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Long philtrum

MedGen UID:
351278
Concept ID:
C1865014
Finding
Synonym: Elongated philtrum
 
HPO: HP:0000343

Definition

Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Johanson-Blizzard syndrome
MedGen UID:
59798
Concept ID:
C0175692
Disease or Syndrome
Johanson-Blizzard syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poor growth, mental retardation, and variable dysmorphic features, including aplasia or hypoplasia of the nasal alae, abnormal hair patterns or scalp defects, and oligodontia. Other features include hypothyroidism, sensorineural hearing loss, imperforate anus, and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (summary by Al-Dosari et al., 2008).
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome
MedGen UID:
61231
Concept ID:
C0175694
Disease or Syndrome
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a congenital multiple-anomaly / cognitive impairment syndrome caused by an abnormality in cholesterol metabolism resulting from deficiency of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase. It is characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and multiple major and minor malformations. The malformations include distinctive facial features, cleft palate, cardiac defects, underdeveloped external genitalia in males, postaxial polydactyly, and 2-3 syndactyly of the toes. The clinical spectrum is wide; individuals with normal development and only minor malformations have been described.
Williams syndrome
MedGen UID:
59799
Concept ID:
C0175702
Disease or Syndrome
Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by cardiovascular disease (elastin arteriopathy, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis, hypertension), distinctive facies, connective tissue abnormalities, intellectual disability (usually mild), a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, growth abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroidism, and early puberty). Feeding difficulties often lead to poor weight gain in infancy. Hypotonia and hyperextensible joints can result in delayed attainment of motor milestones.
Achondrogenesis type II
MedGen UID:
66315
Concept ID:
C0220685
Congenital Abnormality
Achondrogenesis type II (ACG2) is characterized by severe micromelic dwarfism with small chest and prominent abdomen, incomplete ossification of the vertebral bodies, and disorganization of the costochondral junction. ACG2 is an autosomal dominant trait occurring mostly as new mutations. However, somatic and germline mosaicism have been reported (summary by Comstock et al., 2010).
KBG syndrome
MedGen UID:
66317
Concept ID:
C0220687
Disease or Syndrome
KBG syndrome is typically characterized by macrodontia (especially of the upper central incisors), characteristic facial features (triangular face, brachycephaly, synophrys, widely spaced eyes, broad or bushy eyebrows, prominent ears, prominent nasal bridge, bulbous nose, anteverted nares, long philtrum, and thin vermilion of the upper lip), short stature, developmental delay / intellectual disability, and behavioral issues. Affected individuals may have feeding difficulties (particularly in infancy), skeletal anomalies (brachydactyly, large anterior fontanelle with delayed closure, scoliosis), hearing loss (conductive, mixed, and sensorineural), seizure disorder, and brain malformations. There is significant variability in the clinical findings, even between affected members of the same family.
Macrocephaly, benign familial
MedGen UID:
113101
Concept ID:
C0220690
Congenital Abnormality
A benign form of macrocephaly, sometimes identified with Sotos syndrome, with normal or near-normal birth weight and length with subsequent obesity, variable developmental delay, and typical square facies with frontal bossing, dished-out midface, biparietal narrowing, and long philtrum.
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
66320
Concept ID:
C0220722
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive subtype of cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome caused by mutation(s) in the ERCC6 gene, encoding DNA excision repair protein ERCC-6.
Fryns syndrome
MedGen UID:
65088
Concept ID:
C0220730
Disease or Syndrome
Fryns syndrome is characterized by diaphragmatic defects (diaphragmatic hernia, eventration, hypoplasia, or agenesis); characteristic facial appearance (coarse facies, wide-set eyes, a wide and depressed nasal bridge with a broad nasal tip, long philtrum, low-set and anomalous ears, tented vermilion of the upper lip, wide mouth, and a small jaw); short distal phalanges of the fingers and toes (the nails may also be small); pulmonary hypoplasia; and associated anomalies (polyhydramnios, cloudy corneas and/or microphthalmia, orofacial clefting, renal dysplasia / renal cortical cysts, and/or malformations involving the brain, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, and/or genitalia). Survival beyond the neonatal period is rare. Data on postnatal growth and psychomotor development are limited; however, severe developmental delay and intellectual disability are common.
Weaver syndrome
MedGen UID:
120511
Concept ID:
C0265210
Disease or Syndrome
EZH2-related overgrowth includes EZH2-related Weaver syndrome at one end of the spectrum and tall stature at the other. Although most individuals diagnosed with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant have been identified because of a clinical suspicion of Weaver syndrome, a minority have been identified through molecular genetic testing of family members of probands or individuals with overgrowth who did not have a clinical diagnosis of Weaver syndrome. Thus, the extent of the phenotypic spectrum associated with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant is not yet known. Weaver syndrome is characterized by tall stature, variable intellect (ranging from normal intellect to severe intellectual disability), characteristic facial appearance, and a range of associated clinical features including advanced bone age, poor coordination, soft doughy skin, camptodactyly of the fingers and/or toes, umbilical hernia, abnormal tone, and hoarse low cry in infancy. Brain MRI has identified abnormalities in a few individuals with EZH2-related overgrowth. Neuroblastoma occurs at a slightly increased frequency in individuals with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant but data are insufficient to determine absolute risk. There is currently no evidence that additional malignancies (including hematologic malignancies) occur with increased frequency.
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome
MedGen UID:
120516
Concept ID:
C0265224
Disease or Syndrome
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome (FSS), or DA2A, is phenotypically similar to DA1. In addition to contractures of the hands and feet, FSS is characterized by oropharyngeal abnormalities, scoliosis, and a distinctive face that includes a very small oral orifice (often only a few millimeters in diameter at birth), puckered lips, and an H-shaped dimple of the chin; hence, FSS has been called 'whistling face syndrome.' The limb phenotypes of DA1 and FSS may be so similar that they can only be distinguished by the differences in facial morphology (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120).
Marshall syndrome
MedGen UID:
82694
Concept ID:
C0265235
Disease or Syndrome
Marshall syndrome (MRSHS) is characterized by midfacial hypoplasia, cleft palate, ocular anomalies including high myopia and cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, short stature with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, and arthropathy. In contrast to Stickler syndrome type II, it has less severe eye findings but striking ocular hypertelorism, more pronounced maxillary hypoplasia, and ectodermal abnormalities (summary by Shanske et al., 1997 and Ala-Kokko and Shanske, 2009).
Autosomal recessive multiple pterygium syndrome
MedGen UID:
82696
Concept ID:
C0265261
Congenital Abnormality
Multiple pterygium syndromes comprise a group of multiple congenital anomaly disorders characterized by webbing (pterygia) of the neck, elbows, and/or knees and joint contractures (arthrogryposis) (Morgan et al., 2006). The multiple pterygium syndromes are phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous but are traditionally divided into prenatally lethal (253290) and nonlethal (Escobar) types.
Femoral hypoplasia - unusual facies syndrome
MedGen UID:
120523
Concept ID:
C0265263
Disease or Syndrome
Femoral-facial syndrome (FFS), also known as femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome (FHUFS), is a rare and sporadic multiple congenital anomaly syndrome comprising bilateral femoral hypoplasia and characteristic facial features, such as long philtrum, thin upper lip, micrognathia with or without cleft palate, upward-slanting palpebral fissures, and a short nose with broad tip. Other features, such as renal anomalies, are more variable (summary by Nowaczyk et al., 2010).
Holt-Oram syndrome
MedGen UID:
120524
Concept ID:
C0265264
Disease or Syndrome
Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is characterized by upper-limb defects, congenital heart malformation, and cardiac conduction disease. Upper-limb malformations may be unilateral, bilateral/symmetric, or bilateral/asymmetric and can range from triphalangeal or absent thumb(s) to phocomelia. Other upper-limb malformations can include unequal arm length caused by aplasia or hypoplasia of the radius, fusion or anomalous development of the carpal and thenar bones, abnormal forearm pronation and supination, abnormal opposition of the thumb, sloping shoulders, and restriction of shoulder joint movement. An abnormal carpal bone is present in all affected individuals and may be the only evidence of disease. A congenital heart malformation is present in 75% of individuals with HOS and most commonly involves the septum. Atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect can vary in number, size, and location. Complex congenital heart malformations can also occur in individuals with HOS. Individuals with HOS with or without a congenital heart malformation are at risk for cardiac conduction disease. While individuals may present at birth with sinus bradycardia and first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block, AV block can progress unpredictably to a higher grade including complete heart block with and without atrial fibrillation.
Acromicric dysplasia
MedGen UID:
78549
Concept ID:
C0265287
Congenital Abnormality
Acromicric dysplasia (ACMICD) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by severe short stature, short hands and feet, joint limitations, and skin thickening. Radiologic features include delayed bone age, cone-shaped epiphyses, shortened long tubular bones, and ovoid vertebral bodies. Affected individuals have distinct facial features, including round face, well-defined eyebrows, long eyelashes, bulbous nose with anteverted nostrils, long and prominent philtrum, and thick lips with a small mouth. Other characteristic features include hoarse voice and pseudomuscular build, and there are distinct skeletal features as well, including an internal notch of the femoral head, internal notch of the second metacarpal, and external notch of the fifth metacarpal (summary by Le Goff et al., 2011). Allelic disorders with overlapping skeletal and joint features include geleophysic dysplasia-2 (GPHYSD2; 614185) and the autosomal dominant form of Weill-Marchesani syndrome (608328).
Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome
MedGen UID:
120537
Concept ID:
C0265342
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebrocostomandibular syndrome (CCMS) is characterized mainly by severe micrognathia, rib defects, and mental retardation. A spectrum of rib gap defects have been reported ranging from a few dorsal rib segments to complete absence of ossification. In about half of the 65 reported cases to date, there is cerebral involvement including mental retardation, microcephaly, and histologic anomalies. Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive forms of the disorder have been described (Zeevaert et al., 2009). See CDG2G (611209) for a cerebrocostomandibular-like syndrome.
Pallister-Killian syndrome
MedGen UID:
120540
Concept ID:
C0265449
Disease or Syndrome
Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a dysmorphic condition involving most organ systems, but is also characterized by a tissue-limited mosaicism; most fibroblasts have 47 chromosomes with an extra small metacentric chromosome, whereas the karyotype of lymphocytes is normal. The extra metacentric chromosome is an isochromosome for part of the short arm of chromosome 12: i(12)(p10) (Peltomaki et al., 1987; Warburton et al., 1987).
Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency
MedGen UID:
78641
Concept ID:
C0268126
Disease or Syndrome
Adenylosuccinase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by an enzymatic defect in de novo purine synthesis (DNPS) pathway. ADSL deficiency leads to the accumulation of toxic intermediates, including succinyladenosine (S-Ado) and succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide riboside (SAICAr) in body fluids. There are 3 major phenotypic forms of the disorder that correlate with different values of the S-Ado and SAICAr concentration ratios (S-Ado/SAICAr) in the cerebrospinal fluid. These include the most severe fatal neonatal encephalopathy (S-Ado/SAICAr ratio less than 1); childhood form (type I) with severe psychomotor retardation (S-Ado/SAICAr ratio close to 1), and a milder form (type II) with psychomotor retardation or hypotonia (S-Ado/SAICAr ratio greater than 2) (summary by Baresova et al., 2012).
Cutis laxa, X-linked
MedGen UID:
82793
Concept ID:
C0268353
Congenital Abnormality
Occipital horn syndrome (OHS) is a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by hyperelastic and bruisable skin, hernias, bladder diverticula, hyperextensible joints, varicosities, and multiple skeletal abnormalities. The disorder is sometimes accompanied by mild neurologic impairment, and bony abnormalities of the occiput are a common feature, giving rise to the name (summary by Das et al., 1995).
Cutis laxa with osteodystrophy
MedGen UID:
82795
Concept ID:
C0268355
Disease or Syndrome
ATP6V0A2-related cutis laxa is characterized by generalized cutis laxa, findings associated with generalized connective tissue disorder, developmental delays, and a variety of neurologic findings including abnormality on brain MRI. At birth, hypotonia, overfolded skin, and distinctive facial features are present and enlarged fontanelles are often observed. During childhood, the characteristic facial features and thick or coarse hair may become quite pronounced. The skin findings decrease with age, although easy bruising and Ehlers-Danlos-like scars have been described in some. In most (not all) affected individuals, cortical and cerebellar malformations are observed on brain MRI. Nearly all affected individuals have developmental delays, seizures, and neurologic regression.
Histidine transport defect
MedGen UID:
82825
Concept ID:
C0268642
Disease or Syndrome
A rare disorder of histidine metabolism characterized by histidinuria without histidinemia due to impaired intestinal and renal tubular absorption of histidine. Developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, and mild dysmorphic features have been reported in association. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1992.
Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus
MedGen UID:
574999
Concept ID:
C0342394
Disease or Syndrome
Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is an autosomal dominant disorder of free water conservation characterized by childhood onset of polyuria and polydipsia. Affected individuals are apparently normal at birth, but characteristically develop symptoms of vasopressin deficiency during childhood (summary by Wahlstrom et al., 2004).
Sialuria
MedGen UID:
137980
Concept ID:
C0342853
Disease or Syndrome
Sialuria is a rare inborn error of metabolism in which excessive free sialic acid is synthesized. Clinical features include hepatosplenomegaly, coarse facial features, and varying degrees of developmental delay (summary by Enns et al., 2001).
Bifunctional peroxisomal enzyme deficiency
MedGen UID:
137982
Concept ID:
C0342870
Pathologic Function
D-bifunctional protein deficiency is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. See also peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency (264470), caused by mutation in the ACOX1 gene (609751) on chromosome 17q25. The clinical manifestations of these 2 deficiencies are similar to those of disorders of peroxisomal assembly, including X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD; 300100), Zellweger cerebrohepatorenal syndrome (see 214100) and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD; see 601539) (Watkins et al., 1995). DBP deficiency has been classified into 3 subtypes depending upon the deficient enzyme activity. Type I is a deficiency of both 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase; type II is a deficiency of hydratase activity alone; and type III is a deficiency of dehydrogenase activity alone. Virtually all patients with types I, II, and III have a severe phenotype characterized by infantile-onset of hypotonia, seizures, and abnormal facial features, and most die before age 2 years. McMillan et al. (2012) proposed a type IV deficiency on the basis of less severe features; these patients have a phenotype reminiscent of Perrault syndrome (PRLTS1; 233400). Pierce et al. (2010) noted that Perrault syndrome and DBP deficiency overlap clinically and suggested that DBP deficiency may be underdiagnosed.
Neonatal pseudo-hydrocephalic progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
140806
Concept ID:
C0406586
Disease or Syndrome
Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WDRTS) is a rare autosomal recessive neonatal progeroid disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, failure to thrive, short stature, a progeroid appearance, hypotonia, and variable mental impairment (summary by Toriello, 1990). Average survival in WDRTS is 7 months, although survival into the third decade of life has been reported (Akawi et al., 2013).
Wrinkly skin syndrome
MedGen UID:
98030
Concept ID:
C0406587
Disease or Syndrome
ATP6V0A2-related cutis laxa is characterized by generalized cutis laxa, findings associated with generalized connective tissue disorder, developmental delays, and a variety of neurologic findings including abnormality on brain MRI. At birth, hypotonia, overfolded skin, and distinctive facial features are present and enlarged fontanelles are often observed. During childhood, the characteristic facial features and thick or coarse hair may become quite pronounced. The skin findings decrease with age, although easy bruising and Ehlers-Danlos-like scars have been described in some. In most (not all) affected individuals, cortical and cerebellar malformations are observed on brain MRI. Nearly all affected individuals have developmental delays, seizures, and neurologic regression.
GAPO syndrome
MedGen UID:
98034
Concept ID:
C0406723
Disease or Syndrome
GAPO syndrome is the acronymic designation for a complex of growth retardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia (failure of tooth eruption), and progressive optic atrophy (Tipton and Gorlin, 1984). Ilker et al. (1999) and Bayram et al. (2014) noted that optic atrophy is not a consistent feature of the disorder.
Trigonocephaly 1
MedGen UID:
98473
Concept ID:
C0432122
Congenital Abnormality
Individuals with trigonocephaly have a keel-shaped forehead with wide biparietal diameter, resulting in a triangular shape of the head. Trigonocephaly results from premature closure of the metopic sutures and usually occurs sporadically (summary by Frydman et al., 1984). Genetic Heterogeneity of Isolated Trigonocephaly Also see trigonocephaly-2 (TRIGNO2; 614485), caused by mutation in the FREM1 gene (608944) on chromosome 9p22.
Opsismodysplasia
MedGen UID:
140927
Concept ID:
C0432219
Disease or Syndrome
Opsismodysplasia (OPSMD) is a rare skeletal dysplasia involving delayed bone maturation. Clinical signs observed at birth include short limbs, small hands and feet, relative macrocephaly with a large anterior fontanel, and characteristic craniofacial abnormalities including a prominent brow, depressed nasal bridge, a small anteverted nose, and a relatively long philtrum. Death in utero or secondary to respiratory failure during the first few years of life has been reported, but there can be long-term survival. Typical radiographic findings include shortened long bones with delayed epiphyseal ossification, severe platyspondyly, metaphyseal cupping, and characteristic abnormalities of the metacarpals and phalanges (summary by Below et al., 2013 and Fradet and Fitzgerald, 2017).
Trichorhinophalangeal dysplasia type I
MedGen UID:
140929
Concept ID:
C0432233
Disease or Syndrome
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) comprises TRPS I (caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in TRPS1) and TRPS II (caused by contiguous gene deletion of TRPS1, RAD21, and EXT1). Both types of TRPS are characterized by distinctive facial features; ectodermal features (fine, sparse, depigmented, and slow growing hair; dystrophic nails; and small breasts); and skeletal findings (short stature; short feet; brachydactyly with ulnar or radial deviation of the fingers; and early, marked hip dysplasia). TRPS II is characterized by multiple osteochondromas (typically first observed clinically on the scapulae and around the elbows and knees between ages 1 month and 6 years) and an increased risk of mild-to-moderate intellectual disability.
Osteoglophonic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
96592
Concept ID:
C0432283
Congenital Abnormality
Osteoglophonic dysplasia (OGD) is characterized by rhizomelic dwarfism, nonossifying bone lesions, craniosynostosis, prominent supraorbital ridge, and depressed nasal bridge (summary by White et al., 2005).
Chromosome 9p deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
167073
Concept ID:
C0795830
Disease or Syndrome
A rare chromosomal anomaly with characteristics of psychomotor developmental delay, facial dysmorphism (trigonocephaly, midface hypoplasia, upslanting palpebral fissures, dysplastic small ears, flat nasal bridge with anteverted nostrils and long philtrum, micrognathia, choanal atresia, short neck), single umbilical artery, omphalocele, inguinal or umbilical hernia, genital abnormalities (hypospadia, cryptorchidism), muscular hypotonia and scoliosis.
Hypertrichotic osteochondrodysplasia Cantu type
MedGen UID:
208647
Concept ID:
C0795905
Disease or Syndrome
Cantú syndrome is characterized by congenital hypertrichosis; distinctive coarse facial features (including broad nasal bridge, wide mouth with full lips and macroglossia); enlarged heart with enhanced systolic function or pericardial effusion and in many, a large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) requiring repair; and skeletal abnormalities (thickening of the calvaria, broad ribs, scoliosis, and flaring of the metaphyses). Other cardiovascular abnormalities may include dilated aortic root and ascending aorta with rare aortic aneurysm, tortuous vascularity involving brain and retinal vasculature, and pulmonary arteriovenous communications. Generalized edema (which may be present at birth) spontaneously resolves; peripheral edema of the lower extremities (and sometimes arms and hands) may develop at adolescence. Developmental delays are common, but intellect is typically normal; behavioral problems can include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and depression.
DOORS syndrome
MedGen UID:
208648
Concept ID:
C0795934
Disease or Syndrome
TBC1D24-related disorders comprise a continuum of features that were originally described as distinct, recognized phenotypes: DOORS syndrome (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation, and seizures). Profound sensorineural hearing loss, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, intellectual disability / developmental delay, and seizures. Familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy (FIME). Early-onset myoclonic seizures, focal epilepsy, dysarthria, and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME). Action myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, progressive neurologic decline, and ataxia. Early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy 16 (EIEE16). Epileptiform EEG abnormalities which themselves are believed to contribute to progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNB86. Profound prelingual deafness. Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNA65. Slowly progressive deafness with onset in the third decade, initially affecting the high frequencies.
