Glass JD, Gellera C, Ratti A, Brown RH Jr, Silani V, Shaw CE, Landers JE, Dalgard CL, Adeleye A, Soltis AR, Alba C, Viollet C, Bacikova D, Hupalo DN, Sukumar G, Pollard HB, Wilkerson MD, Martinez EM, Abramzon Y, Ahmed S, Arepalli S, Baloh RH, Bowser R, Brady CB, Brice A, Broach J, Campbell RH, Camu W, Chia R, Cooper-Knock J, Ding J, Drepper C, Drory VE, Dunckley TL, Eicher JD, England BK, Faghri F, Feldman E, Floeter MK, Fratta P, Geiger JT, Gerhard G, Gibbs JR, Gibson SB, Glass JD, Hardy J, Harms MB, Heiman-Patterson TD, Hernandez DG, Jansson L, Kirby J, Kowall NW, Laaksovirta H, Landeck N, Landi F, Le Ber I, Lumbroso S, MacGowan DJL, Maragakis NJ, Mora G, Mouzat K, Murphy NA, Myllykangas L, Nalls MA, Orrell RW, Ostrow LW, Pamphlett R, Pickering-Brown S, Pioro EP, Pletnikova O, Pliner HA, Pulst SM, Ravits JM, Renton AE, Rivera A, Robberecht W, Rogaeva E, Rollinson S, Rothstein JD, Scholz SW, Sendtner M, Shaw PJ, Sidle KC, Simmons Z, Singleton AB, Smith N, Stone DJ, Tienari PJ, Troncoso JC, Valori M, Van Damme P, Van Deerlin VM, Van Den Bosch L, Zinman L, Landers JE, Chiò A, Traynor BJ, Angelocola SM, Ausiello FP, Barberis M, Bartolomei I, Battistini S, Bersano E, Bisogni G, Borghero G, Brunetti M, Cabona C, Calvo A, Canale F, Canosa A, Cantisani TA, Capasso M, Caponnetto C, Cardinali P, Carrera P, Casale F, Chiò A, Colletti T, Conforti FL, Conte A, Conti E, Corbo M, Cuccu S, Dalla Bella E, D'Errico E, DeMarco G, Dubbioso R, Ferrarese C, Ferraro PM, Filippi M, Fini N, Floris G, Fuda G, Gallone S, Gianferrari G, Giannini F, Grassano M, Greco L, Iazzolino B, Introna A, La Bella V, Lattante S, Lauria G, Liguori R, Logroscino G, Logullo FO, Lunetta C, Mandich P, Mandrioli J, Manera U, Manganelli F, Marangi G, Marinou K, Marrosu MG, Martinelli I, Messina S, Moglia C, Mora G, Mosca L, Murru MR, Origone P, Passaniti C, Petrelli C, Petrucci A, Pozzi S, Pugliatti M, Quattrini A, Ricci C, Riolo G, Riva N, Russo M, Sabatelli M, Salamone P, Salivetto M, Salvi F, Santarelli M, Sbaiz L, Sideri R, Simone I, Simonini C, Spataro R, Tanel R, Tedeschi G, Ticca A, Torriello A, Tranquilli S, Tremolizzo L, Trojsi F, Vasta R, Vacchiano V, Vita G, Volanti P, Zollino M, Zucchi E
JAMA Neurol 2021 Oct 1;78(10):1236-1248. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.2598. PMID: 34459874Free PMC Article
Young CA, McDermott CJ, Williams TL, Ealing J, Majeed T, Al-Chalabi A, Dick DJ, Talbot K, Harrower T, Pinto A, Hanemann CO, Burke G, Roberts R, Mills RJ, Tennant A; TONiC study group
J Neurol Sci 2021 Feb 15;421:117285. Epub 2020 Dec 29 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2020.117285. PMID: 33385753
Richard P, Feng S, Tsai YL, Li W, Rinchetti P, Muhith U, Irizarry-Cole J, Stolz K, Sanz LA, Hartono S, Hoque M, Tadesse S, Seitz H, Lotti F, Hirano M, Chédin F, Tian B, Manley JL
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