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Acromelic frontonasal dysostosis(AFND)

MedGen UID:
350933
Concept ID:
C1863616
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: AFND
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
 
Gene (location): ZSWIM6 (5q12.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0011359
OMIM®: 603671
Orphanet: ORPHA1827

Definition

Verloes et al. (1992) described a rare variant of frontonasal dysplasia (see FND1, 136760), designated acromelic frontonasal dysplasia (AFND), in which similar craniofacial anomalies are associated with variable central nervous system malformations and limb defects including tibial hypoplasia/aplasia, talipes equinovarus, and preaxial polydactyly of the feet. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Lipoma
MedGen UID:
44173
Concept ID:
C0023798
Neoplastic Process
Benign neoplasia derived from lipoblasts or lipocytes of white or brown fat. May be angiomatous or hibernomatous.
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Syndactyly
MedGen UID:
52619
Concept ID:
C0039075
Congenital Abnormality
Webbing or fusion of the fingers or toes, involving soft parts only or including bone structure. Bony fusions are referred to as "bony" syndactyly if the fusion occurs in a radio-ulnar axis. Fusions of bones of the fingers or toes in a proximo-distal axis are referred to as "symphalangism".
Polydactyly
MedGen UID:
57774
Concept ID:
C0152427
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital anomaly characterized by the presence of supernumerary fingers or toes.
Preaxial polydactyly
MedGen UID:
87498
Concept ID:
C0345354
Congenital Abnormality
A form of polydactyly in which the extra digit or digits are localized on the side of the thumb or great toe.
Patellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
327021
Concept ID:
C1840068
Finding
Underdevelopment of the patella.
Short tibia
MedGen UID:
338005
Concept ID:
C1850259
Finding
Underdevelopment (reduced size) of the tibia.
Preaxial foot polydactyly
MedGen UID:
389171
Concept ID:
C2112942
Finding
Duplication of all or part of the first ray.
Dilation of Virchow-Robin spaces
MedGen UID:
342926
Concept ID:
C1853618
Finding
Increased dimensions of the Virchow-Robin spaces (also known as perivascular spaces), which surround the walls of vessels as they course from the subarachnoid space through the brain parenchyma. Perivascular spaces are commonly microscopic, and not visible on conventional neuroimaging. This term refers to an increase of size of these spaces such that they are visible on neuroimaging (usually magnetic resonance imaging). The dilatations are regular cavities that always contain a patent artery.
Hypopituitarism
MedGen UID:
9386
Concept ID:
C0020635
Disease or Syndrome
A condition of diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland. This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory pituitary neoplasms, metastatic tumors, infarction, pituitary apoplexy, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Corpus callosum, agenesis of
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Gray matter heterotopia
MedGen UID:
452349
Concept ID:
C0266491
Finding
Heterotopia or neuronal heterotopia are macroscopic clusters of misplaced neurons (gray matter), most often situated along the ventricular walls or within the subcortical white matter.
Choroid plexus cyst
MedGen UID:
87376
Concept ID:
C0338597
Finding
A cyst occurring within the choroid plexus within a cerebral ventricle.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Calcification of falx cerebri
MedGen UID:
237237
Concept ID:
C1397139
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of calcium deposition in the falx cerebri.
Cavum septum pellucidum
MedGen UID:
327087
Concept ID:
C1840380
Finding
If the two laminae of the septum pellucidum are not fused then a fluid-filled space or cavum is present. The cavum septum pellucidum is present at birth but usually obliterates by the age of 3 to 6 months. It is up to 1cm in width and the walls are parallel. It is an enclosed space and is not part of the ventricular system or connected with the subarachnoid space.
Retrocerebellar cyst
MedGen UID:
335172
Concept ID:
C1845370
Finding
Periventricular nodular heterotopia
MedGen UID:
358387
Concept ID:
C1868720
Disease or Syndrome
Nodules of heterotopia along the ventricular walls. There can be a single nodule or a large number of nodules, they can exist on either or both sides of the brain at any point along the higher ventricle margins, they can be small or large, single or multiple.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Encephalocele
MedGen UID:
1646412
Concept ID:
C4551722
Congenital Abnormality