Fine-Lubinsky syndrome
MedGen UID:
163198
Concept ID:
C0795941
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of psychomotor delay, brachycephaly with flat face, small nose, microstomia, cleft palate, cataract, hearing loss, hypoplastic scrotum and digital anomalies. Less than 10 patients have been described in the literature so far. Although the majority of reported cases were sporadic, the syndrome has been reported in one pair of siblings (a brother and sister) with an apparently autosomal recessive inheritance pattern.
Peters plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
163204
Concept ID:
C0796012
Disease or Syndrome
Peters plus syndrome is characterized by anterior chamber eye anomalies, short limbs with broad distal extremities, characteristic facial features, cleft lip/palate, and variable developmental delay / intellectual disability. The most common anterior chamber defect is Peters' anomaly, consisting of central corneal clouding, thinning of the posterior cornea, and iridocorneal adhesions. Cataracts and glaucoma are common. Developmental delay is observed in about 80% of children; intellectual disability can range from mild to severe.
Marden-Walker syndrome
MedGen UID:
163206
Concept ID:
C0796033
Disease or Syndrome
Marden-Walker syndrome (MWKS) is characterized by psychomotor retardation, a mask-like face with blepharophimosis, micrognathia and a high-arched or cleft palate, low-set ears, kyphoscoliosis, and joint contractures. Other features may include Dandy-Walker malformation with hydrocephalus and vertebral abnormalities (summary by Schrander-Stumpel et al., 1993). There are 2 distal arthrogryposis syndromes with features overlapping those of Marden-Walker syndrome that are also caused by heterozygous mutation in PIEZO2: distal arthrogryposis type 3 (DA3, or Gordon syndrome; 114300) and distal arthrogryposis type 5 (DA5; 108145), which are distinguished by the presence of cleft palate and ocular abnormalities, respectively. McMillin et al. (2014) suggested that the 3 disorders may represent variable expressivity of the same condition.
Megalocornea-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
162904
Concept ID:
C0796086
Disease or Syndrome
The cardinal findings of Neuhauser syndrome, also known as MMR syndrome, are impaired intellectual development or developmental delay, megalocornea, hypotonia, prominent forehead, micrognathia, prominent nasal bridge, and thin upper lip or carp-like mouth (Naritomi et al., 1997). Reviews Gutierrez-Amavizca et al. (2013) reviewed published reports and tabulated the clinical features of 35 patients with Neuhauser syndrome. Primary megalocornea and psychomotor delay were present in all patients. Characteristics observed in more than half of patients included hypotonia, growth retardation, abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) and/or seizures, micro- or macrocephaly, brain malformations such as cerebral atrophy and hypoplastic corpus callosum, craniofacial dysmorphisms, cardiac anomalies, osteoarticular abnormalities, and refractive errors. Additional features found at low frequency included primary hypothyroidism, recurrent infections, feeding difficulties, cerebral hypomyelination, dyslipidemia, sensorineural deafness, laryngomalacia, large fleshy and cup-shaped ears, obesity, and cryptorchidism. The authors stated that the classification suggested by Verloes et al. (1993) did not seem to be applicable, and proposed that the diagnosis of Neuhauser syndrome should be made in the presence of intellectual disability and megalocornea in the absence of elevated intraocular pressure, with at least 1 minor feature from among those observed in more than half of patients.
Blepharophimosis - intellectual disability syndrome, Ohdo type
MedGen UID:
162905
Concept ID:
C0796094
Disease or Syndrome
A rare multiple congenital malformation syndrome with characteristics of blepharophimosis, ptosis, dental hypoplasia, hearing impairment and intellectual disability. Abnormal ears, microcephaly, and growth retardation have been reported occasionally. Male patients may show cryptorchidism and scrotal hypoplasia. Most reported cases are sporadic, except the original cases of Ohdo who described two affected sisters and a first cousin, suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance. Autosomal dominant, X-linked- and mitochondrial inheritance have also been suggested.
Acrocallosal syndrome
MedGen UID:
162915
Concept ID:
C0796147
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Wieacker-Wolff syndrome
MedGen UID:
163227
Concept ID:
C0796200
Disease or Syndrome
Wieacker-Wolff syndrome (WRWF) is a severe X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is characterized by onset of muscle weakness in utero (fetal akinesia), which results in arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) apparent at birth. Affected boys are born with severe contractures, show delayed motor development, facial and bulbar weakness, characteristic dysmorphic facial features, and skeletal abnormalities, such as hip dislocation, scoliosis, and foot deformities. Additional features include global developmental delay with poor or absent speech and impaired intellectual development, feeding difficulties and poor growth, hypotonia, hypogenitalism, and spasticity. Carrier females may be unaffected or have mild features of the disorder (summary by Hirata et al., 2013 and Frints et al., 2019).
Elsahy-Waters syndrome
MedGen UID:
923028
Concept ID:
C0809936
Disease or Syndrome
The core phenotype of Elsahy-Waters syndrome consists of brachycephaly, facial asymmetry, marked hypertelorism, proptosis, blepharochalasis, midface hypoplasia, broad nose with concave nasal ridge, and prognathism; radicular dentin dysplasia with consequent obliterated pulp chambers, apical translucent cysts, recurrent infections, and early loss of teeth; vertebral fusions, particularly at C2-C3; and moderate mental retardation. Skin wrinkling over the glabellar region seems common, and in males, hypospadias has always been present. Inter- and intrafamilial variability has been reported regarding the presence of vertebral fusions, hearing loss, and dentigerous cysts. Midface hypoplasia, facial asymmetry, progressive dental anomalies, and impaired cognitive development become more evident in adulthood (summary by Castori et al., 2010).
Hajdu-Cheney syndrome
MedGen UID:
182961
Concept ID:
C0917715
Disease or Syndrome
Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HJCYS) is a rare autosomal dominant skeletal disorder characterized by short stature, coarse and dysmorphic facies, bowing of the long bones, and vertebral anomalies. Facial features include hypertelorism, bushy eyebrows, micrognathia, small mouth with dental anomalies, low-set ears, and short neck. There is progressive focal bone destruction, including acroosteolysis and generalized osteoporosis. Additional and variable features include hearing loss, renal cysts, and cardiovascular anomalies (summary by Ramos et al., 1998; Simpson et al., 2011; Isidor et al., 2011).
Fetal akinesia deformation sequence 1
MedGen UID:
220903
Concept ID:
C1276035
Disease or Syndrome
Decreased fetal activity associated with multiple joint contractures, facial anomalies and pulmonary hypoplasia. Ultrasound examination may reveal polyhydramnios, ankylosis, scalp edema, and decreased chest movements (reflecting pulmonary hypoplasia).
Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome
MedGen UID:
220983
Concept ID:
C1303073
Disease or Syndrome
Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) is characterized by sparse scalp hair, prominence of the inter-phalangeal joints and distal phalanges due to decreased subcutaneous fat, characteristic coarse facial features, microcephaly, seizures, and developmental delay / intellectual disability. Seizures are of various types and can be difficult to manage. Developmental delay / intellectual disability (ID) is severe in nearly a half, moderate in a third, and mild in the remainder. Nearly a third never develop speech or language skills.
Ayme-Gripp syndrome
MedGen UID:
371416
Concept ID:
C1832812
Disease or Syndrome
Aymé-Gripp syndrome is classically defined as the triad of bilateral early cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, and characteristic facial features in combination with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The facial features are often described as "Down syndrome-like" and include brachycephaly, flat facial appearance, short nose, long philtrum, narrow mouth, and low-set and posteriorly rotated ears. Hearing loss is often congenital. Other features may include postnatal short stature, seizure disorder, nonspecific brain abnormalities on head imaging, skeletal abnormalities, and joint limitations. A subset of individuals have been found to have pericarditis or pericardial effusion during the neonatal or infantile period. All affected individuals have had developmental delay, but the degree of cognitive impairment is extremely variable. Other features including gastrointestinal and endocrine abnormalities, ectodermal dysplasia (i.e., nail dystrophy and mammary gland hypoplasia), dental anomalies, and chronic glomerulopathy with proteinuria have been reported in rare affected individuals.
Otodental syndrome
MedGen UID:
318937
Concept ID:
C1833693
Disease or Syndrome
Otodental syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by grossly enlarged canine and molar teeth (globodontia), associated with sensorineural hearing loss. Ocular coloboma segregating with otodental syndrome has been reported (summary by Gregory-Evans et al., 2007).
MOMO syndrome
MedGen UID:
371897
Concept ID:
C1834759
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare genetic overgrowth/obesity syndrome with characteristics of macrocephaly, obesity, mental (intellectual) disability and ocular abnormalities. Other frequent clinical signs include macrosomia, downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, broad nasal root, high and broad forehead and delay in bone maturation, in association with normal thyroid function and karyotype.
Microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
320559
Concept ID:
C1835265
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or impaired intellectual development (MCLMR) is an autosomal dominant disorder that involves an overlapping but variable spectrum of central nervous system and ocular developmental anomalies. Microcephaly ranges from mild to severe and is often associated with mild to moderate developmental delay and a characteristic facial phenotype with upslanting palpebral fissures, broad nose with rounded tip, long philtrum with thin upper lip, prominent chin, and prominent ears. Chorioretinopathy is the most common eye abnormality, but retinal folds, microphthalmia, and myopic and hypermetropic astigmatism have also been reported, and some individuals have no overt ocular phenotype. Congenital lymphedema, when present, is typically confined to the dorsa of the feet, and lymphoscintigraphy reveals the absence of radioactive isotope uptake from the webspaces between the toes (summary by Ostergaard et al., 2012). Robitaille et al. (2014) found that MCLMR includes a broader spectrum of ocular disease, including retinal detachment with avascularity of the peripheral retina, and noted phenotypic overlap with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR; see EVR1, 133780). Birtel et al. (2017) observed intrafamilial and intraindividual variability in retinal phenotype, and noted that syndromic manifestations in some patients are too subtle to be detected during a routine ophthalmologic evaluation. Variable expressivity and reduced penetrance have also been observed in some families (Jones et al., 2014; Li et al., 2016). Autosomal recessive forms of microcephaly with chorioretinopathy have been reported (see 251270). See also Mirhosseini-Holmes-Walton syndrome (autosomal recessive microcephaly with pigmentary retinopathy and impaired intellectual development; 268050), which has been mapped to chromosome 8q21.3-q22.1.
Emanuel syndrome
MedGen UID:
323030
Concept ID:
C1836929
Disease or Syndrome
Emanuel syndrome is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, microcephaly, hypotonia, severe developmental delays, ear anomalies, preauricular tags or pits, cleft or high-arched palate, congenital heart defects, kidney abnormalities, and genital abnormalities in males.
Intellectual disability-brachydactyly-Pierre Robin syndrome
MedGen UID:
325196
Concept ID:
C1837564
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual disability-brachydactyly-Pierre Robin syndrome is a rare developmental defect during embryogenesis syndrome characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability and phsychomotor delay, Robin sequence (incl. severe micrognathia and soft palate cleft) and distinct dysmorphic facial features (e.g. synophris, short palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, small, low-set, and posteriorly angulated ears, bulbous nose, long/flat philtrum, and bow-shaped upper lip). Skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly, clinodactyly, small hands and feet, and oral manifestations (e.g. bifid, short tongue, oligodontia) are also associated. Additional features reported include microcephaly, capillary hemangiomas on face and scalp, ventricular septal defect, corneal clouding, nystagmus and profound sensorineural deafness.
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with congenital joint dislocations
MedGen UID:
373381
Concept ID:
C1837657
Disease or Syndrome
CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal.
SCARF syndrome
MedGen UID:
326461
Concept ID:
C1839321
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with the association of skeletal abnormalities, cutis laxa, craniostenosis, ambiguous genitalia, psychomotor retardation and facial abnormalities. So far, it has been described in two males (maternal first cousins). The mode of inheritance was suggested to be X-linked recessive.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1-alpha deficiency
MedGen UID:
326486
Concept ID:
C1839413
Disease or Syndrome
Genetic defects in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex are one of the most common causes of primary lactic acidosis in children. Most cases are caused by mutation in the E1-alpha subunit gene on the X chromosome. X-linked PDH deficiency is one of the few X-linked diseases in which a high proportion of heterozygous females manifest severe symptoms. The clinical spectrum of PDH deficiency is broad, ranging from fatal lactic acidosis in the newborn to chronic neurologic dysfunction with structural abnormalities in the central nervous system without systemic acidosis (Robinson et al., 1987; Brown et al., 1994). Genetic Heterogeneity of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency PDH deficiency can also be caused by mutation in other subunits of the PDH complex, including a form (PDHXD; 245349) caused by mutation in the component X gene (PDHX; 608769) on chromosome 11p13; a form (PDHBD; 614111) caused by mutation in the PDHB gene (179060) on chromosome 3p14; a form (PDHDD; 245348) caused by mutation in the DLAT gene (608770) on chromosome 11q23; a form (PDHPD; 608782) caused by mutation in the PDP1 gene (605993) on chromosome 8q22; and a form (PDHLD; 614462) caused by mutation in the LIAS gene (607031) on chromosome 4p14.
Large congenital melanocytic nevus
MedGen UID:
330752
Concept ID:
C1842036
Neoplastic Process
Congenital melanocytic nevus syndrome is characterized by pigmentary skin defects apparent at birth. Most individuals have 1 or more large or giant lesions greater than 20 cm and up to over 60 cm in diameter, which may cover up to 80% of total body area. These lesions may or may not be hairy. Smaller 'satellite' pigmented lesions numbering in the hundreds may also be present all over the body. Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) can be associated with malignant melanoma (see CMM1, 155600), but the risk appears to be low, ranging from 1 to 2% for all individuals, but rising to 10 to 15% in those with very large nevi (greater than 40 cm). A small subset of patients with CMNS have abnormalities of the central nervous system, known as 'neurocutaneous melanosis' or 'neuromelanosis' (249400), which may be symptomatic. Patients with CMNS also tend to have a characteristic facial appearance, including wide or prominent forehead, periorbital fullness, small short nose with narrow nasal bridge, round face, full cheeks, prominent premaxilla, and everted lower lip (summary by Kinsler et al., 2008; Kinsler et al., 2012). Spitz nevi are benign melanocytic melanomas composed of epithelioid or spindle cell melanocytes. They usually present as solitary skin tumors but can occur in multiple patterns, having agminated, dermatomal, and disseminated forms (summary by Sarin et al., 2013). Nevus spilus, also known as speckled lentiginous nevus, is a congenital hyperpigmented patch that progressively evolves, with affected individuals developing dark macules and papules during childhood and adolescence. Over time, nevus spilus may give rise to common lentigines, melanocytic nevi, Spitz nevi, and melanomas (summary by Sarin et al., 2014).
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
374912
Concept ID:
C1842362
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
8q22.1 microdeletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334165
Concept ID:
C1842464
Disease or Syndrome
Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) is a rare entity defined by distinctive facial features, including blepharophimosis, tight-appearing glistening facial skin, an abnormal hair pattern with an upswept frontal hairline, sparse arched eyebrows, flat and broad nose, long philtrum, distinctive ears, and a happy demeanor (summary by Jain et al., 2010).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 3
MedGen UID:
334225
Concept ID:
C1842687
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by an abnormally small cerebellum and brainstem. Clinical features vary, but usually include severe developmental delay, dysmorphic features, seizures, and early death (summary by Durmaz et al., 2009). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334629
Concept ID:
C1842870
Disease or Syndrome
The constitutional deletion of chromosome 1p36 results in a syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (Shapira et al., 1997). Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome in humans, occurring in 1 in 5,000 births (Shaffer and Lupski, 2000; Heilstedt et al., 2003). See also neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH; 616975), which shows overlapping features and is caused by heterozygous mutation in the RERE gene (605226) on proximal chromosome 1p36. See also Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS; 619312), caused by mutation in the SPEN gene (613484) on chromosome 1p36, which shows overlapping features.
Craniolenticulosutural dysplasia
MedGen UID:
334671
Concept ID:
C1843042
Disease or Syndrome
Craniolenticulosutural dysplasia is characterized by facial dysmorphism, late-closing fontanels, cataract, and skeletal defects (summary by Boyadjiev et al., 2011).
FG syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
336854
Concept ID:
C1845119
Disease or Syndrome
Additional features seen in some people with FG syndrome include widely set eyes (hypertelorism), an upswept frontal hairline, and a large head compared to body size (relative macrocephaly). Other health problems have also been reported, including heart defects, seizures, undescended testes (cryptorchidism) in males, and a soft out-pouching in the lower abdomen (an inguinal hernia).\n\nThe physical features of FG syndrome include weak muscle tone (hypotonia), broad thumbs, and wide first (big) toes. Abnormalities of the tissue connecting the left and right halves of the brain (the corpus callosum) are also common. Most affected individuals have constipation, and many have abnormalities of the anus such as an obstruction of the anal opening (imperforate anus). People with FG syndrome also tend to have a distinctive facial appearance including small, underdeveloped ears; a tall, prominent forehead; and outside corners of the eyes that point downward (down-slanting palpebral fissures).\n\nFG syndrome affects intelligence and behavior. Almost everyone with the condition has intellectual disability, which ranges from mild to severe. Affected individuals tend to be friendly, inquisitive, and hyperactive, with a short attention span. Compared to people with other forms of intellectual disability, their socialization and daily living skills are strong, while verbal communication and language skills tend to be weaker.\n\nFG syndrome is a genetic condition that affects many parts of the body and occurs almost exclusively in males. "FG" represents the surname initials of the first family diagnosed with the disorder.
Roifman syndrome
MedGen UID:
375801
Concept ID:
C1846059
Disease or Syndrome
Roifman syndrome is a multisystem disorder characterized by growth retardation, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, retinal dystrophy, distinctive facial dysmorphism, and immunodeficiency (summary by de Vries et al., 2006).
X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia
MedGen UID:
375832
Concept ID:
C1846171
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked lissencephaly-2 (LISX2) is a developmental disorder characterized by structural brain anomalies, early-onset intractable seizures, severe psychomotor retardation, and ambiguous genitalia. Males are severely affected and often die within the first days or months of life, whereas females may be unaffected or have a milder phenotype (Bonneau et al., 2002). LISX2 is part of a phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by mutation in the ARX gene comprising a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders ranging from hydranencephaly and lissencephaly to Proud syndrome (300004) to infantile spasms without brain malformations (DEE1; 308350) to syndromic (309510) and nonsyndromic (300419) mental retardation (Kato et al., 2004; Wallerstein et al., 2008). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432).
Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome
MedGen UID:
337547
Concept ID:
C1846265
Disease or Syndrome
Oculofaciocardiodental (OFCD) syndrome is a condition that affects the development of the eyes (oculo-), facial features (facio-), heart (cardio-) and teeth (dental). This condition occurs only in females.\n\nThe eye abnormalities associated with OFCD syndrome can affect one or both eyes. Many people with this condition are born with eyeballs that are abnormally small (microphthalmia). Other eye problems can include clouding of the lens (cataract) and a higher risk of glaucoma, an eye disease that increases the pressure in the eye. These abnormalities can lead to vision loss or blindness.\n\nPeople with OFCD syndrome often have a long, narrow face with distinctive facial features, including deep-set eyes and a broad nasal tip that is divided by a cleft. Some affected people have an opening in the roof of the mouth called a cleft palate.\n\nHeart defects are another common feature of OFCD syndrome. Babies with this condition may be born with a hole between two chambers of the heart (an atrial or ventricular septal defect) or a leak in one of the valves that controls blood flow through the heart (mitral valve prolapse).\n\nTeeth with very large roots (radiculomegaly) are characteristic of OFCD syndrome. Additional dental abnormalities can include delayed loss of primary (baby) teeth, missing or abnormally small teeth, misaligned teeth, and defective tooth enamel.
MEHMO syndrome
MedGen UID:
375855
Concept ID:
C1846278
Disease or Syndrome
MEHMO syndrome is a rare intellectual disability disorder that exhibits phenotypic heterogeneity and is variably characterized by mental retardation, epileptic seizures, hypogonadism with hypogenitalism, microcephaly, and obesity. Life expectancy ranges from less than 1 year to adulthood, and the condition is associated with significant morbidity and mortality (summary by Gregory et al., 2019).
Lathosterolosis
MedGen UID:
375885
Concept ID:
C1846421
Disease or Syndrome
Lathosterolosis (LATHOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of multiple congenital anomalies involving axial and appendicular skeleton, liver, central nervous and urogenital systems, and lysosomal storage. It is caused by a defect of cholesterol biosynthesis due to sterol C5-desaturase deficiency (summary by Rossi et al., 2007).
Whistling face syndrome, recessive form
MedGen UID:
376364
Concept ID:
C1848470
Disease or Syndrome
Whistling face syndrome is characterized by an atypical facial appearance with anomalies of the hands and feet. Most cases show autosomal dominant inheritance: see distal arthrogryposis 2A (DA2A; 193700). There are rare reports of presumably autosomal recessive inheritance (summary by Altunhan et al., 2010).
Cold-induced sweating syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
338577
Concept ID:
C1848947
Disease or Syndrome
Cold-induced sweating syndrome (CISS) and its infantile presentation, Crisponi syndrome(CS) is characterized by dysmorphic features (distinctive facies, lower facial weakness, flexion deformity at the elbows, camptodactyly with fisted hands, misshapen feet, and overriding toes); intermittent contracture of facial and oropharyngeal muscles when crying or being handled with puckering of lips and drooling of foamy saliva often associated with laryngospasm and respiratory distress; excessive startling and opisthotonus-like posturing with unexpected tactile or auditory stimuli; poor suck reflex and severely impaired swallowing; and a scaly erythematous rash. During the first decade of life, children with CISS/CS develop profuse sweating of the face, arms, and chest with ambient temperatures below 18º to 22º C, and with other stimuli including nervousness or ingestion of sweets. Affected individuals sweat very little in hot environments and may feel overheated. Progressive thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis occurs, requiring intervention in the second decade.
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia-short limb-abnormal calcification syndrome
MedGen UID:
338595
Concept ID:
C1849011
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia-short limb-abnormal calcification syndrome is a rare, genetic primary bone dysplasia disorder characterized by disproportionate short stature with shortening of upper and lower limbs, short and broad fingers with short hands, narrowed chest with rib abnormalities and pectus excavatum, abnormal chondral calcifications (incl. larynx, trachea and costal cartilages) and facial dysmorphism (frontal bossing, hypertelorism, prominent eyes, short flat nose, wide nostrils, high-arched palate, long philtrum). Platyspondyly (esp. of cervical spine) and abnormal epiphyses and metaphyses are observed on radiography. Atlantoaxial instability causing spinal compression and recurrent respiratory disease are potential complications that may result lethal.
Growth delay due to insulin-like growth factor I resistance
MedGen UID:
338622
Concept ID:
C1849157
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with mutations in the receptor for insulin-like growth factor I show intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth failure, resulting in short stature and microcephaly. Other features may include delayed bone age, developmental delay, and dysmorphic features.
Autosomal recessive omodysplasia
MedGen UID:
340513
Concept ID:
C1850318
Disease or Syndrome
Omodysplasia-1 (OMOD1) is a rare autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe congenital micromelia with shortening and distal tapering of the humeri and femora to give a club-like appearance. Typical facial features include a prominent forehead, frontal bossing, short nose with a depressed broad bridge, short columella, anteverted nostrils, long philtrum, and small chin. Variable findings are cryptorchidism, hernias, congenital heart defects, and cognitive delay (Elcioglu et al., 2004; Albano et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Omodysplasia Also see omodysplasia-2 (OMOD2; 164745), an autosomal dominant form of the disorder in which abnormalities are limited to the upper limbs. The facial changes and typical growth defect of the distal humerus with complex deformity of the elbows appear to be similar in both entities (Baxova et al., 1994).
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
338026
Concept ID:
C1850343
Disease or Syndrome
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome is a rare disorder in which some cells in the body have an abnormal number of chromosomes instead of the usual 46 chromosomes, a situation known as aneuploidy. Most commonly, cells have an extra chromosome, which is called trisomy, or are missing a chromosome, which is known as monosomy. In MVA syndrome, some cells are aneuploid and others have the normal number of chromosomes, which is a phenomenon known as mosaicism. Typically, at least one-quarter of cells in affected individuals have an abnormal number of chromosomes. Because the additional or missing chromosomes vary among the abnormal cells, the aneuploidy is described as variegated.\n\nThere are at least three types of MVA syndrome, each with a different genetic cause. Type 1 is the most common and displays the classic signs and symptoms described above. Type 2 appears to have slightly different signs and symptoms than type 1, although the small number of affected individuals makes it difficult to define its characteristic features. Individuals with MVA syndrome type 2 grow slowly before and after birth; however, their head size is typically normal. Some people with MVA syndrome type 2 have unusually short arms. Individuals with MVA syndrome type 2 do not seem to have an increased risk of cancer. Another form of MVA syndrome is characterized by a high risk of developing Wilms tumor. Individuals with this form may also have other signs and symptoms typical of MVA syndrome type 1.\n\nIn MVA syndrome, growth before birth is slow (intrauterine growth restriction). After birth, affected individuals continue to grow at a slow rate and are shorter than average. In addition, they typically have an unusually small head size (microcephaly). Another common feature of MVA syndrome is an increased risk of developing cancer in childhood. Cancers that occur most frequently in affected individuals include a cancer of muscle tissue called rhabdomyosarcoma, a form of kidney cancer known as Wilms tumor, and a cancer of the blood-forming tissue known as leukemia.\n\nLess commonly, people with MVA syndrome have eye abnormalities or distinctive facial features, such as a broad nasal bridge and low-set ears. Some affected individuals have brain abnormalities, the most common of which is called Dandy-Walker malformation. Intellectual disability, seizures, and other health problems can also occur in people with MVA syndrome.
Nemaline myopathy 2
MedGen UID:
342534
Concept ID:
C1850569
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-2 (NEM2) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder with a wide range of severity. The most common clinical presentation is early-onset (in infancy or childhood) muscle weakness predominantly affecting proximal limb muscles. Muscle biopsy shows accumulation of Z-disc and thin filament proteins into aggregates named 'nemaline bodies' or 'nemaline rods,' usually accompanied by disorganization of the muscle Z discs. The clinical and histologic spectrum of entities caused by variants in the NEB gene is a continuum, ranging in severity. The distribution of weakness can vary from generalized muscle weakness, more pronounced in proximal limb muscles, to distal-only involvement, although neck flexor weakness appears to be rather consistent. Histologic patterns range from a severe usually nondystrophic disturbance of the myofibrillar pattern to an almost normal pattern, with or without nemaline bodies, sometimes combined with cores (summary by Lehtokari et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Nemaline Myopathy See also NEM1 (255310), caused by mutation in the tropomyosin-3 gene (TPM3; 191030) on chromosome 1q22; NEM3 (161800), caused by mutation in the alpha-actin-1 gene (ACTA1; 102610) on chromosome 1q42; NEM4 (609285), caused by mutation in the beta-tropomyosin gene (TPM2; 190990) on chromosome 9p13; NEM5A (605355), also known as Amish nemaline myopathy, NEM5B (620386), and NEM5C (620389), all caused by mutation in the troponin T1 gene (TNNT1; 191041) on chromosome 19q13; NEM6 (609273), caused by mutation in the KBTBD13 gene (613727) on chromosome 15q22; NEM7 (610687), caused by mutation in the cofilin-2 gene (CFL2; 601443) on chromosome 14q13; NEM8 (615348), caused by mutation in the KLHL40 gene (615340), on chromosome 3p22; NEM9 (615731), caused by mutation in the KLHL41 gene (607701) on chromosome 2q31; NEM10 (616165), caused by mutation in the LMOD3 gene (616112) on chromosome 3p14; and NEM11 (617336), caused by mutation in the MYPN gene (608517) on chromosome 10q21. Several of the genes encode components of skeletal muscle sarcomeric thin filaments (Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001). Mutations in the NEB gene are the most common cause of nemaline myopathy (Lehtokari et al., 2006).
Lateral meningocele syndrome
MedGen UID:
342070
Concept ID:
C1851710
Disease or Syndrome
NOTCH3-related lateral meningocele syndrome (LMS) is characterized by multiple lateral spinal meningoceles (protrusions of the arachnoid and dura through spinal foramina), distinctive facial features, joint hyperextensibility, hypotonia, and skeletal, cardiac, and urogenital anomalies. Neurologic sequelæ of the meningoceles depend on size and location and can include neurogenic bladder, paresthesia, back pain, and/or paraparesis. Other neurologic findings can include Chiari I malformation, syringomyelia, and rarely, hydrocephalus. Additional findings of LMS include developmental delay, mixed or conductive hearing loss, and cleft palate. Skeletal abnormalities may include scoliosis, vertebral fusion, scalloping of vertebrae, and wormian bones. Infants may demonstrate feeding difficulties with poor weight gain.
Cornelia de Lange syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
339902
Concept ID:
C1853099
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia.
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 7
MedGen UID:
343981
Concept ID:
C1853162
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. OI type VII is an autosomal recessive form of severe or lethal OI (summary by Barnes et al., 2006).
Intellectual disability, microcephaly, growth retardation, joint contractures, and facial dysmorphism
MedGen UID:
342889
Concept ID:
C1853480
Disease or Syndrome
Phelan-McDermid syndrome
MedGen UID:
339994
Concept ID:
C1853490
Disease or Syndrome
Phelan-McDermid syndrome is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, absent to severely delayed speech, developmental delay, and minor dysmorphic facial features. Most affected individuals have moderate to profound intellectual disability. Other features include large fleshy hands, dysplastic toenails, and decreased perspiration that results in a tendency to overheat. Normal stature and normal head size distinguishes Phelan-McDermid syndrome from other autosomal chromosome disorders. Behavior characteristics include mouthing or chewing non-food items, decreased perception of pain, and autism spectrum disorder or autistic-like affect and behavior.
Cerebrooculonasal syndrome
MedGen UID:
340138
Concept ID:
C1854108
Disease or Syndrome
A multisystem malformation syndrome that has been reported in about 10 patients. The clinical features include bilateral anophthalmia, abnormal nares, central nervous system anomalies, and neurodevelopmental delay. Additional features include brachycephaly and other facial anomalies. Non-facial anomalies have also been reported: postaxial polydactyly, genital hypoplasia. All cases reported so far have been sporadic, suggesting that the syndrome may be due to a new dominant mutation.
Macrocephaly-autism syndrome
MedGen UID:
381416
Concept ID:
C1854416
Disease or Syndrome
Macrocephaly/autism syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased head circumference, abnormal facial features, and delayed psychomotor development resulting in autistic behavior or mental retardation (Herman et al., 2007). Some patients may have a primary immunodeficiency disorder with recurrent infections associated with variably abnormal T- and B-cell function (Tsujita et al., 2016).
Noonan syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
344290
Concept ID:
C1854469
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome
MedGen UID:
340266
Concept ID:
C1854630
Disease or Syndrome
Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome (WSS) is characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features, with or without additional congenital anomalies. The facial features include thick eyebrows with lateral flare, vertically narrow and downslanted palpebral fissures, widely spaced eyes, long eyelashes, wide nasal bridge, broad nasal tip, thin vermilion of the upper lip, and thick scalp hair. About 60% of affected individuals have hypertrichosis cubiti ("hairy elbows"), which was once thought to be pathognomic for the syndrome, with a majority having hypertrichosis of other body parts. Other clinical features include feeding difficulties, prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, epilepsy, ophthalmologic anomalies, congenital heart defects, hand anomalies (such as brachydactyly and clinodactyly), hypotonia, vertebral anomalies (especially fusion anomalies of the cervical spine), renal and uterine anomalies, immune dysfunction, brain malformations, and dental anomalies.
Sulfite oxidase deficiency due to molybdenum cofactor deficiency type A
MedGen UID:
381530
Concept ID:
C1854988
Disease or Syndrome
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) represents a spectrum, with some individuals experiencing significant signs and symptoms in the neonatal period and early infancy (termed early-onset or severe MoCD) and others developing signs and symptoms in childhood or adulthood (termed late-onset or mild MoCD). Individuals with early-onset MoCD typically present in the first days of life with severe encephalopathy, including refractory seizures, opisthotonos, axial and appendicular hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and apnea. Head imaging may demonstrate loss of gray and white matter differentiation, gyral swelling, sulci injury (typically assessed by evaluating the depth of focal lesional injury within the sulci), diffusely elevated T2-weighted signal, and panlobar diffusion restriction throughout the forebrain and midbrain with relative sparring of the brain stem. Prognosis for early-onset MoCD is poor, with about 75% succumbing in infancy to secondary complications of their neurologic disability (i.e., pneumonia). Late-onset MoCD is typically characterized by milder symptoms, such as acute neurologic decompensation in the setting of infection. Episodes vary in nature but commonly consist of altered mental status, dystonia, choreoathetosis, ataxia, nystagmus, and fluctuating hypotonia and hypertonia. These features may improve after resolution of the inciting infection or progress in a gradual or stochastic manner over the lifetime. Brain imaging may be normal or may demonstrate T2-weighted hyperintense or cystic lesions in the globus pallidus, thinning of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar atrophy.
Sulfite oxidase deficiency due to molybdenum cofactor deficiency type B
MedGen UID:
340760
Concept ID:
C1854989
Disease or Syndrome
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) represents a spectrum, with some individuals experiencing significant signs and symptoms in the neonatal period and early infancy (termed early-onset or severe MoCD) and others developing signs and symptoms in childhood or adulthood (termed late-onset or mild MoCD). Individuals with early-onset MoCD typically present in the first days of life with severe encephalopathy, including refractory seizures, opisthotonos, axial and appendicular hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and apnea. Head imaging may demonstrate loss of gray and white matter differentiation, gyral swelling, sulci injury (typically assessed by evaluating the depth of focal lesional injury within the sulci), diffusely elevated T2-weighted signal, and panlobar diffusion restriction throughout the forebrain and midbrain with relative sparring of the brain stem. Prognosis for early-onset MoCD is poor, with about 75% succumbing in infancy to secondary complications of their neurologic disability (i.e., pneumonia). Late-onset MoCD is typically characterized by milder symptoms, such as acute neurologic decompensation in the setting of infection. Episodes vary in nature but commonly consist of altered mental status, dystonia, choreoathetosis, ataxia, nystagmus, and fluctuating hypotonia and hypertonia. These features may improve after resolution of the inciting infection or progress in a gradual or stochastic manner over the lifetime. Brain imaging may be normal or may demonstrate T2-weighted hyperintense or cystic lesions in the globus pallidus, thinning of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar atrophy.
Baraitser-Winter syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
340943
Concept ID:
C1855722
Disease or Syndrome
Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial (BWCFF) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial features and intellectual disability. Many (but not all) affected individuals have pachygyria that is predominantly frontal, wasting of the shoulder girdle muscles, and sensory impairment due to iris or retinal coloboma and/or sensorineural deafness. Intellectual disability, which is common but variable, is related to the severity of the brain malformations. Seizures, congenital heart defects, renal malformations, and gastrointestinal dysfunction are also common.
Vici syndrome
MedGen UID:
340962
Concept ID:
C1855772
Disease or Syndrome
With the current widespread use of multigene panels and comprehensive genomic testing, it has become apparent that the phenotypic spectrum of EPG5-related disorder represents a continuum. At the most severe end of the spectrum is classic Vici syndrome (defined as a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystem involvement characterized by the combination of agenesis of the corpus callosum, cataracts, hypopigmentation, cardiomyopathy, combined immunodeficiency, microcephaly, and failure to thrive); at the milder end of the spectrum are attenuated neurodevelopmental phenotypes with variable multisystem involvement. Median survival in classic Vici syndrome appears to be 24 months, with only 10% of children surviving longer than age five years; the most common causes of death are respiratory infections as a result of primary immunodeficiency and/or cardiac insufficiency resulting from progressive cardiac failure. No data are available on life span in individuals at the milder end of the spectrum.
Hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
340984
Concept ID:
C1855840
Disease or Syndrome
Hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome (HRDS) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, infantile-onset hypoparathyroidism that can result in severe hypocalcemic seizures, dysmorphic facial features, and developmental delay (summary by Padidela et al., 2009 and Ratbi et al., 2015).
Temtamy syndrome
MedGen UID:
347474
Concept ID:
C1857512
Disease or Syndrome
Temtamy syndrome is a mental retardation/multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by variable craniofacial dysmorphism, ocular coloboma, seizures, and brain abnormalities, including abnormalities of the corpus callosum and thalamus (summary by Akizu et al., 2013).
Neonatal diabetes mellitus with congenital hypothyroidism
MedGen UID:
347541
Concept ID:
C1857775
Disease or Syndrome
Neonatal diabetes mellitus with congenital hypothyroidism (NDH) syndrome is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation and onset of nonimmune diabetes mellitus within the first few weeks of life. Other features include renal parenchymal disease, primarily renal cystic dysplasia, and hepatic disease, with hepatitis in some patients and hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in others. Facial dysmorphism, when present, consistently involves low-set ears, epicanthal folds, flat nasal bridge, long philtrum, and thin upper lip. Most patients exhibit developmental delay (Dimitri et al., 2015).
Blepharophimosis - intellectual disability syndrome, Verloes type
MedGen UID:
347661
Concept ID:
C1858538
Disease or Syndrome
Blepharophimosis-intellectual disability syndrome, Verloes type is a rare, genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by congenital microcephaly, severe epilepsy with hypsarrhythmia, adducted thumbs, abnormal genitalia, and normal thyroid function. Hypotonia, moderate to severe psychomotor delay, and characteristic facial dysmorphism (including round face with prominent cheeks, blepharophimosis, large, bulbous nose with wide alae nasi, posteriorly rotated ears with dysplastic conchae, narrow mouth, cleft palate, and mild micrognathia) are additional characteristic features.
Poikiloderma with neutropenia
MedGen UID:
388129
Concept ID:
C1858723
Disease or Syndrome
Poikiloderma with neutropenia (PN) is characterized by an inflammatory eczematous rash (ages 6-12 months) followed by post-inflammatory poikiloderma (age >2 years) and chronic noncyclic neutropenia typically associated with recurrent sinopulmonary infections in the first two years of life and (often) bronchiectasis. There is increased risk for myelodysplastic syndrome and, rarely, acute myelogenous leukemia. Other ectodermal findings include nail dystrophy and palmar/plantar hyperkeratosis. Most affected individuals also have reactive airway disease and some have short stature, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, midfacial retrusion, calcinosis cutis, and non-healing skin ulcers.
Tel Hashomer camptodactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
347860
Concept ID:
C1859356
Disease or Syndrome
A rare syndrome with characteristics of camptodactyly, muscle hypoplasia and weakness, skeletal anomalies, facial dysmorphism and abnormal dermatoglyphics. Dysmorphic features include facial asymmetry, hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, long philtrum and a small mouth. Winging scapulae, scoliosis, syndactyly and clinodactyly are commonly observed. The affected patients usually have normal mental development. The molecular basis of the syndrome has not yet been elucidated.
Arterial tortuosity syndrome
MedGen UID:
347942
Concept ID:
C1859726
Disease or Syndrome
Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is characterized by widespread elongation and tortuosity of the aorta and mid-sized arteries as well as focal stenosis of segments of the pulmonary arteries and/or aorta combined with findings of a generalized connective tissue disorder, which may include soft or doughy hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility, inguinal hernia, and diaphragmatic hernia. Skeletal findings include pectus excavatum or carinatum, arachnodactyly, scoliosis, knee/elbow contractures, and camptodactyly. The cardiovascular system is the major source of morbidity and mortality with increased risk at any age for aneurysm formation and dissection both at the aortic root and throughout the arterial tree, and for ischemic vascular events involving cerebrovascular circulation (resulting in non-hemorrhagic stroke) and the abdominal arteries (resulting in infarctions of abdominal organs).
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type III
MedGen UID:
349899
Concept ID:
C1860823
Disease or Syndrome
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is characterized by craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities. Craniofacial features include sparse, slowly growing scalp hair, laterally sparse eyebrows, a bulbous tip of the nose, protruding ears, long flat philtrum, and thin upper vermillion border. The most typical radiographic findings in TRPS are cone-shaped epiphyses, predominantly at the middle phalanges. Hip malformations such as coxa plana, coxa magna, or coxa vara are present in over 70% of patients. In older patients, the hip abnormalities resemble degenerative arthrosis. TRPS3 differs from TRPS1 by the presence of severe brachydactyly, due to short metacarpals, and severe short stature (summary by Ludecke et al., 2001).