A neural tube defect characterized by sac-like protrusions of the brain and the membranes that cover it through openings in the skull.
Aplasia of the olfactory bulb
MedGen UID:
1696661
Concept ID:
C5139362
Congenital Abnormality
Lack of formation (congenital absence) of the olfactory bulb.
Tubulonodular pericallosal lipoma
MedGen UID:
1813061
Concept ID:
C5558383
Neoplastic Process
A type of pericallosal lipoma with a rounded or lobular appearance and a diameter that is usually above 2 cm. They are anteriorly situated and are associated with extensive callosal and often fronto-facial anomalies. A tubulonodular pericallosal lipoma can extend into the choroid plexus or lateral ventricles.
Brachycephaly
MedGen UID:
113165
Concept ID:
C0221356
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a decreased anterior-posterior diameter. That is, a cephalic index greater than 81%. Alternatively, an apparently shortened anteroposterior dimension (length) of the head compared to width.
Parietal foramina
MedGen UID:
526951
Concept ID:
C0222706
Body Space or Junction
The presence of symmetrical and circular openings (foramina) in the parietal bone ranging in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters wide.
Large sella turcica
MedGen UID:
334811
Concept ID:
C1843677
Finding
An abnormal enlargement of the sella turcica.
Vertical clivus
MedGen UID:
336757
Concept ID:
C1844702
Finding
An abnormal vertical orientation of the clivus (which normally forms a kind of slope from the sella turcica down to the region of the foramen magnum).
Upper airway obstruction
MedGen UID:
149266
Concept ID:
C0740852
Finding
Increased resistance to the passage of air in the upper airway.
Cleft upper lip
MedGen UID:
40327
Concept ID:
C0008924
Congenital Abnormality
A gap or groove in the upper lip. This is a congenital defect resulting from nonfusion of tissues of the lip during embryonal development.
Bifid nose
MedGen UID:
66379
Concept ID:
C0221363
Congenital Abnormality
Visually assessable vertical indentation, cleft, or depression of the nasal bridge, ridge and tip.
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Telecanthus
MedGen UID:
140836
Concept ID:
C0423113
Finding
Distance between the inner canthi more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparently increased distance between the inner canthi.
Bifid nasal tip
MedGen UID:
140870
Concept ID:
C0426428
Finding
A splitting of the nasal tip. Visually assessable vertical indentation, cleft, or depression of the nasal tip.
Broad nasal tip
MedGen UID:
98424
Concept ID:
C0426429
Finding
Increase in width of the nasal tip.
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Increased breadth of the nasal bridge (and with it, the nasal root).
U-Shaped upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
383857
Concept ID:
C1856202
Finding
Gentle upward curve of the upper lip vermilion such that the center is placed well superior to the commissures.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Midline facial cleft
MedGen UID:
867619
Concept ID:
C4022007
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital malformation with a cleft (gap or opening) in the midline of the face.
Midline defect of the nose
MedGen UID:
870948
Concept ID:
C4025411
Anatomical Abnormality
This term groups together three conditions that presumably represent different degrees of severity of a midline defect of the nose or nasal tip.
Onychogryposis
MedGen UID:
82671
Concept ID:
C0263537
Disease or Syndrome
Nail that appears thick when viewed on end.
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).
Glaucoma
MedGen UID:
42224
Concept ID:
C0017601
Disease or Syndrome
Glaucoma refers loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern of optic neuropathy usually associated with increased intraocular pressure.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous
MedGen UID:
120583
Concept ID:
C0266568
Congenital Abnormality
Persistence of the hyaloid artery, which is the embryonic artery that runs from the optic disk to the posterior lens capsule may persist; the site of attachment may form an opacity. The hyaloid artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery, and usually regresses completely before birth. This features results from a failure of regression of the hyaloid vessel, which supplies the primary vitreous during embryogenesis and normally regresses in the third trimester of pregnancy, leading to a particular form of posterior cataract.
Optic nerve hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
137901
Concept ID:
C0338502
Disease or Syndrome
Underdevelopment of the optic nerve.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVAcromelic frontonasal dysostosis

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