Camptomelic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
354620
Concept ID:
C1861922
Disease or Syndrome
Campomelic dysplasia (CD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by distinctive facies, Pierre Robin sequence with cleft palate, shortening and bowing of long bones, and clubfeet. Other findings include laryngotracheomalacia with respiratory compromise and ambiguous genitalia or normal female external genitalia in most individuals with a 46,XY karyotype. Many affected infants die in the neonatal period; additional findings identified in long-term survivors include short stature, cervical spine instability with cord compression, progressive scoliosis, and hearing impairment.
Mandibulofacial dysostosis-macroblepharon-macrostomia syndrome
MedGen UID:
355927
Concept ID:
C1865181
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibulofacial dysostosis-macroblepharon-macrostomia syndrome is a rare developmental defect during embryogenesis disorder characterized by macroblepharon, ectropion, and facial dysmorphism which includes severe hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, posteriorly rotated ears, broad nasal bridge, long and smooth philtrum, and macrostomia with thin upper lip vermilion border. Other features may include large fontanelles, prominent metopic ridge, thick eyebrows, mild synophrys, increased density of upper eyelashes, anterverted nares, abnormal dentition and capillary hemangioma.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, musculocontractural type
MedGen UID:
356497
Concept ID:
C1866294
Disease or Syndrome
Bleeding problems are common in the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and are caused by unpredictable tearing (rupture) of blood vessels and organs. These complications can lead to easy bruising, internal bleeding, a hole in the wall of the intestine (intestinal perforation), or stroke. During pregnancy, women with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome may experience rupture of the uterus. Additional forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that involve rupture of the blood vessels include the kyphoscoliotic, classical, and classical-like types.\n\nOther types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have additional signs and symptoms. The cardiac-valvular type causes severe problems with the valves that control the movement of blood through the heart. People with the kyphoscoliotic type experience severe curvature of the spine that worsens over time and can interfere with breathing by restricting lung expansion. A type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome called brittle cornea syndrome is characterized by thinness of the clear covering of the eye (the cornea) and other eye abnormalities. The spondylodysplastic type features short stature and skeletal abnormalities such as abnormally curved (bowed) limbs. Abnormalities of muscles, including hypotonia and permanently bent joints (contractures), are among the characteristic signs of the musculocontractural and myopathic forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The periodontal type causes abnormalities of the teeth and gums.\n\nMany people with the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes have soft, velvety skin that is highly stretchy (elastic) and fragile. Affected individuals tend to bruise easily, and some types of the condition also cause abnormal scarring. People with the classical form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome experience wounds that split open with little bleeding and leave scars that widen over time to create characteristic "cigarette paper" scars. The dermatosparaxis type of the disorder is characterized by loose skin that sags and wrinkles, and extra (redundant) folds of skin may be present.\n\nAn unusually large range of joint movement (hypermobility) occurs in most forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and it is a hallmark feature of the hypermobile type. Infants and children with hypermobility often have weak muscle tone (hypotonia), which can delay the development of motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking. The loose joints are unstable and prone to dislocation and chronic pain. In the arthrochalasia type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, infants have hypermobility and dislocations of both hips at birth.\n\nThe various forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have been classified in several different ways. Originally, 11 forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome were named using Roman numerals to indicate the types (type I, type II, and so on). In 1997, researchers proposed a simpler classification (the Villefranche nomenclature) that reduced the number of types to six and gave them descriptive names based on their major features. In 2017, the classification was updated to include rare forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that were identified more recently. The 2017 classification describes 13 types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.\n\nEhlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of disorders that affect connective tissues supporting the skin, bones, blood vessels, and many other organs and tissues. Defects in connective tissues cause the signs and symptoms of these conditions, which range from mildly loose joints to life-threatening complications.
Delayed speech-facial asymmetry-strabismus-ear lobe creases syndrome
MedGen UID:
355803
Concept ID:
C1866802
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome is extremely rare and is characterized by delayed speech development, mild facial asymmetry, strabismus and transverse ear lobe creases.
Flat face-microstomia-ear anomaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
356655
Concept ID:
C1866962
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome with characteristics of dysmorphic facial features including high forehead, elongated and flattened midface, arched and sparse eyebrows, short palpebral fissures, telecanthus, long nose with hypoplastic nostrils, long philtrum, high and narrow palate and microstomia with downturned corners. Ears are characteristically malformed, large, low-set and posteriorly rotated and nasal speech is associated.
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis 5
MedGen UID:
409627
Concept ID:
C1968603
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis-5 is a form of infantile malignant osteopetrosis, characterized by defective osteoclast function resulting in decreased bone resorption and generalized osteosclerosis. Defective resorption causes development of densely sclerotic fragile bones and progressive obliteration of the marrow spaces and cranial foramina. Marrow obliteration is associated with extramedullary hematopoiesis and hepatosplenomegaly, and results in anemia and thrombocytopenia, whereas nerve entrapment accounts for progressive blindness and hearing loss. Other major manifestations include failure to thrive, pathologic fractures, and increased infection rate. Most affected children succumb to severe bone marrow failure and overwhelming infection in the first few years of life (Quarello et al., 2004).
Craniofacial dysplasia - osteopenia syndrome
MedGen UID:
370148
Concept ID:
C1970027
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic developmental defect during embryogenesis disorder with characteristics of craniofacial dysmorphism (including brachycephaly, prominent forehead, sparse lateral eyebrows, severe hypertelorism, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, protruding ears, broad nasal bridge, pointed nasal tip, flat philtrum, anteverted nostrils, large mouth, thin upper vermilion border, highly arched palate and mild micrognathia) associated with osteopenia leading to repeated long bone fractures, severe myopia, mild to moderate sensorineural or mixed hearing loss, enamel hypoplasia, sloping shoulders and mild intellectual disability. There is evidence the disease can be caused by homozygous mutation in the IRX5 gene on chromosome 16q11.2.
Mucolipidosis type II
MedGen UID:
435914
Concept ID:
C2673377
Disease or Syndrome
GNPTAB-related disorders comprise the phenotypes mucolipidosis II (ML II) and mucolipidosis IIIa/ß (ML IIIa/ß), and phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß. ML II is evident at birth and slowly progressive; death most often occurs in early childhood. Orthopedic abnormalities present at birth may include thoracic deformity, kyphosis, clubfeet, deformed long bones, and/or dislocation of the hip(s). Growth often ceases in the second year of life; contractures develop in all large joints. The skin is thickened, facial features are coarse, and gingiva are hypertrophic. All children have cardiac involvement, most commonly thickening and insufficiency of the mitral valve and, less frequently, the aortic valve. Progressive mucosal thickening narrows the airways, and gradual stiffening of the thoracic cage contributes to respiratory insufficiency, the most common cause of death. ML IIIa/ß becomes evident at about age three years with slow growth rate and short stature; joint stiffness and pain initially in the shoulders, hips, and fingers; gradual mild coarsening of facial features; and normal to mildly impaired cognitive development. Pain from osteoporosis becomes more severe during adolescence. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease, thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves, left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy) are common causes of death, typically in early to middle adulthood. Phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß are characterized by physical growth in infancy that resembles that of ML II and neuromotor and speech development that resemble that of ML IIIa/ß.
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Cantu type
MedGen UID:
435975
Concept ID:
C2673649
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare type of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia described in about 5 patients to date with clinical signs including short stature, peculiar facies with blepharophimosis, upward slanted eyes, abundant eyebrows and eyelashes, coarse voice, and short hands and feet.
Faciocardiomelic syndrome
MedGen UID:
436265
Concept ID:
C2674798
Disease or Syndrome
Distal 10q deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
436306
Concept ID:
C2674937
Disease or Syndrome
10q26 deletion syndrome is a condition that results from the loss (deletion) of a small piece of chromosome 10 in each cell. The deletion occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome at a position designated 10q26.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of 10q26 deletion syndrome vary widely, even among affected members of the same family. Among the more common features associated with this chromosomal change are distinctive facial features, mild to moderate intellectual disability, growth problems, and developmental delay. People with 10q26 deletion syndrome often have delayed development of speech and of motor skills such as sitting, crawling, and walking. Some have limited speech throughout life. Affected individuals may experience seizures, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), poor impulse control (impulsivity), or exhibit autistic behaviors that affect communication and social interaction.\n\nA range of facial features is seen in people with 10q26 deletion syndrome, but not all affected individuals have these features. Facial features of people with 10q26 deletion syndrome may include a prominent or beaked nose, a broad nasal bridge, a small jaw (micrognathia), malformed ears that are low set, a thin upper lip, and an unusually small head size (microcephaly). Many affected individuals have widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism) that do not look in the same direction (strabismus). Some people with this condition have a short neck with extra folds of skin (webbed neck).\n\nLess common signs and symptoms can occur in 10q26 deletion syndrome. Skeletal problems include a spine that curves to the side (scoliosis), limited movement in the elbows or other joints, or curved fifth fingers and toes (clinodactyly). Slow growth before and after birth can also occur in affected individuals. Males with this condition may have genital abnormalities, such as a small penis (micropenis), undescended testes (cryptorchidism), or the urethra opening on the underside of the penis (hypospadias). Some people with 10q26 deletion syndrome have kidney abnormalities, heart defects, breathing problems, recurrent infections, or hearing or vision problems.
Chromosome 2p16.1-p15 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
390902
Concept ID:
C2675875
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 2p16.1-p15 deletion syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and variable but distinctive dysmorphic features, including microcephaly, bitemporal narrowing, smooth and long philtrum, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, broad nasal root, thin upper lip, and high palate. Many patients have behavioral disorders, including autistic features, as well as structural brain abnormalities, such as pachygyria or hypoplastic corpus callosum. Those with deletions including the BCL11A gene (606557) also have persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which is asymptomatic and does not affected hematologic parameters or susceptibility to infection (summary by Funnell et al., 2015). Point mutation in the BCL11A gene causes intellectual developmental disorder with persistence of fetal hemoglobin (617101), which shows overlapping features. See also fetal hemoglobin quantitative trait locus-5 (HBFQTL5; 142335).
Chromosome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
393913
Concept ID:
C2675897
Congenital Abnormality
The 1q21.1 recurrent microdeletion itself does not appear to lead to a clinically recognizable syndrome as some persons with the deletion have no obvious clinical findings and others have variable findings that most commonly include microcephaly (50%), mild intellectual disability (30%), mildly dysmorphic facial features, and eye abnormalities (26%). Other findings can include cardiac defects, genitourinary anomalies, skeletal malformations, and seizures (~15%). Psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities can include autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autistic features, and sleep disturbances.
Chromosome 2q32-q33 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
436765
Concept ID:
C2676739
Disease or Syndrome
SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by significant neurodevelopmental compromise with limited to absent speech, behavioral issues, and craniofacial anomalies. All individuals described to date have manifest developmental delay / intellectual disability, with severe speech delay. Affected individuals often have hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy. Behavioral issues may include autistic features, hyperactivity, and aggressiveness. Craniofacial anomalies may include palatal abnormalities (cleft palate, high-arched palate, and bifid uvula), micrognathia, and abnormal shape or size of the upper central incisors. Less common features include skeletal anomalies (osteopenia, pectus deformities, kyphosis/lordosis, and scoliosis), growth restriction, strabismus/refractive errors, congenital heart defects, genitourinary anomalies, and epilepsy. While dysmorphic features have been described in individuals with this condition, these features are not typically distinctive enough to allow for a clinical diagnosis of SAS.
Fontaine progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
394125
Concept ID:
C2676780
Disease or Syndrome
SLC25A24 Fontaine progeroid syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disorder characterized by poor growth, abnormal skeletal features, and distinctive craniofacial features with sagging, thin skin, and decreased subcutaneous fat suggesting an aged appearance that is most pronounced in infancy and improves with time. Characteristic radiographic features include turribrachycephaly with widely open anterior fontanelle, craniosynostosis, and anomalies of the terminal phalanges. Cardiovascular, genitourinary, ocular, and gastrointestinal abnormalities may also occur. To date, 13 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of SLC25A24 Fontaine progeroid syndrome have been described.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Najm type
MedGen UID:
437070
Concept ID:
C2677903
Disease or Syndrome
CASK disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes in both females and males. Two main types of clinical presentation are seen: Microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH), generally associated with pathogenic loss-of-function variants in CASK. X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) with or without nystagmus, generally associated with hypomorphic CASK pathogenic variants. MICPCH is typically seen in females with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, progressive microcephaly with or without ophthalmologic anomalies, and sensorineural hearing loss. Most are able to sit independently; 20%-25% attain the ability to walk; language is nearly absent in most. Neurologic features may include axial hypotonia, hypertonia/spasticity of the extremities, and dystonia or other movement disorders. Nearly 40% have seizures by age ten years. Behaviors may include sleep disturbances, hand stereotypies, and self biting. MICPCH in males may occur with or without severe epileptic encephalopathy in addition to severe-to-profound developmental delay. When seizures are present they occur early and may be intractable. In individuals and families with milder (i.e., hypomorphic) pathogenic variants, the clinical phenotype is usually that of XLID with or without nystagmus and additional clinical features. Males have mild-to-severe intellectual disability, with or without nystagmus and other ocular features. Females typically have normal intelligence with some displaying mild-to-severe intellectual disability with or without ocular features.
Intellectual disability, X-linked syndromic, Turner type
MedGen UID:
394425
Concept ID:
C2678046
Disease or Syndrome
Turner-type X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXST) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some affected families show X-linked recessive inheritance, with only males being affected and carrier females having no abnormal findings. In other affected families, males are severely affected, and female mutation carriers show milder cognitive abnormalities or dysmorphic features. In addition, there are female patients with de novo mutations who show the full phenotype, despite skewed X-chromosome inactivation. Affected individuals show global developmental delay from infancy, with variably impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, often with delayed walking. Dysmorphic features are common and can include macrocephaly, microcephaly, deep-set eyes, hypotelorism, small palpebral fissures, dysplastic, large, or low-set ears, long face, bitemporal narrowing, high-arched palate, thin upper lip, and scoliosis or mild distal skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly or tapered fingers. Males tend to have cryptorchidism. Other features, such as hypotonia, seizures, and delayed bone age, are more variable (summary by Moortgat et al., 2018).
3M syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
395592
Concept ID:
C2678312
Disease or Syndrome
Three M syndrome is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency (final height 5-6 SD below the mean; i.e., 120-130 cm), characteristic facies, and normal intelligence. Additional features of three M syndrome include short broad neck, prominent trapezii, deformed sternum, short thorax, square shoulders, winged scapulae, hyperlordosis, short fifth fingers, prominent heels, and loose joints. Males with three M syndrome have hypogonadism and occasionally hypospadias.
Temple-Baraitser syndrome
MedGen UID:
395636
Concept ID:
C2678486
Disease or Syndrome
Temple-Baraitser syndrome is a rare developmental disorder characterized by severe mental retardation and anomalies of the first ray of the upper and lower limbs with absence/hypoplasia of the nails. Most patients also have seizures; various dysmorphic facial features have been reported (summary by Jacquinet et al., 2010).
Oculodentodigital dysplasia, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
412708
Concept ID:
C2749477
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive form of oculodentodigital dysplasia.
Autosomal dominant omodysplasia
MedGen UID:
413823
Concept ID:
C2750355
Disease or Syndrome
Omodysplasia-2 (OMOD2) is a rare autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia characterized by shortened humeri, dislocated radial heads, shortened first metacarpals, craniofacial dysmorphism, and variable genitourinary anomalies (Saal et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of OMOD, see 258315.
Cutis laxa with severe pulmonary, gastrointestinal and urinary anomalies
MedGen UID:
442566
Concept ID:
C2750804
Disease or Syndrome
LTBP4-related cutis laxa is characterized by cutis laxa, early childhood-onset pulmonary emphysema, peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, and other evidence of a generalized connective tissue disorder such as inguinal hernias and hollow visceral diverticula (e.g., intestine, bladder). Other manifestations can include pyloric stenosis, diaphragmatic hernia, rectal prolapse, gastrointestinal elongation/tortuosity, cardiovascular abnormality, pulmonary hypertension, hypotonia and frequent pulmonary infections. Bladder diverticula and hydronephrosis are common. Early demise has been associated with pulmonary emphysema.
RIN2 syndrome
MedGen UID:
416526
Concept ID:
C2751321
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare inherited connective tissue disorder with characteristics of macrocephaly, sparse scalp hair, soft redundant and hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility, and scoliosis. Patients have progressive facial coarsening with downslanted palpebral fissures, upper eyelid fullness/infraorbital folds, thick/everted vermillion, gingival overgrowth and abnormal position of the teeth. Rare manifestations such as abnormal high-pitched voice, bronchiectasis, hypergonadotropic hypergonadism and brachydactyly have also been reported. Caused by homozygous mutation in the RIN2 gene on chromosome 20p11.
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2B
MedGen UID:
414526
Concept ID:
C2751987
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotype of autosomal recessive cutis laxa type II (ARCL2) includes cutis laxa of variable severity, abnormal growth, developmental delay, and associated skeletal abnormalities (summary by Morava et al., 2009). No specific clinical features distinguish ARCL2A (219200), which includes a glycosylation defect, and ARCL2B, in which abnormal glycosylation has not been reported (Morava et al., 2009; Guernsey et al., 2009). For a phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100).
3M syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
414168
Concept ID:
C2752041
Disease or Syndrome
Three M syndrome is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency (final height 5-6 SD below the mean; i.e., 120-130 cm), characteristic facies, and normal intelligence. Additional features of three M syndrome include short broad neck, prominent trapezii, deformed sternum, short thorax, square shoulders, winged scapulae, hyperlordosis, short fifth fingers, prominent heels, and loose joints. Males with three M syndrome have hypogonadism and occasionally hypospadias.
46,XY sex reversal 4
MedGen UID:
416704
Concept ID:
C2752149
Congenital Abnormality
Sex reversal in an individual associated with a 9p24.3 deletion.
ALG8 congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
419692
Concept ID:
C2931002
Disease or Syndrome
CDGs, previously called carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes, grew from hereditary multisystem disorders first recognized by Jaeken et al. (1980). The characteristic biochemical abnormality of CDGs is the hypoglycosylation of glycoproteins, which is routinely determined by isoelectric focusing of serum transferrin. Type I CDG comprises those disorders in which there is a defect in the assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides or their transfer onto nascent glycoproteins, whereas type II CDG comprises defects of trimming, elongation, and processing of protein-bound glycans. For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). CDG1H is a severe form of CDG. The majority of patients have brain involvement, liver pathology, gastrointestinal symptoms, dysmorphism (including brachydactyly), eye involvement (especially cataract), and skin symptoms. Most patients die within the first year of life (summary by Marques-da-Silva et al., 2017).
ALG9 congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443955
Concept ID:
C2931006
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) that represent defects of dolichol-linked oligosaccharide assembly are classified as CDG type I. For a general description and a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
MGAT2-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443956
Concept ID:
C2931008
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzymatic defects in the synthesis and processing of asparagine (N)-linked glycans or oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. These glycoconjugates play critical roles in metabolism, cell recognition and adhesion, cell migration, protease resistance, host defense, and antigenicity, among others. CDGs are divided into 2 main groups: type I CDGs (see, e.g., CDG1A, 212065) comprise defects in the assembly of the dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) chain and its transfer to the nascent protein, whereas type II CDGs refer to defects in the trimming and processing of the protein-bound glycans either late in the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi compartments. The biochemical changes of CDGs are most readily observed in serum transferrin (TF; 190000), and the diagnosis is usually made by isoelectric focusing of this glycoprotein (reviews by Marquardt and Denecke, 2003; Grunewald et al., 2002). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Type II Multiple forms of CDG type II have been identified; see CDG2B (606056) through CDG2Z (620201), and CDG2AA (620454) to CDG2BB (620546).
COG1 congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443957
Concept ID:
C2931011
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare form of carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome with, in the few cases reported to date, variable signs including microcephaly, growth retardation, psychomotor retardation and facial dysmorphism.
Clark-Baraitser syndrome
MedGen UID:
443983
Concept ID:
C2931130
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, obesity, macrocephaly, behavioral abnormalities (such as aggressive tantrums and autistic-like behavior), and delayed speech development. Dysmorphic facial features include large, square forehead, prominent supraorbital ridges, broad nasal tip, large ears, prominent lower lip, and minor dental anomalies such as small upper lateral incisors and central incisor gap.
Cardiospondylocarpofacial syndrome
MedGen UID:
444060
Concept ID:
C2931461
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiospondylocarpofacial syndrome (CSCF) is characterized by growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features, brachydactyly with carpal-tarsal fusion, extensive posterior cervical vertebral synostosis, cardiac septal defects with valve dysplasia, and deafness with inner ear malformations (summary by Le Goff et al., 2016).
Antley-Bixler syndrome without genital anomalies or disordered steroidogenesis
MedGen UID:
422448
Concept ID:
C2936791
Disease or Syndrome
Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a disorder of steroidogenesis with a broad phenotypic spectrum including cortisol deficiency, altered sex steroid synthesis, disorders of sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations of the Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) phenotype. Cortisol deficiency is usually partial, with some baseline cortisol production but failure to mount an adequate cortisol response in stress. Mild mineralocorticoid excess can be present and causes arterial hypertension, usually presenting in young adulthood. Manifestations of altered sex steroid synthesis include ambiguous genitalia/DSD in both males and females, large ovarian cysts in females, poor masculinization and delayed puberty in males, and maternal virilization during pregnancy with an affected fetus. Skeletal malformations can manifest as craniosynostosis, mid-face retrusion with proptosis and choanal stenosis or atresia, low-set dysplastic ears with stenotic external auditory canals, hydrocephalus, radiohumeral synostosis, neonatal fractures, congenital bowing of the long bones, joint contractures, arachnodactyly, and clubfeet; other anomalies observed include urinary tract anomalies (renal pelvic dilatation, vesicoureteral reflux). Cognitive impairment is of minor concern and likely associated with the severity of malformations; studies of developmental outcomes are lacking.
Chromosome 6q24-q25 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
461565
Concept ID:
C3150215
Disease or Syndrome
6q25 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by developmental delay, facial dysmorphism and hearing loss.
Chromosome 14q11-q22 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462057
Concept ID:
C3150707
Disease or Syndrome
14q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by developmental delay, hypotonia and facial dysmorphism.
Chromosome 16p13.3 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
462058
Concept ID:
C3150708
Disease or Syndrome
16p13.3 microduplication syndrome is a rare chromosomal anomaly syndrome resulting from a partial duplication of the short arm of chromosome 16 and manifesting with a variable phenotype which is mostly characterized by: mild to moderate intellectual deficit and developmental delay (particularly speech), normal growth, short, proximally implanted thumbs and other hand and feet malformations (such as camptodactyly, syndactyly, club feet), mild arthrogryposis and characteristic facies (upslanting, narrow palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, mid face hypoplasia, bulbous nasal tip and low set ears). Other reported manifestations include cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia and behavioral problems.
Chromosome 4q21 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462106
Concept ID:
C3150756
Disease or Syndrome
The 4q21 microdeletion syndrome is a newly described syndrome associated with facial dysmorphism, progressive growth restriction, severe intellectual deficit and absent or severely delayed speech.
Chromosome 6q11-q14 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462140
Concept ID:
C3150790
Disease or Syndrome
The cardinal features of chromosome 6q11-q14 interstitial deletions include hypotonia, short stature, skeletal/limb anomalies, umbilical hernia, and urinary tract anomalies, as well as characteristic facial features including upslanting palpebral fissures, low-set and/or dysplastic ears, and high-arched palate (summary by Wang et al., 2009).
CBL-related disorder
MedGen UID:
462153
Concept ID:
C3150803
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-like disorder is a developmental disorder resembling Noonan syndrome (NS1; 163950) and characterized by facial dysmorphism, a wide spectrum of cardiac disease, reduced growth, variable cognitive deficits, and ectodermal and musculoskeletal anomalies. There is extensive phenotypic heterogeneity and variable expressivity (summary by Martinelli et al., 2010). Patients with heterozygous germline CBL mutations have an increased risk for certain malignancies, particularly juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML; 607785), as also seen in patients with Noonan syndrome (summary by Niemeyer et al., 2010).
Meier-Gorlin syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
462476
Concept ID:
C3151126
Disease or Syndrome
Most people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have distinctive facial features. In addition to being abnormally small, the ears may be low-set or rotated backward. Additional features can include a small mouth (microstomia), an underdeveloped lower jaw (micrognathia), full lips, and a narrow nose with a high nasal bridge.\n\nAdditional features of Meier-Gorlin syndrome can include difficulty feeding and a lung condition known as pulmonary emphysema or other breathing problems.\n\nAbnormalities in sexual development may also occur in Meier-Gorlin syndrome. In some males with this condition, the testes are small or undescended (cryptorchidism). Affected females may have unusually small external genital folds (hypoplasia of the labia majora) and small breasts. Both males and females with this condition can have sparse or absent underarm (axillary) hair.\n\nMeier-Gorlin syndrome is a condition primarily characterized by short stature. It is considered a form of primordial dwarfism because the growth problems begin before birth (intrauterine growth retardation). After birth, affected individuals continue to grow at a slow rate. Other characteristic features of this condition are underdeveloped or missing kneecaps (patellae), small ears, and, often, an abnormally small head (microcephaly). Despite a small head size, most people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have normal intellect.\n\nSome people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have other skeletal abnormalities, such as unusually narrow long bones in the arms and legs, a deformity of the knee joint that allows the knee to bend backwards (genu recurvatum), and slowed mineralization of bones (delayed bone age).
Moyamoya angiopathy-short stature-facial dysmorphism-hypergonadotropic hypogonadism syndrome
MedGen UID:
463207
Concept ID:
C3151857
Disease or Syndrome
This multisystem disorder is characterized by moyamoya disease, short stature, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and facial dysmorphism. Other variable features include dilated cardiomyopathy, premature graying of the hair, and early-onset cataracts. Moyamoya disease is a progressive cerebrovascular disorder characterized by stenosis or occlusion of the internal carotid arteries and the main branches, leading to the development of small collateral vessels (moyamoya vessels) at the base of the brain. Affected individuals can develop acute neurologic events due to stroke-like episodes (summary by Miskinyte et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of moyamoya disease, see MYMY1 (252350).
Ogden syndrome
MedGen UID:
477078
Concept ID:
C3275447
Disease or Syndrome
Ogden syndrome (OGDNS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by postnatal growth failure, severely delayed psychomotor development, variable dysmorphic features, and hypotonia. Many patients also have cardiac malformations or arrhythmias (summary by Popp et al., 2015).
Cutis laxa, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
478169
Concept ID:
C3276539
Disease or Syndrome
FBLN5-related cutis laxa is characterized by cutis laxa, early childhood-onset pulmonary emphysema, peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, and other evidence of a generalized connective disorder such as inguinal hernias and hollow viscus diverticula (e.g., intestine, bladder). Occasionally, supravalvar aortic stenosis is observed. Intrafamilial variability in age of onset is observed. Cardiorespiratory failure from complications of pulmonary emphysema (respiratory or cardiac insufficiency) is the most common cause of death.
Fibrochondrogenesis 1
MedGen UID:
479768
Concept ID:
C3278138
Disease or Syndrome
Fibrochondrogenesis is a severe, autosomal recessive, short-limbed skeletal dysplasia clinically characterized by a flat midface with a small nose and anteverted nares, significant shortening of all limb segments but relatively normal hands and feet, and a small bell-shaped thorax with a protuberant abdomen. Radiographically, the long bones are short and have broad metaphyseal ends, giving them a dumb-bell shape. The vertebral bodies are flat and, on lateral view, have a distinctive pinched appearance, with a hypoplastic posterior end and a rounded anterior end. The ribs are typically short and wide and have metaphyseal cupping at both ends (summary by Tompson et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Fibrochondrogenesis Fibrochondrogenesis-2 (FBCG2; 614524) is caused by mutation in the COL11A2 gene (120290) on chromosome 6p21.3.
Geleophysic dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
479777
Concept ID:
C3278147
Disease or Syndrome
Geleophysic dysplasia, a progressive condition resembling a lysosomal storage disorder, is characterized by short stature, short hands and feet, progressive joint limitation and contractures, distinctive facial features, progressive cardiac valvular disease, and thickened skin. Intellect is normal. Major findings are likely to be present in the first year of life. Cardiac, respiratory, and lung involvement result in death before age five years in approximately 33% of individuals with ADAMTSL2-related geleophysic dysplasia.
Larsen-like syndrome, B3GAT3 type
MedGen UID:
480034
Concept ID:
C3278404
Disease or Syndrome
CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal.
Mitochondrial complex V (ATP synthase) deficiency nuclear type 2
MedGen UID:
481329
Concept ID:
C3279699
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial encephalo-cardio-myopathy due to <i>TMEM70</i> mutation is characterized by early neonatal onset of hypotonia, hypetrophic cardiomyopathy and apneic spells within hours after birth accompanied by lactic acidosis, hyperammonemia and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria.
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
481405
Concept ID:
C3279775
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, lack of psychomotor development, seizures, dysmorphic features, and variable congenital anomalies involving the cardiac, urinary, and gastrointestinal systems. Most affected individuals die before 3 years of age (summary by Maydan et al., 2011). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis; see GPIBD1 (610293). Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia-Seizures Syndrome MCAHS2 (300868) is caused by mutation in the PIGA gene (311770) on chromosome Xp22, MCAHS3 (615398) is caused by mutation in the PIGT gene (610272) on chromosome 20q13, and MCAHS4 (618548) is caused by mutation in the PIGQ gene (605754) on chromosome 16p13. Knaus et al. (2018) provided a review of the main clinical features of the different types of MCAHS, noting that patients with mutations in the PIGN, PIGA, and PIGT genes have distinct patterns of facial anomalies that can be detected by computer-assisted comparison. Some individuals with MCAHS may have variable increases in alkaline phosphatase (AP) as well as variable decreases in GPI-linked proteins that can be detected by flow cytometry. However, there was no clear correlation between AP levels or GPI-linked protein abnormalities and degree of neurologic involvement, mutation class, or gene involved. Knaus et al. (2018) concluded that a distinction between MCAHS and HPMRS1 (239300), which is also caused by mutation in genes involved in GPI biosynthesis, may be artificial and even inaccurate, and that all these disorders should be considered and classified together under the more encompassing term of 'GPI biosynthesis defects' (GPIBD).
Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
MedGen UID:
481470
Concept ID:
C3279840
Disease or Syndrome
Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients may be asymptomatic, whereas others show global developmental delay, nonspecific dysmorphic features, and delayed myelination on brain imaging. Laboratory studies typically show increased urinary 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid, although additional metabolic abnormalities may also be observed (summary by Marcadier et al., 2013).
Geleophysic dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
481684
Concept ID:
C3280054
Disease or Syndrome
Geleophysic dysplasia, a progressive condition resembling a lysosomal storage disorder, is characterized by short stature, short hands and feet, progressive joint limitation and contractures, distinctive facial features, progressive cardiac valvular disease, and thickened skin. Intellect is normal. Major findings are likely to be present in the first year of life. Cardiac, respiratory, and lung involvement result in death before age five years in approximately 33% of individuals with ADAMTSL2-related geleophysic dysplasia.
3M syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
481776
Concept ID:
C3280146
Disease or Syndrome
Three M syndrome is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency (final height 5-6 SD below the mean; i.e., 120-130 cm), characteristic facies, and normal intelligence. Additional features of three M syndrome include short broad neck, prominent trapezii, deformed sternum, short thorax, square shoulders, winged scapulae, hyperlordosis, short fifth fingers, prominent heels, and loose joints. Males with three M syndrome have hypogonadism and occasionally hypospadias.
Microcephaly-cerebellar hypoplasia-cardiac conduction defect syndrome
MedGen UID:
482322
Concept ID:
C3280692
Disease or Syndrome
The Zaki-Gleeson syndrome is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by profound mental retardation, severe microcephaly, poor growth, cerebellar hypoplasia, and second-degree cardiac conduction defects (Zaki et al., 2011).
Coffin-Siris syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
482831
Concept ID:
C3281201
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment.
Baraitser-winter syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
482865
Concept ID:
C3281235
Disease or Syndrome
Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial (BWCFF) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial features and intellectual disability. Many (but not all) affected individuals have pachygyria that is predominantly frontal, wasting of the shoulder girdle muscles, and sensory impairment due to iris or retinal coloboma and/or sensorineural deafness. Intellectual disability, which is common but variable, is related to the severity of the brain malformations. Seizures, congenital heart defects, renal malformations, and gastrointestinal dysfunction are also common.
Short stature-optic atrophy-Pelger-HuC+t anomaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
762020
Concept ID:
C3541319
Disease or Syndrome
Among the Yakuts, an Asian population isolate that is located in the northeastern part of Siberia, Maksimova et al. (2010) ascertained an autosomal recessive short stature syndrome involving postnatal growth failure, small hands and feet, loss of visual acuity with abnormalities of color vision, abnormal nuclear shape in neutrophil granulocytes (Pelger-Huet anomaly; see 169400), and normal intelligence.
Short stature-onychodysplasia-facial dysmorphism-hypotrichosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
762199
Concept ID:
C3542022
Disease or Syndrome
SOFT syndrome is characterized by severely short long bones, peculiar facies associated with paucity of hair, and nail anomalies. Growth retardation is evident on prenatal ultrasound as early as the second trimester of pregnancy, and affected individuals reach a final stature consistent with a height age of 6 years to 8 years. Relative macrocephaly is present during early childhood but head circumference is markedly low by adulthood. Psychomotor development is normal. Facial dysmorphism includes a long, triangular face with prominent nose and small ears, and affected individuals have an unusual high-pitched voice. Clinodactyly, brachydactyly, and hypoplastic distal phalanges and fingernails are present in association with postpubertal sparse and short hair. Typical skeletal findings include short and thick long bones with mild irregular metaphyseal changes, short femoral necks, and hypoplastic pelvis and sacrum. All long bones of the hand are short, with major delay of carpal ossification and cone-shaped epiphyses. Vertebral body ossification is also delayed (summary by Sarig et al., 2012).
Cornelia de Lange syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
763817
Concept ID:
C3550903
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia.
Linear skin defects with multiple congenital anomalies 2
MedGen UID:
763835
Concept ID:
C3550921
Disease or Syndrome
Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is characterized by unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia and/or anophthalmia and linear skin defects, usually involving the face and neck, which are present at birth and heal with age, leaving minimal residual scarring. Other findings can include a wide variety of other ocular abnormalities (e.g., corneal anomalies, orbital cysts, cataracts), central nervous system involvement (e.g., structural anomalies, developmental delay, infantile seizures), cardiac concerns (e.g., hypertrophic or oncocytic cardiomyopathy, atrial or ventricular septal defects, arrhythmias), short stature, diaphragmatic hernia, nail dystrophy, hearing impairment, and genitourinary malformations. Inter- and intrafamilial variability is described.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 14
MedGen UID:
766161
Concept ID:
C3553247
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, coarse facial features, feeding difficulties, and hypoplastic or absent fifth fingernails and fifth distal phalanges. Other more variable features may also occur. Patients with ARID1A mutations have a wide spectrum of manifestations, from severe intellectual disability and serious internal complications that could result in early death to mild intellectual disability (summary by Kosho et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900). The chromosome 1p36.11 duplication syndrome, in which the ARID1A gene is duplicated, is characterized by impaired intellectual development, microcephaly, dysmorphic facial features, and hand and foot anomalies.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 15
MedGen UID:
766162
Concept ID:
C3553248
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, coarse facial features, feeding difficulties, and hypoplastic or absent fifth fingernails and fifth distal phalanges. Other more variable features may also occur. Patients with SMARCB1 mutations may have more severe neurodevelopmental deficits including severe intellectual disability, brain structural abnormalities, and no expressive words, as well as scoliosis (summary by Kosho et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 16
MedGen UID:
766163
Concept ID:
C3553249
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, coarse facial features, feeding difficulties, and hypoplastic or absent fifth fingernails and fifth distal phalanges. Other more variable features may also occur. Patients with SMARCA4 mutations may have less coarse craniofacial appearances and fewer behavioral abnormalities than Coffin-Siris patients with mutations in other genes (summary by Kosho et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900).
Hypertelorism and other facial dysmorphism, brachydactyly, genital abnormalities, intellectual disability, and recurrent inflammatory episodes
MedGen UID:
766379
Concept ID:
C3553465
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
766431
Concept ID:
C3553517
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia.
Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier deficiency
MedGen UID:
766521
Concept ID:
C3553607
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier deficiency is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and lactic acidosis with a normal lactate/pyruvate ratio resulting from impaired mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation (summary by Bricker et al., 2012).
Cerebellar dysfunction with variable cognitive and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
766575
Concept ID:
C3553661
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar dysfunction with variable cognitive and behavioral abnormalities (CECBA) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder with significant phenotypic heterogeneity, even within families. The disorder is most often diagnosed through genetic analysis with retrospective clinical phenotyping. Symptom onset is usually in early childhood, although later onset, even in adulthood, has been reported. Most affected individuals show global developmental delay from early childhood, particularly of motor and language skills. Many have mild intellectual disability; behavioral and psychiatric abnormalities such as autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder are also often observed. The movement disorder is prominent and may include cerebellar signs such as ataxia, tremor, dysmetria, poor coordination, and dysarthria. Other abnormal movements including spasticity, myoclonus, and dystonia have been reported, thus widening the phenotypic spectrum. Brain imaging is usually normal, but may show cerebellar atrophy or nonspecific white matter lesions. Variable dysmorphic facial features may also be present (summary by Thevenon et al., 2012; Jacobs et al., 2021; Wijnen et al., 2020).
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 13
MedGen UID:
766801
Concept ID:
C3553887
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. Due to considerable phenotypic variability, Sillence et al. (1979) developed a classification of OI subtypes based on clinical features and disease severity: OI type I, with blue sclerae (166200); perinatal lethal OI type II, also known as congenital OI (166210); OI type III, a progressively deforming form with normal sclerae (259420); and OI type IV, with normal sclerae (166220). Most cases of OI are autosomal dominant with mutations in 1 of the 2 genes that code for type I collagen alpha chains, COL1A1 (120150) and COL1A2 (120160). Martinez-Glez et al. (2012) described osteogenesis imperfecta type XIII, an autosomal recessive form of the disorder characterized by normal teeth, faint blue sclerae, severe growth deficiency, borderline osteoporosis, and an average of 10 to 15 fractures a year affecting both upper and lower limbs and with severe bone deformity.
MEGF8-related Carpenter syndrome
MedGen UID:
767161
Concept ID:
C3554247
Disease or Syndrome
Carpenter syndrome-2 (CRPT2) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital malformation disorder characterized by multisuture craniosynostosis and polysyndactyly of the hands and feet, in association with abnormal left-right patterning and other features, most commonly obesity, umbilical hernia, cryptorchidism, and congenital heart disease (summary by Twigg et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Carpenter syndrome, see 201000.
Intellectual developmental disorder with autism and macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
767287
Concept ID:
C3554373
Disease or Syndrome
CHD8-related neurodevelopmental disorder with overgrowth (CHD8-NDD) is characterized by generalized overgrowth, developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), neuropsychiatric issues, neurologic problems, sleep disturbance, and gastrointestinal issues The most common findings are the development of macrocephaly (most often during infancy) and tall stature (most typically during puberty), which is often accompanied by ASD and/or DD/ID. Most, if not all, affected individuals have some degree of DD, most commonly speech and motor delays. When present, ID is most often in the mild-to-moderate range. Sleep disturbance is characterized by difficulty with both initiation (delayed sleep onset) and maintenance (frequent night awakenings) of sleep. The most common gastrointestinal issue is constipation with or without periods of diarrhea. Less common features are hypotonia (about 30% of affected individuals), seizures (10%-15%), dystonia (rare), and Chiari I malformation (rare).
Severe intellectual disability-progressive spastic diplegia syndrome
MedGen UID:
767363
Concept ID:
C3554449
Disease or Syndrome
CTNNB1 neurodevelopmental disorder (CTNNB1-NDD) is characterized in all individuals by mild-to-profound cognitive impairment and in up to 39% of reported individuals by exudative vitreoretinopathy, an ophthalmologic finding consistent with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). Other common findings include truncal hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, dystonia, behavior problems, microcephaly, and refractive errors and strabismus. Less common features include intrauterine growth restriction, feeding difficulties, and scoliosis.
Microphthalmia, isolated, with coloboma 9
MedGen UID:
767506
Concept ID:
C3554592
Disease or Syndrome
MCOPCB9 is characterized by microphthalmia and coloboma (Aldahmesh et al., 2012). MCOPS15 is characterized by microphthalmia and/or coloboma, with developmental delay in which speech appears to be more severely affected than motor abilities. Additional ocular anomalies that have been observed include ptosis, keyhole-shaped pupils, microcornea, sclerocornea, and anterior segment dysgenesis (Chassaing et al., 2016; Stephen et al., 2018; Singh et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of colobomatous microphthalmia, see MCOPCB1 (300345). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of syndromic microphthalmia, see MCOPS1 (309800).
Short ulna-dysmorphism-hypotonia-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
767523
Concept ID:
C3554609
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Short ulna-dysmorphism-hypotonia-intellectual disability syndrome is a rare, genetic, multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by mild to severe global development delay, severe intellectual disability, mild hypotonia, a short ulna, hirsutism of the face and extremities, minimal scoliosis, and facial dysmorphism, notably a tall broad forehead, synophrys, hypertelorism, malar hypoplasia, broad nose with thick alae nasi, low-set, small ears, long philtrum, thin upper lip and everted lower lip vermilion.
Blepharophimosis - intellectual disability syndrome, MKB type
MedGen UID:
785805
Concept ID:
C3698541
Disease or Syndrome
MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders.
Corneal intraepithelial dyskeratosis-palmoplantar hyperkeratosis-laryngeal dyskeratosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
815206
Concept ID:
C3808876
Neoplastic Process
Multiple self-healing palmoplantar carcinoma (MSPC) is characterized by recurrent keratoacanthomas in palmoplantar skin as well as in conjunctival and corneal epithelia. In addition, patients experience a high susceptibility to malignant squamous cell carcinoma (summary by Zhong et al., 2016).
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
815686
Concept ID:
C3809356
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, lack of psychomotor development, seizures, dysmorphic features, and variable congenital anomalies involving the cardiac, urinary, and gastrointestinal systems. Most affected individuals die before 3 years of age (summary by Maydan et al., 2011). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Intellectual disability-feeding difficulties-developmental delay-microcephaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
816016
Concept ID:
C3809686
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A rare, genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, borderline to severe intellectual disability, feeding difficulties, behavioral anomalies, vision anomalies and mild facial dysmorphism. Other associated features may include microcephaly, short stature, urogenital or palatal anomalies (e.g. cleft palate), minor cardiac defects, recurrent infections or hearing loss.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, musculocontractural type 2
MedGen UID:
816175
Concept ID:
C3809845
Disease or Syndrome
The musculocontractural type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDSMC2) is characterized by progressive multisystem fragility-related manifestations, including joint dislocations and deformities; skin hyperextensibility, bruisability, and fragility, with recurrent large subcutaneous hematomas; cardiac valvular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and ophthalmologic complications; and myopathy, featuring muscle hypoplasia, muscle weakness, and an abnormal muscle fiber pattern in histology in adulthood, resulting in gross motor developmental delay (summary by Muller et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the musculocontractural type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, see EDSMC1 (601776).
8q24.3 microdeletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
816353
Concept ID:
C3810023
Disease or Syndrome
Verheij syndrome is characterized by growth retardation, delayed psychomotor development, dysmorphic facial features, and skeletal, mainly vertebral, abnormalities. Additional variable features may include coloboma, renal defects, and cardiac defects (summary by Verheij et al., 2009 and Dauber et al., 2013).
Warburg micro syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
816595
Concept ID:
C3810265
Disease or Syndrome
RAB18 deficiency is the molecular deficit underlying both Warburg micro syndrome (characterized by eye, nervous system, and endocrine abnormalities) and Martsolf syndrome (characterized by similar – but milder – findings). To date Warburg micro syndrome comprises >96% of reported individuals with genetically defined RAB18 deficiency. The hallmark ophthalmologic findings are bilateral congenital cataracts, usually accompanied by microphthalmia, microcornea (diameter <10), and small atonic pupils. Poor vision despite early cataract surgery likely results from progressive optic atrophy and cortical visual impairment. Individuals with Warburg micro syndrome have severe to profound intellectual disability (ID); those with Martsolf syndrome have mild to moderate ID. Some individuals with RAB18 deficiency also have epilepsy. In Warburg micro syndrome, a progressive ascending spastic paraplegia typically begins with spastic diplegia and contractures during the first year, followed by upper-limb involvement leading to spastic quadriplegia after about age five years, often eventually causing breathing difficulties. In Martsolf syndrome infantile hypotonia is followed primarily by slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity. Hypogonadism – when present – manifests in both syndromes, in males as micropenis and/or cryptorchidism and in females as hypoplastic labia minora, clitoral hypoplasia, and small introitus.
Chromosome 5q12 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
816612
Concept ID:
C3810282
Disease or Syndrome
PDE4D haploinsufficiency syndrome is a rare syndromic intellectual disability characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, low body mass index, long arms, fingers and toes, prominent nose and small chin.
Intellectual disability-facial dysmorphism syndrome due to SETD5 haploinsufficiency
MedGen UID:
816736
Concept ID:
C3810406
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability-facial dysmorphism syndrome due to SETD5 haploinsufficiency is a rare, syndromic intellectual disability characterized by intellectual disability of various severity, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, dysmorphic features, autism and behavioral issues. Growth retardation, congenital heart anomalies, gastrointestinal and genitourinary defects have been rarely associated.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 7A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
854881
Concept ID:
C3888385
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome resulting from disordered peroxisome biogenesis. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 8 (CG8, equivalent to CGA) have mutations in the PEX26 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Desbuquois dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
860583
Concept ID:
C4012146
Disease or Syndrome
Desbuquois dysplasia (DBQD) is an autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia belonging to the multiple dislocation group and characterized by severe prenatal and postnatal growth retardation (stature less than -5 SD), joint laxity, short extremities, and progressive scoliosis. The main radiologic features are short long bones with metaphyseal splay, a 'Swedish key' appearance of the proximal femur (exaggerated trochanter), and advanced carpal and tarsal bone age with a delta phalanx (summary by Huber et al., 2009). Desbuquois dysplasia is clinically and radiographically heterogeneous, and had been classified into 2 types based on the presence (type 1) or absence (type 2) of characteristic hand anomalies, including an extra ossification center distal to the second metacarpal, delta phalanx, bifid distal thumb phalanx, and dislocation of the interphalangeal joints (Faivre et al., 2004). However, patients with and without these additional hand anomalies have been reported to have mutations in the same gene (see, e.g., CANT1); thus, these features are not distinctive criteria to predict the molecular basis of DBQD (Furuichi et al., 2011). In addition, Kim et al. (2010) described another milder variant of DBQD with almost normal outwardly appearing hands, but significant radiographic changes, including short metacarpals, elongated phalanges, and remarkably advanced carpal bone age. However, there is no accessory ossification center distal to the second metacarpal, and patients do not have thumb anomalies. Similar changes occur in the feet. These patients also tend to develop precocious osteoarthritis of the hand and spine with age. This phenotype is sometimes referred to as the 'Kim variant' of DBQD (Furuichi et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Desbuquois Dysplasia DBQD2 (615777) is caused by mutation in the XYLT1 gene (608124) on chromosome 16p12. Two unrelated patients with immunodeficiency-23 (IMD23; 615816), due to mutation in the PGM3 gene (172100), were reported to have skeletal features reminiscent of DBQD.
Desbuquois dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
862731
Concept ID:
C4014294
Disease or Syndrome
Desbuquois dysplasia, which belongs to the multiple dislocation group of disorders, is characterized by dislocations of large joints, severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation, joint laxity, and flat face with prominent eyes. Radiologic features include short long bones with an exaggerated trochanter that gives a 'monkey wrench' appearance to the proximal femur, and advanced carpal and tarsal ossification (summary by Bui et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Desbuquois dysplasia, see DBQD1 (251450).
ADNP-related multiple congenital anomalies - intellectual disability - autism spectrum disorder
MedGen UID:
862975
Concept ID:
C4014538
Disease or Syndrome
ADNP-related disorder is characterized by hypotonia, severe speech and motor delay, mild-to-severe intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features (prominent forehead, high anterior hairline, wide and depressed nasal bridge, and short nose with full, upturned nasal tip) based on a cohort of 78 individuals. Features of autism spectrum disorder are common (stereotypic behavior, impaired social interaction). Other common findings include additional behavioral problems, sleep disturbance, brain abnormalities, seizures, feeding issues, gastrointestinal problems, visual dysfunction (hypermetropia, strabismus, cortical visual impairment), musculoskeletal anomalies, endocrine issues including short stature and hormonal deficiencies, cardiac and urinary tract anomalies, and hearing loss.
Colobomatous microphthalmia-rhizomelic dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
862977
Concept ID:
C4014540
Disease or Syndrome
Colobomatous microphthalmia-rhizomelic dysplasia syndrome is a rare, genetic developmental defect during embryogenesis characterized by a range of developmental eye anomalies (including anophthalmia, microphthalmia, colobomas, microcornea, corectopia, cataract) and symmetric limb rhizomelia with short stature and contractures of large joints. Intellectual disability with autistic features, macrocephaly, dysmorphic features, urogenital anomalies (hypospadia, cryptorchidism), cutaneous syndactyly and precocious puberty may also be present.
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 44
MedGen UID:
863182
Concept ID:
C4014745
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the METTL23 gene.
Severe combined immunodeficiency due to DNA-PKcs deficiency
MedGen UID:
863270
Concept ID:
C4014833
Disease or Syndrome
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) due to DNA-PKcs deficiency is an extremely rare type of SCID (see this term) characterized by the classical signs of SCID (severe and recurrent infections, diarrhea, failure to thrive), absence of T and B lymphocytes, and cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation.
Cataract-growth hormone deficiency-sensory neuropathy-sensorineural hearing loss-skeletal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
863379
Concept ID:
C4014942
Disease or Syndrome
CAGSSS, which comprises cataracts, growth hormone deficiency, sensory neuropathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and skeletal dysplasia, is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with a highly variable phenotypic spectrum. Not all of these features are always present, and almost all the features may present at different times and/or become more apparent with age. The skeletal features are consistent with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) (summary by Vona et al., 2018). One family had a distinctive presentation with infantile-onset intractable seizures and cortical abnormalities reminiscent of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). The correlation between genotype and phenotype remains unclear, but since the IARS2 gene is involved in mitochondrial function, heterogeneous manifestations can be expected (Takezawa et al., 2018).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 29
MedGen UID:
863578
Concept ID:
C4015141
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
SETBP1 haploinsufficiency disorder (SETBP1-HD) is characterized by hypotonia and mild motor developmental delay; intellectual abilities ranging from normal to severe disability; speech and language disorder; behavioral problems (most commonly attention/concentration deficits and hyperactivity, impulsivity), and refractive errors and strabismus. Typically children with SETBP1-HD whose intellect is in the normal or borderline range (IQ 80-90) were diagnosed following genetic testing for behavioral problems and/or severe speech and language disorders (respectively: the inability to produce sounds in words correctly, and deficits in the understanding and/or expression of words and sentences). To date, 47 individuals with SETBP1-HD have been reported.
Fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
863781
Concept ID:
C4015344
Disease or Syndrome
Peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA reductase-1 disorder (PFCRD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset in infancy of severely delayed psychomotor development, growth retardation with microcephaly, and seizures. Some patients may have congenital cataracts and develop spasticity later in childhood. Biochemical studies tend to show decreased plasmalogen, consistent with a peroxisomal defect. The disorder is reminiscent of rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (see, e.g., RCDP1, 215100), although the characteristic skeletal abnormalities observed in RCDP are absent (Buchert et al., 2014).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 28
MedGen UID:
863956
Concept ID:
C4015519
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-28 (DEE28) is an autosomal recessive severe neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory seizures in the first months of life. Affected individuals have severe axial hypotonia and profoundly impaired psychomotor development. More severely affected patients have acquired microcephaly, poor or absent visual contact, and retinal degeneration; early death may occur (summary by Mignot et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity, type 1, with or without fractures
MedGen UID:
865814
Concept ID:
C4017377
Disease or Syndrome
Any spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the B3GALT6 gene.
Cognitive impairment - coarse facies - heart defects - obesity - pulmonary involvement - short stature - skeletal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
894554
Concept ID:
C4085597
Disease or Syndrome
CHOPS syndrome is a disorder involving multiple abnormalities that are present from birth (congenital). The name "CHOPS" is an abbreviation for a list of features of the disorder including cognitive impairment, coarse facial features, heart defects, obesity, lung (pulmonary) involvement, short stature, and skeletal abnormalities.\n\nChildren with CHOPS syndrome have intellectual disability and delayed development of skills such as sitting and walking. Characteristic facial features include a round face; thick hair; thick eyebrows that grow together in the middle (synophrys); wide-set, bulging eyes with long eyelashes; a short nose; and down-turned corners of the mouth.\n\nMost affected individuals are born with a heart defect called patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The ductus arteriosus is a connection between two major arteries, the aorta and the pulmonary artery. This connection is open during fetal development and normally closes shortly after birth. However, the ductus arteriosus remains open, or patent, in babies with PDA. If untreated, this heart defect causes infants to breathe rapidly, feed poorly, and gain weight slowly; in severe cases, it can lead to heart failure. Multiple heart abnormalities have sometimes been found in children with CHOPS syndrome. In addition to PDA, affected individuals may have ventricular septal defect, which is a defect in the muscular wall (septum) that separates the right and left sides of the heart's lower chamber.\n\nPeople with CHOPS syndrome have abnormalities of the throat and airways that cause momentary cessation of breathing while asleep (obstructive sleep apnea). These abnormalities can also cause affected individuals to breathe food or fluids into the lungs accidentally, which can lead to a potentially life-threatening bacterial lung infection (aspiration pneumonia) and chronic lung disease. Affected individuals are shorter than more than 97 percent of their peers and are overweight for their height. They also have skeletal differences including unusually short fingers and toes (brachydactyly) and abnormally-shaped spinal bones (vertebrae).\n\nOther features that can occur in CHOPS syndrome include a small head size (microcephaly); hearing loss; clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract); a single, horseshoe-shaped kidney; and, in affected males, undescended testes (cryptorchidism).
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
907878
Concept ID:
C4225164
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
Macrothrombocytopenia-lymphedema-developmental delay-facial dysmorphism-camptodactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
906646
Concept ID:
C4225222
Disease or Syndrome
Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome is a highly heterogeneous autosomal dominant complex congenital developmental disorder affecting multiple organ systems. The core phenotype includes delayed psychomotor development with variable intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, and cardiac, genitourinary, and hematologic or lymphatic defects, including thrombocytopenia and lymphedema. Additional features may include abnormalities on brain imaging, skeletal anomalies, and recurrent infections. Some patients have a milder disease course reminiscent of Noonan syndrome (see, e.g., NS1, 163950) (summary by Martinelli et al., 2018).
PMP22-RAI1 contiguous gene duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
894862
Concept ID:
C4225255
Disease or Syndrome
Yuan-Harel-Lupski syndrome is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and early-onset peripheral neuropathy. The disorder comprises features of both demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A; 118220), which results from duplication of the PMP22 gene on 17p12, and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS; 610883), which results from duplication of a slightly proximal region on 17p11.2 that includes the RAI1 gene. These 2 loci are about 2.5 Mb apart. The resultant YUHAL phenotype may be more severe in comparison to the individual contributions of each gene, with particularly early onset of peripheral neuropathy and features of both central and peripheral nervous system involvement (summary by Yuan et al., 2015).
Macrocephaly-intellectual disability-neurodevelopmental disorder-small thorax syndrome
MedGen UID:
899689
Concept ID:
C4225259
Disease or Syndrome
Smith-Kingsmore syndrome (SKS) is a rare autosomal dominant syndromic intellectual disability syndrome characterized by macrocephaly, seizures, umbilical hernia, and facial dysmorphic features including frontal bossing, midface hypoplasia, small chin, hypertelorism with downslanting palpebral fissures, depressed nasal bridge, smooth philtrum, and thin upper lip (Smith et al., 2013; Baynam et al., 2015).
Klippel-Feil anomaly-myopathy-facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
894399
Concept ID:
C4225285
Disease or Syndrome
Klippel-Feil syndrome-4 with nemaline myopathy and facial dysmorphism (KFS4) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized mainly by severe hypotonia apparent from infancy. Klippel-Feil anomaly is primarily defined by fusion of the cervical spine, with associated low posterior hairline and limited neck mobility being observed in about half of patients (summary by Alazami et al., 2015). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Klippel-Feil syndrome, see KFS1 (118100).
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 10
MedGen UID:
904191
Concept ID:
C4225332
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-10 is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by postnatal progressive microcephaly, severely delayed psychomotor development, and hypomyelination on brain imaging (summary by Nakayama et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
897039
Concept ID:
C4225363
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
Progressive essential tremor-speech impairment-facial dysmorphism-intellectual disability-abnormal behavior syndrome
MedGen UID:
895952
Concept ID:
C4225395
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic syndromic intellectual disability characterized by global developmental delay, moderate to severe intellectual disability, motor and language impairment, behavioral abnormalities (with mood instability, aggression and self-mutilation) and progressive hand tremor. Facial dysmorphism includes narrow palpebral fissures, large ears, long philtrum and prominent chin.
Congenital contractures of the limbs and face, hypotonia, and developmental delay
MedGen UID:
907234
Concept ID:
C4225398
Disease or Syndrome
CLIFAHDD is a congenital disorder characterized by congenital contractures of the limbs and face, resulting in characteristic facial features, hypotonia, and variable degrees of developmental delay. All reported cases have occurred de novo (summary by Chong et al., 2015).
Intellectual disability, X-linked 99, syndromic, female-restricted
MedGen UID:
899839
Concept ID:
C4225416
Disease or Syndrome
Female-restricted X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder-99 (MRXS99F) is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and mild to moderate intellectual disability. Affected females can have a wide range of additional congenital anomalies, including scoliosis, postaxial polydactyly, mild cardiac or urogenital anomalies, dysmorphic facial features, and mild structural brain abnormalities (summary by Reijnders et al., 2016).
Intellectual disability, X-linked, syndromic 33
MedGen UID:
895979
Concept ID:
C4225418
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder-33 (MRXS33) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features (summary by O'Rawe et al., 2015).
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and ptosis
MedGen UID:
934584
Concept ID:
C4310617
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and ptosis (IDDDFP) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, delayed language, and dysmorphic facial features, most notably ptosis/blepharophimosis. Additional features may include poor growth, hypotonia, and seizures (summary by Mattioli et al., 2017). See also chromosome 3p deletion syndrome (613792).
Epilepsy, early-onset, vitamin B6-dependent
MedGen UID:
934599
Concept ID:
C4310632
Disease or Syndrome
Early-onset vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy-1 (EPEO1) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the neonatal period or first months of life. The seizures show favorable response to treatment with activated vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 5-prime-phosphate; PLP) and/or pyridoxine. However, most patients show delayed psychomotor development (Darin et al., 2016). Genetic Heterogeneity of Early-Onset Epilepsy EPEO2 (618832) is caused by mutation in the SETD1A gene (611052) on chromosome 16p11. EPEO3 (620465) is caused by mutation in the ATP6V0C gene (108745) on chromosome 16p13. EPEO4 (266100) is caused by mutation in the ALDH7A1 gene (107323) on chromosome 5q23. EPEO5 (615400) is caused by mutation in the CNTN2 gene (190197) on chromosome 1q32.
Short stature-brachydactyly-obesity-global developmental delay syndrome
MedGen UID:
934656
Concept ID:
C4310689
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic, multiple congenital anomalies syndrome characterized by short stature, hand brachydactyly with hypoplastic distal phalanges, global development delay, intellectual disability, and more variably seizures, obesity, and craniofacial dysmorphism that includes microcephaly, high forehead, flat face, hypertelorism, deep set eyes, flat nasal bridge, averted nostrils, long philtrum, thin lip vermilion, and short neck.
Alazami-Yuan syndrome
MedGen UID:
934669
Concept ID:
C4310702
Disease or Syndrome
Micrognathia-recurrent infections-behavioral abnormalities-mild intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
934707
Concept ID:
C4310740
Disease or Syndrome
TRIO-related intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by delay in acquisition of motor and language skills, mild to borderline intellectual disability, and neurobehavioral problems (including autistic traits or autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and/or aggression). Neonatal or infantile feeding difficulties including poor suck, impaired bottle feeding, and failure to thrive are common and are often the presenting finding. Other findings can include microcephaly, variable hand and dental abnormalities, and suggestive facial features. Only ten of the 20 individuals with a TRIO pathogenic variant reported to date had sufficient information to make preliminary generalizations about clinical manifestations; it is anticipated that the phenotype of this newly described disorder will continue to evolve.
SIN3A-related intellectual disability syndrome due to a point mutation
MedGen UID:
934771
Concept ID:
C4310804
Disease or Syndrome
Witteveen-Kolk syndrome (WITKOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with characteristic distinctive facial features, microcephaly, short stature, and mildly impaired intellectual development with delayed cognitive and motor development and subtle anomalies on MRI-brain imaging (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2021).
Intellectual disability, X-linked, syndromic, 35
MedGen UID:
1392054
Concept ID:
C4478383
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2C
MedGen UID:
1385755
Concept ID:
C4479387
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type IIC (ARCL2C) is characterized by generalized skin wrinkling with sparse subcutaneous fat and dysmorphic progeroid facial features. Most patients also exhibit severe hypotonia as well as cardiovascular involvement (summary by Van Damme et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100).
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, seizures, and distal limb anomalies
MedGen UID:
1375601
Concept ID:
C4479520
Disease or Syndrome
IDDFSDA is an autosomal recessive severe multisystem disorder characterized by poor overall growth, developmental delay, early-onset seizures, intellectual disability, and dysmorphic features. There is phenotypic variability. The most severely affected patients have a neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, absent speech, and inability to walk, and they require feeding tubes. Some patients have congenital heart defects or nonspecific abnormalities on brain imaging. Less severely affected individuals have mild to moderate intellectual disability with normal speech and motor development (summary by Santiago-Sim et al., 2017).
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 2
MedGen UID:
1376945
Concept ID:
C4479577
Disease or Syndrome
An inherited condition caused by autosomal dominant mutation(s) in the PPP1CB gene, encoding serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-beta catalytic subunit. The condition is characterized by facial features similar to those seen in Noonan syndrome but may also include short stature, cognitive deficits, relative macrocephaly, small posterior fossa resulting in Chiari I malformation, hypernasal voice, cardiac defects, and ectodermal abnormalities, which typically presents as slow-growing, sparse, and/or unruly hair.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with midbrain and hindbrain malformations
MedGen UID:
1385580
Concept ID:
C4479613
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with midbrain and hindbrain malformations (NEDMHM) is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising impaired intellectual development, speech delay, mild microcephaly, and midbrain-hindbrain malformation (Ravindran et al., 2017).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1380260
Concept ID:
C4479631
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and brain anomalies (NDMSBA) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by infantile onset of progressive microcephaly and spasticity and severe global developmental delay resulting in profoundly impaired intellectual development and severely impaired or absent motor function. More variable features include seizures and optic atrophy. Brain imaging may show myelinating abnormalities and white matter lesions consistent with a leukoencephalopathy, as well as structural anomalies, including thin corpus callosum, gyral abnormalities, and cerebral or cerebellar atrophy. Some patients die in early childhood (summary by Falik Zaccai et al., 2017 and Hall et al., 2017).
Al Kaissi syndrome
MedGen UID:
1611968
Concept ID:
C4540156
Disease or Syndrome
Al Kaissi syndrome (ALKAS) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by growth retardation, spine malformation, particularly of the cervical spine, dysmorphic facial features, and delayed psychomotor development with moderate to severe intellectual disability (summary by Windpassinger et al., 2017).
Neurodevelopmental disorder, mitochondrial, with abnormal movements and lactic acidosis, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1619876
Concept ID:
C4540192
Disease or Syndrome
NEMMLAS is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and abnormal motor function, including hypotonia, dystonia, ataxia, and spasticity. Patient tissues may show deficiencies in one or more of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes, but this is not a constant finding (summary by Wortmann et al., 2017).
Retinitis pigmentosa-hearing loss-premature aging-short stature-facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
1615526
Concept ID:
C4540367
Disease or Syndrome
SHRF is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, brachydactyly, dysmorphic facial features, hearing loss, and visual impairment. Onset of the hearing and visual abnormalities, including retinitis pigmentosa, varies from birth to the second decade. Patients have mild intellectual disability and mild cerebellar atrophy with myelination defects on brain imaging (summary by Di Donato et al., 2016).
Geleophysic dysplasia 3
MedGen UID:
1615724
Concept ID:
C4540511
Congenital Abnormality
Geleophysic dysplasia, a progressive condition resembling a lysosomal storage disorder, is characterized by short stature, short hands and feet, progressive joint limitation and contractures, distinctive facial features, progressive cardiac valvular disease, and thickened skin. Intellect is normal. Major findings are likely to be present in the first year of life. Cardiac, respiratory, and lung involvement result in death before age five years in approximately 33% of individuals with ADAMTSL2-related geleophysic dysplasia.
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1641736
Concept ID:
C4551475
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
Multiple benign circumferential skin creases on limbs 1
MedGen UID:
1631916
Concept ID:
C4551592
Disease or Syndrome
Zimmermann-Laband syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639277
Concept ID:
C4551773
Disease or Syndrome
Zimmermann-Laband syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by gingival fibromatosis, dysplastic or absent nails, hypoplasia of the distal phalanges, scoliosis, hepatosplenomegaly, hirsutism, and abnormalities of the cartilage of the nose and/or ears (summary by Balasubramanian and Parker, 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Zimmermann-Laband Syndrome ZLS2 (616455) is caused by mutation in the ATP6V1B2 gene (606939) on chromosome 8p21. ZLS3 (618658) is caused by mutation in the KCNN3 gene (602983) on chromosome 1q21.
Cornelia de Lange syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1645760
Concept ID:
C4551851
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia.
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1644087
Concept ID:
C4551982
Disease or Syndrome
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome (THES), generally considered to be a neonatal enteropathy, is characterized by intractable diarrhea (seen in almost all affected children), woolly hair (seen in all), intrauterine growth restriction, facial dysmorphism, and short stature. Additional findings include poorly characterized immunodeficiency, recurrent infections, skin abnormalities, and liver disease. Mild intellectual disability (ID) is seen in about 50% of affected individuals. Less common findings include congenital heart defects and platelet anomalies. To date 52 affected individuals have been reported.
Pseudo-TORCH syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639355
Concept ID:
C4552078
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 56
MedGen UID:
1638835
Concept ID:
C4693389
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 19 with or without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
1635837
Concept ID:
C4693524
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia with or without polydactyly, see SRTD1 (208500).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 63
MedGen UID:
1646846
Concept ID:
C4693810
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-63 (DEE63) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by early-onset refractory infantile spasms and myoclonic seizures in the first months to years of life. Affected individuals have severe to profound developmental delay, often with hypotonia and inability to sit or speak (summary by Redler et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
PHIP-related behavioral problems-intellectual disability-obesity-dysmorphic features syndrome
MedGen UID:
1641154
Concept ID:
C4693860
Disease or Syndrome
Chung-Jansen syndrome (CHUJANS) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties, behavioral abnormalities, dysmorphic features, and obesity. The severity of the phenotype and additional features are variable (summary by Jansen et al., 2018).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 64
MedGen UID:
1633501
Concept ID:
C4693899
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-64 (DEE64) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by onset of seizures usually in the first year of life and associated with intellectual disability, poor motor development, and poor or absent speech. Additional features include hypotonia, abnormal movements, and nonspecific dysmorphic features. The severity is variable: some patients are unable to speak, walk, or interact with others as late as the teenage years, whereas others may have some comprehension (summary by Straub et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
3p- syndrome
MedGen UID:
1643555
Concept ID:
C4706503
Disease or Syndrome
Characteristic features of the distal 3p- syndrome include low birth weight, microcephaly, trigonocephaly, hypotonia, psychomotor and growth retardation, ptosis, telecanthus, downslanting palpebral fissures, and micrognathia. Postaxial polydactyly, renal anomalies, cleft palate, congenital heart defects (especially atrioventricular septal defects), preauricular pits, sacral dimple, and gastrointestinal anomalies are variable features. Although intellectual deficits are almost invariably associated with cytogenetically visible 3p deletions, rare patients with a 3p26-p25 deletion and normal intelligence or only mild abnormalities have been described (summary by Shuib et al., 2009).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebellar atrophy and with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1648373
Concept ID:
C4748032
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebellar atrophy and with or without seizures (NEDCAS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intellectual disability associated with ataxia (summary by Engel et al., 2023).
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1648498
Concept ID:
C4748135
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with speech delay, dysmorphic facies, and t-cell abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1648327
Concept ID:
C4748152
Disease or Syndrome
Any BAFopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BCL11B gene.
Intellectual developmental disorder with hypertelorism and distinctive facies
MedGen UID:
1648403
Concept ID:
C4748381
Disease or Syndrome
Macrocephaly, acquired, with impaired intellectual development
MedGen UID:
1648471
Concept ID:
C4748993
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 20
MedGen UID:
1684324
Concept ID:
C5190595
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-20 is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development with poor or absent speech, wide-based or absent gait, coarse facies, and cerebellar atrophy (summary by Thomas et al., 2014).
Mullegama-Klein-Martinez syndrome
MedGen UID:
1683985
Concept ID:
C5193008
Disease or Syndrome
Mullegama-Klein-Martinez syndrome (MKMS) is an X-linked recessive disorder with features of microcephaly, microtia, hearing loss, developmental delay, dysmorphic features, congenital heart defect, and digit abnormalities. Females are generally affected more severely than males (Mullegama et al., 2019).
Intellectual developmental disorder, X-linked 108
MedGen UID:
1680544
Concept ID:
C5193009
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual developmental disorder-108 (MRX108) is characterized by early hypotonia, global developmental delay, and moderately to severely impaired intellectual development. Brisk tendon reflexes, variable facial dysmorphism, and fifth finger clinodactyly may be present (Khayat et al., 2019).
Distal arthrogryposis type 2B1
MedGen UID:
1676961
Concept ID:
C5193014
Disease or Syndrome
Distal arthrogryposis is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by clenched fist, overlapping fingers, camptodactyly, ulnar deviation, and positional foot deformities from birth. It is a disorder of primary limb malformation without primary neurologic or muscle disease. DA1 is not associated with other abnormalities, whereas other forms of DA have additional phenotypic features (Bamshad et al., 1996). The congenital contractures in DA2B (Sheldon-Hall syndrome, SHS) are similar to those observed in DA1, but affected individuals tend to have more prominent nasolabial folds, downslanting palpebral fissures, and a small mouth. DA2B is thought to be the most common of the distal arthrogryposis disorders (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120).
Intellectual developmental disorder with cardiac defects and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1675627
Concept ID:
C5193024
Disease or Syndrome
IDDCDF is an autosomal recessive syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by globally impaired development with intellectual disability and speech delay, congenital cardiac malformations, and dysmorphic facial features. Additional features, such as distal skeletal anomalies, may also be observed (Stephen et al., 2018).
Menke-Hennekam syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1675629
Concept ID:
C5193034
Disease or Syndrome
Menke-Hennekam syndrome-1 (MKHK1) is a congenital disorder characterized by variable impairment of intellectual development and facial dysmorphisms. Feeding difficulties, autistic behavior, recurrent upper airway infections, hearing impairment, short stature, and microcephaly are also frequently seen. Although mutations in the same gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome-1 (RSTS1; 180849), patients with MKHK1 do not resemble the striking phenotype of RSTS1. Genetic Heterogeneity of Menke-Hennekam Syndrome Menke-Hennekam syndrome-2 (MKHK2; 618333) is caused by heterozygous mutation in exons 30 or 31 of the EP300 gene (602700). Mutation elsewhere in that gene results in RSTS2 (613684).
Gonadal dysgenesis, dysmorphic facies, retinal dystrophy, and myopathy
MedGen UID:
1679397
Concept ID:
C5193085
Disease or Syndrome
Myoectodermal gonadal dysgenesis syndrome (MEGD) is characterized by 46,XY complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis, or 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis, in association with extragonadal anomalies, including low birth weight, typical facies, rod and cone dystrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, omphalocele, anal atresia, renal agenesis, skeletal abnormalities, dry and scaly skin, severe myopathy, and neuromotor delay. Dysmorphic facial features along with muscular habitus are the hallmarks of the syndrome. Abnormal hair patterning with frontal upsweep and additional whorls, eyebrow abnormalities comprising broad, arched, and sparse or thick eyebrows, underdeveloped alae nasi, smooth philtrum, and low-set ears with overfolded helices facilitate a gestalt diagnosis. (Guran et al., 2019; Altunoglu et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without variable brain abnormalities; NEDBA
MedGen UID:
1675664
Concept ID:
C5193102
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without variable brain abnormalities (NEDBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood, resulting in mildly delayed walking, variably impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech. Additional features may include hypotonia, spasticity, or ataxia. About half of patients have abnormal findings on brain imaging, including cerebral or cerebellar atrophy, loss of white matter volume, thin corpus callosum, and perisylvian polymicrogyria. Seizures are not a prominent finding, and although some patients may have nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, there is no common or consistent gestalt (summary by Platzer et al., 2019).
Cerebellar, ocular, craniofacial, and genital syndrome
MedGen UID:
1680057
Concept ID:
C5193118
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar, ocular, craniofacial, and genital syndrome (COFG) is characterized by moderate to severe developmental delay and impaired intellectual development, severe cerebellar hypoplasia, a noticeably short forehead, medially sparse/flared and laterally extended eyebrows, corneal dystrophy, underdeveloped labioscrotal folds, and tufts of hair extruding from the lactiferous ducts with breast and nipple underdevelopment. Additional features such as pontine involvement, retinal degeneration, anteverted nares, and low-set ears have been variably observed (Rad et al., 2019).
Congenital hypotonia, epilepsy, developmental delay, and digital anomalies
MedGen UID:
1674629
Concept ID:
C5193125
Disease or Syndrome
ATN1-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ATN1-NDD) is characterized by developmental delay / intellectual disability. Other neurologic findings can include infantile hypotonia, brain malformations, epilepsy, cortical visual impairment, and hearing loss. Feeding difficulties, present in some individuals, may require gastrostomy support when severe; similarly, respiratory issues, present in some, may require respiratory support after the neonatal period. Distinctive facial features and hand and foot differences are common. Other variable findings can include cardiac malformations and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). To date, 18 individuals with ATN1-NDD have been identified.
Holoprosencephaly 12 with or without pancreatic agenesis
MedGen UID:
1684550
Concept ID:
C5193131
Disease or Syndrome
Holoprosencephaly-12 with or without pancreatic agenesis (HPE12) is a developmental disorder characterized by abnormal separation of the embryonic forebrain (HPE) resulting in dysmorphic facial features and often, but not always, impaired neurologic development. Most patients with this form of HPE also have congenital absence of the pancreas, resulting in early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus and requiring pancreatic enzyme replacement. Other features may include hearing loss and absence of the gallbladder (summary by De Franco et al., 2019 and Kruszka et al., 2019). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100).
Robinow syndrome, autosomal recessive 2
MedGen UID:
1676687
Concept ID:
C5193143
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome-2 (RRS2) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by postnatal mesomelic short stature and relative macrocephaly as well as dysmorphic facial features, including frontal bossing, hypertelorism, prominent eyes, wide short nose with anteverted nares, and triangular mouth. Variable other congenital anomalies may be present, including omphalocele, ventral hernia, and cardiac anomalies (White et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome, see RRS1 (268310).
Intellectual developmental disorder 59
MedGen UID:
1678593
Concept ID:
C5193190
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 77
MedGen UID:
1684735
Concept ID:
C5231405
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome-4 (MCAHS4) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first months of life. Patients have severe global developmental delay, and may have additional variable features, including dysmorphic or coarse facial features, visual defects, and mild skeletal or renal anomalies. At the cellular level, the disorder is caused by a defect in the synthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), and thus affects the expression of GPI-anchored proteins at the cell surface (summary by Starr et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cataracts, poor growth, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1684661
Concept ID:
C5231414
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with structural brain anomalies and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1684725
Concept ID:
C5231416
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 80
MedGen UID:
1684779
Concept ID:
C5231418
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-80 (DEE80) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory seizures in the first year of life. Patients have severe global developmental delay and may have additional variable features, including dysmorphic or coarse facial features, distal skeletal abnormalities, and impaired hearing or vision. At the cellular level, the disorder is caused by a defect in the synthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), and thus affects the expression of GPI-anchored proteins at the cell surface (summary by Murakami et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and distal skeletal anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684792
Concept ID:
C5231448
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and distal skeletal anomalies (NEDDFSA) is a global neurodevelopmental disorder with highly variable features. Patients often show poor feeding, poor overall growth, and hypotonia from early infancy, followed by mildly delayed motor development, poor language acquisition, and behavioral abnormalities. Intellectual development varies from severe with absent speech to mild with the ability to attend special schools. Common features include dysmorphic facial features with notable eye anomalies, joint hypermobility, and mild skeletal anomalies of the hands and feet (summary by Carapito et al., 2019).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 72
MedGen UID:
1684805
Concept ID:
C5231452
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 83
MedGen UID:
1684784
Concept ID:
C5231487
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-83 (DEE83) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by onset of frequent seizures in the first days to months of life that are usually refractory to medical treatment and are associated with significant EEG abnormalities. Affected individuals have profoundly impaired development, with no motor or language skill acquisition, poor or absent visual tracking, and poor oromotor function necessitating tube feeding. Many patients die in the first years of life (summary by Perenthaler et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Catifa syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684686
Concept ID:
C5231492
Disease or Syndrome
CATIFA syndrome is characterized by global developmental delay and impaired intellectual development ranging from mild to severe, with most patients exhibiting attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Patients show an elongated face with long philtrum and small ears. Ocular anomalies include congenital cataracts, strabismus, and amblyopia, which may be associated with reduced vision; other anomalies include cleft lip and/or palate and misaligned teeth with extensive caries (Unlu et al., 2020).
Wieacker-Wolff syndrome, female-restricted
MedGen UID:
1715791
Concept ID:
C5393303
Disease or Syndrome
Female-restricted Wieacker-Wolff syndrome (WRWFFR) is an X-linked dominant syndromic form of neurogenic arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) with central and peripheral nervous system involvement. Affected individuals have decreased fetal movements causing the development of contractures in utero and resulting in AMC and diffuse contractures involving the large and small joints apparent at birth. There is global developmental delay with difficulty walking or inability to walk, hypotonia that often evolves to spasticity, and variably impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech and language. Dysmorphic facial features, including hypotonic facies, ptosis, microretrognathia, and small mouth, are seen in most patients. Seizures are uncommon; some patients have evidence of a peripheral motor neuropathy with distal muscle weakness. The level of X inactivation in lymphocytes and fibroblasts is often skewed, but may not predict the severity of the phenotype. Most cases occur sporadically; rare X-linked dominant inheritance has been reported in families (summary by Frints et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with epilepsy, spasticity, and brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1717952
Concept ID:
C5394027
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with epilepsy, spasticity, and brain atrophy (NEDESBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severely impaired global development apparent soon after birth. Affected individuals develop seizures in the first year of life and achieve almost no psychomotor progress, resulting in feeding difficulties and an inability to walk or speak. Other features include hypotonia, peripheral spasticity with contractures, cortical visual impairment, and dysmorphic features, including microcephaly. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Van Bergen et al., 2020). Van Bergen et al. (2020) noted that the molecular mechanism of this disorder can be classified into a group of similar phenotypes resulting from mutations in genes associated with transport protein particles, sometimes referred to as 'TRAPPopathies' (review by Sacher et al., 2019).
Beck-Fahrner syndrome
MedGen UID:
1711894
Concept ID:
C5394097
Disease or Syndrome
Beck-Fahrner syndrome (BEFAHRS) is a developmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development. Affected individuals often have behavioral abnormalities, such as autistic features or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as learning disabilities. Most patients have hypotonia and dysmorphic facies. Some may have growth abnormalities, including overgrowth or poor growth, poor feeding, and rarely, seizures. Although both monoallelic and biallelic mutations have been reported, some heterozygous carriers in autosomal recessive families may have milder symptoms; thus, both groups are included in this entry (summary by Beck et al., 2020).
Genitourinary and/or brain malformation syndrome
MedGen UID:
1720440
Concept ID:
C5394158
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with PPP1R12A-related urogenital and/or brain malformation syndrome (UBMS) usually present with multiple congenital anomalies, commonly including brain and/or urogenital malformations. The brain abnormalities are variable, with the most severe belonging to the holoprosencephaly spectrum and associated with moderate-to-profound intellectual disability, seizures, and feeding difficulties. In individuals without brain involvement, variable degrees of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability may be present, although normal intelligence has been seen in a minority of affected individuals. Eye abnormalities and skeletal issues (kyphoscoliosis, joint contractures) can also be present in individuals of either sex. Regardless of the presence of a brain malformation, affected individuals with a 46,XY chromosome complement may have a disorder of sex development (DSD) with gonadal abnormalities (dysgenetic gonads or streak gonads). Individuals with a 46,XX chromosome complement may have varying degrees of virilization (clitoral hypertrophy, posterior labial fusion, urogenital sinus).
Rhizomelic limb shortening with dysmorphic features
MedGen UID:
1720321
Concept ID:
C5394173
Disease or Syndrome
Rhizomelic limb shortening with dysmorphic features (RLSDF) is characterized by rhizomelic shortening of the extremities, predominantly of the upper limbs, and variable dysmorphic features, including macrocephaly, prominent forehead, hypertelorism, depressed or broad nasal bridge, and micrognathia. Hearing loss has also been observed (Sajan et al., 2019; Pagnamenta et al., 2023).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 63, with macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
1716581
Concept ID:
C5394205
Disease or Syndrome
Skeletal dysplasia, mild, with joint laxity and advanced bone age
MedGen UID:
1711043
Concept ID:
C5394341
Disease or Syndrome
CSGALNACT1 deficiency is characterized by mild skeletal dysplasia, joint hypermobility, and advanced bone age. Shortness of long bones is evident prenatally, and patients exhibit short stature and relative macrocephaly. Advanced carpotarsal bone age and monkey-wrench appearance of the femur observed in infancy may disappear with age (Mizumoto et al., 2020).
Agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac, ocular, and genital syndrome
MedGen UID:
1718475
Concept ID:
C5394523
Disease or Syndrome
Agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac, ocular, and genital syndrome (ACOGS) is a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphisms, and ocular, cardiac, and genital anomalies (Accogli et al., 2019).
FG syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1768809
Concept ID:
C5399762
Disease or Syndrome
MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders.
Autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome
MedGen UID:
1770070
Concept ID:
C5399974
Disease or Syndrome
ROR2-related Robinow syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, skeletal abnormalities, and other anomalies. Craniofacial features include macrocephaly, broad prominent forehead, low-set ears, ocular hypertelorism, prominent eyes, midface hypoplasia, short upturned nose with depressed nasal bridge and flared nostrils, large and triangular mouth with exposed incisors and upper gums, gum hypertrophy, misaligned teeth, ankyloglossia, and micrognathia. Skeletal abnormalities include short stature, mesomelic or acromesomelic limb shortening, hemivertebrae with fusion of thoracic vertebrae, and brachydactyly. Other common features include micropenis with or without cryptorchidism in males and reduced clitoral size and hypoplasia of the labia majora in females, renal tract abnormalities, and nail hypoplasia or dystrophy. The disorder is recognizable at birth or in early childhood.
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 5
MedGen UID:
1731112
Concept ID:
C5436453
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita-5 (AMC5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe joint contractures apparent at birth. Affected individuals usually have hypertonia and abnormal movements suggestive of dystonia, as well as feeding and/or breathing difficulties. More variable features may include poor overall growth, strabismus, dysmorphic facies, and global developmental delay with impaired speech (summary by Kariminejad et al., 2017).
Suleiman-El-Hattab syndrome
MedGen UID:
1738652
Concept ID:
C5436458
Disease or Syndrome
Suleiman-El-Hattab syndrome (SULEHS) is an autosomal recessive multisystem developmental disorder characterized by hypotonia and feeding difficulties soon after birth, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor expressive speech, and a general happy demeanor. There is a distinctive facial appearance with microcephaly, thick arched eyebrows with synophrys, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, low-set ears, broad nasal bridge, and thin upper lip. Additional more variable features include recurrent respiratory infections, cardiovascular malformations, cryptorchidism, seizures, and distal anomalies of the hands and feet (summary by Suleiman et al., 2019).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 47
MedGen UID:
1775535
Concept ID:
C5436476
Disease or Syndrome
Myopathy, congenital, with diaphragmatic defects, respiratory insufficiency, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1764743
Concept ID:
C5436530
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-17 (CMYP17) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder. Affected individuals present at birth with hypotonia and respiratory insufficiency associated with high diaphragmatic dome on imaging. Other features include poor overall growth, pectus excavatum, dysmorphic facies, and renal anomalies in some. The severity of the disorder is highly variable: some patients may have delayed motor development with mildly decreased endurance, whereas others have more severe hypotonia associated with distal arthrogryposis and lung hypoplasia, resulting in early death (summary by Watson et al., 2016 and Lopes et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Deeah syndrome
MedGen UID:
1756624
Concept ID:
C5436579
Disease or Syndrome
DEEAH syndrome is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with onset in early infancy. Affected individuals usually present in the perinatal period with respiratory insufficiency, apneic episodes, and generalized hypotonia. The patients have failure to thrive and severely impaired global development with poor acquisition of motor, cognitive, and language skills. Other common features include endocrine, pancreatic exocrine, and autonomic dysfunction, as well as hematologic disturbances, mainly low hemoglobin. Patients also have dysmorphic and myopathic facial features. Additional more variable features include seizures, undescended testes, and distal skeletal anomalies. Death in early childhood may occur (summary by Schneeberger et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive spasticity and brain white matter abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1736667
Concept ID:
C5436628
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive spasticity and brain white matter abnormalities (NEDSWMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired psychomotor development apparent in infancy. Affected individuals show poor overall growth, progressive microcephaly, and axial hypotonia, with later onset of spasticity. The disorder is progressive. Some patients show normal early development, but later have regression of motor, cognitive, and language skills. More variable features include seizures, joint contractures, ocular disturbances, episodic respiratory failure, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. The intellectual impairment is variable, ranging from poor visual contact with inability to walk or speak to milder intellectual disability with the ability to say some words. Brain imaging shows variable white matter abnormalities, including thin corpus callosum and poor myelination (summary by Husain et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1748227
Concept ID:
C5436732
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and brain atrophy (NEDSEBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder with highly variable manifestations and severity of these core features. The most severely affected individuals develop symptoms in utero, which may lead to spontaneous abortion or planned termination. Those that survive may present with severe seizures at birth, have poor overall growth with small head circumference, achieve no developmental progress, and show significant brain atrophy and other brain abnormalities. Patients at the mildest end of the phenotypic spectrum have onset of seizures later in childhood and show developmental delay with mildly impaired intellectual development and minimal brain atrophy (summary by Coulter et al., 2020).
Noonan syndrome 13
MedGen UID:
1761918
Concept ID:
C5436773
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cardiomyopathy, spasticity, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1750805
Concept ID:
C5436848
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cardiomyopathy, spasticity, and brain abnormalities (NEDCASB) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder characterized by global neurodevelopmental delay, severely impaired intellectual development, poor overall growth, and spasticity of the lower limbs resulting in gait difficulties. Most affected individuals also develop progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in childhood or have cardiac developmental anomalies. Additional more variable features include dysmorphic facies and axonal sensory peripheral neuropathy. Brain imaging tends to show thin corpus callosum and polymicrogyria (summary by Garcia-Cazorla et al., 2020).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 89
MedGen UID:
1761611
Concept ID:
C5436853
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-89 (DEE89) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by profound global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, absent speech, inability to sit or walk due to axial hypotonia and spastic quadriparesis, and onset of seizures in the first days or months of life. EEG shows suppression-burst pattern or hypsarrhythmia, consistent with DEE or a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. More variable features include joint contractures with foot deformities, dysmorphic facial features with cleft palate, and omphalocele. Affected individuals have poor motor skills, poor eye contact, and lack of language development; some die in infancy or early childhood. Brain imaging may be normal or show nonspecific abnormalities (summary by Chatron et al., 2020).
Mandibuloacral dysplasia progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
1741713
Concept ID:
C5436867
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibuloacral dysplasia progeroid syndrome (MDPS) is an autosomal recessive severe laminopathy-like disorder characterized by growth retardation, bone resorption, arterial calcification, renal glomerulosclerosis, and hypertension (Elouej et al., 2020).
Odontochondrodysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
1784281
Concept ID:
C5542277
Disease or Syndrome
Odontochondrodysplasia-1 (ODCD1) is characterized by mesomelic shortening of tubular bones, ligamentous laxity, and scoliosis, in association with dentinogenesis imperfecta involving both primary and secondary dentition. Affected individuals show variable severity. Radiologic features include trident pelvis, posteriorly flattened vertebrae, and brachydactyly with cone-shaped epiphyses (Maroteaux et al., 1996). Clinical variability and extraskeletal manifestations have been observed (Wehrle et al., 2019). Genetic Heterogeneity of Odontochondrodysplasia Odontochondrodysplasia-2 with hearing loss and diabetes (ODCD2; 619269) is caused by mutation in the TANGO1 gene (MIA3; 613455) on chromosome 1q41.
Martsolf syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1778114
Concept ID:
C5542298
Disease or Syndrome
RAB18 deficiency is the molecular deficit underlying both Warburg micro syndrome (characterized by eye, nervous system, and endocrine abnormalities) and Martsolf syndrome (characterized by similar – but milder – findings). To date Warburg micro syndrome comprises >96% of reported individuals with genetically defined RAB18 deficiency. The hallmark ophthalmologic findings are bilateral congenital cataracts, usually accompanied by microphthalmia, microcornea (diameter <10), and small atonic pupils. Poor vision despite early cataract surgery likely results from progressive optic atrophy and cortical visual impairment. Individuals with Warburg micro syndrome have severe to profound intellectual disability (ID); those with Martsolf syndrome have mild to moderate ID. Some individuals with RAB18 deficiency also have epilepsy. In Warburg micro syndrome, a progressive ascending spastic paraplegia typically begins with spastic diplegia and contractures during the first year, followed by upper-limb involvement leading to spastic quadriplegia after about age five years, often eventually causing breathing difficulties. In Martsolf syndrome infantile hypotonia is followed primarily by slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity. Hypogonadism – when present – manifests in both syndromes, in males as micropenis and/or cryptorchidism and in females as hypoplastic labia minora, clitoral hypoplasia, and small introitus.
Short stature, facial dysmorphism, and skeletal anomalies with or without cardiac anomalies 1
MedGen UID:
1778119
Concept ID:
C5542952
Disease or Syndrome
Leukoencephalopathy, progressive, infantile-onset, with or without deafness
MedGen UID:
1779519
Concept ID:
C5542996
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset progressive leukoencephalopathy with or without deafness (LEPID) is an autosomal recessive complex neurodegenerative disorder with onset of symptoms in infancy or early childhood. Most patients present with sensorineural deafness or hypoacousia and global developmental delay. Affected individuals show episodic regression with progressive motor deterioration resulting in spastic tetraplegia and loss of ambulation, as well as impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Additional more variable features may include poor overall growth with microcephaly, seizures, visual loss, microcytic anemia, and hepatic enlargement or abnormal liver enzymes. Brain imaging shows deep white matter abnormalities consistent with a progressive leukoencephalopathy. The brain and spinal cord are usually both involved; calcifications of these regions are often observed. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and deficiencies of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, consistent with global mitochondrial dysfunction. Early death often occurs (summary by Itoh et al., 2019).
Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, with hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and brain imaging abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1781967
Concept ID:
C5543020
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset neurodegeneration with hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and brain imaging abnormalities (CONRIBA) is characterized by severe global developmental delay apparent in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have hypotonia with impaired motor development, respiratory insufficiency, and feeding difficulties requiring intervention. Intellectual and speech development is also delayed, and most have visual defects, including cortical visual blindness, nystagmus, and esotropia. The disorder is progressive, as manifest by developmental regression consistent with neurodegeneration. Although overt seizures are not observed, some patients may have episodic hypertonia or apnea, and EEG may show nonspecific abnormalities. Brain imaging shows unique diffusion restriction signal abnormalities affecting the brainstem, cerebellum, and corticospinal tracts. Early death may occur (summary by Polovitskaya et al., 2020).
Microcephaly 26, primary, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1779629
Concept ID:
C5543048
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant primary microcephaly-26 (MCPH26) is characterized by progressive microcephaly beginning at birth and associated with global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development. Some patients may have only mild learning difficulties or speech delay, whereas other are more severely affected with the inability to walk or speak. Additional features may include short stature, spasticity, feeding difficulties requiring tube feeding, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging in some patients shows a simplified gyral pattern or dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, suggesting abnormal neuronal migration (summary by Cristofoli et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
Li-Campeau syndrome
MedGen UID:
1788485
Concept ID:
C5543068
Disease or Syndrome
Li-Campeau syndrome (LICAS) is an autosomal recessive syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, dysmorphic facial features, hypothyroidism, and variable abnormalities of the cardiac and genital systems. Additional features may include seizures, short stature, hypotonia, and brain imaging anomalies, such as cortical atrophy (summary by Li et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebral atrophy and variable facial dysmorphism
MedGen UID:
1786662
Concept ID:
C5543228
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebral atrophy and facial dysmorphism (NEDCAFD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from birth. Affected individuals have hypotonia with inability to walk and severely impaired intellectual development with absent language. Most patients have variable dysmorphic facial features including prominent eyes, protruding and low-set ears, and thin upper lip. Brain imaging shows cerebral atrophy, corpus callosum hypoplasia, and a simplified gyral pattern (summary by Rasheed et al., 2021).
Alzahrani-Kuwahara syndrome
MedGen UID:
1782127
Concept ID:
C5543274
Disease or Syndrome
Alzahrani-Kuwahara syndrome (ALKUS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual function and poor or absent speech. Patients have poor overall growth and dysmorphic facial features. More variable findings include early-onset cataracts, hypotonia, congenital heart defects, lower limb spasticity, and hypospadias (summary by Alzahrani et al., 2020).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1F
MedGen UID:
1785905
Concept ID:
C5543331
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1F (PCH1F) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by hypotonia, global developmental delay, poor overall growth, and dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging shows pontocerebellar hypoplasia, thin corpus callosum, cerebral atrophy, and delayed myelination (summary by Somashekar et al., 2021). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
1786150
Concept ID:
C5543332
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and cerebellar hypoplasia (NEDFACH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay and intellectual disability. The phenotype is variable: more severely affected individuals have poor overall growth with microcephaly, delayed walking, spasticity, and poor or absent speech, whereas others may achieve more significant developmental milestones and even attend special schooling. Brain imaging shows abnormalities of the cerebellum, most commonly cerebellar hypoplasia, although other features, such as thin corpus callosum and delayed myelination, may also be present. Dysmorphic facial features include sloping forehead, upslanting palpebral fissures, and hypertelorism. Additional more variable manifestations may include cardiac ventricular septal defect, spasticity, cataracts, optic nerve hypoplasia, seizures, and joint contractures (summary by Van Bergen et al., 2020).
Radio-Tartaglia syndrome
MedGen UID:
1778557
Concept ID:
C5543339
Disease or Syndrome
Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, speech delay, and variable behavioral abnormalities. Affected individuals show hypotonia, mild motor difficulties, and craniofacial dysmorphism. Brain imaging may show nonspecific defects; rare patients have seizures or pyramidal signs. A subset of individuals may have congenital heart defects, precocious puberty, and obesity in females. Some of the features are similar to those observed in patients with chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome (607872) (summary by Radio et al., 2021).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 65
MedGen UID:
1787923
Concept ID:
C5543371
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-65 (MRD65) is characterized by delayed motor and speech acquisition, variably impaired intellectual development, and behavioral abnormalities. Affected individuals also have dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging may be normal or may show abnormalities, including cerebellar hypoplasia, poor development of the corpus callosum, dysmorphic hippocampus, and polymicrogyria. Feeding difficulties, hypotonia, and seizures may also be observed (Duncan et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, facial dysmorphism, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1780615
Concept ID:
C5543591
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, facial dysmorphism, and brain abnormalities (NEDHFBA) is an autosomal recessive neurologic syndrome characterized by global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development, hypotonia and muscle weakness, often resulting in the inability to walk or sit, and characteristic coarse facial features. Additional features include feeding difficulties, respiratory distress, scoliosis, poor visual function, and rotary nystagmus. Brain imaging shows variable abnormalities, including enlarged ventricles, decreased white matter volume, white matter changes, thin corpus callosum, and cerebellar hypoplasia (summary by Loddo et al., 2020).
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794148
Concept ID:
C5561938
Disease or Syndrome
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and neurodevelopmental syndrome (FSGSNEDS) is characterized by global developmental delay and renal dysfunction manifest as proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome apparent from infancy or early childhood. Some patients present with renal disease, whereas others present with developmental delay and develop renal disease later in childhood. Renal biopsy shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), but the course of the disease is variable: some patients have transient proteinuria and others require renal transplant. Neurodevelopmental features are also variable, with some patients having only mildly impaired intellectual development, and others having a severe developmental disorder associated with early-onset refractory seizures or epileptic encephalopathy. Additional features, including feeding difficulties, poor overall growth, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, are commonly observed (summary by Assoum et al., 2018 and Weng et al., 2021).
Cutis laxa, autosomal recessive, type 2E
MedGen UID:
1794154
Concept ID:
C5561944
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type IIE (ARCL2E) is characterized by connective tissue features, including generalized cutis laxa and inguinal hernia, craniofacial dysmorphology, variable mild heart defects, and prominent skeletal features, including craniosynostosis, short stature, brachydactyly, clinodactyly, and syndactyly (Pottie et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100).
Usmani-Riazuddin syndrome, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1794162
Concept ID:
C5561952
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Usmani-Riazzudin syndrome (USRISD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and speech delay, hypotonia, and behavioral abnormalities, most commonly aggressive behavior. More variable additional features may include seizures and distal limb anomalies (summary by Usmani et al., 2021).
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 21 without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
1794171
Concept ID:
C5561961
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia-21 (SRTD21) is characterized by rhizomelic limb shortening with bowing of long bones and metaphyseal abnormalities, narrow chest with short broad ribs, and trident pelvis. Other features include hypotonia and global developmental delay, with corpus callosum hypoplasia and cerebellar vermis abnormalities on brain imaging, which may show the 'molar tooth' sign (Hammarsjo et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of SRTD, see SRTD1 (208500). Mutation in the KIAA0753 gene also causes orofaciodigital syndrome (OFD15; 617127) and Joubert syndrome (JBTS28; 619476), phenotypes with features overlapping those of SRTD21.
DEGCAGS syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794177
Concept ID:
C5561967
Disease or Syndrome
DEGCAGS syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, coarse and dysmorphic facial features, and poor growth and feeding apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have variable systemic manifestations often with significant structural defects of the cardiovascular, genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and/or skeletal systems. Additional features may include sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, anemia or pancytopenia, and immunodeficiency with recurrent infections. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Bertoli-Avella et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794187
Concept ID:
C5561977
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and brain abnormalities (NEDHYBA) is characterized by impaired development of motor skills, cognitive function, and speech acquisition beginning in infancy or early childhood. Some affected individuals may have feeding difficulties, seizures, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging shows variable abnormalities, including corpus callosum defects, cerebellar defects, and decreased white matter volume. There is significant phenotypic variability (summary by Duncan et al., 2021).
Intellectual developmental disorder with hypotonia, impaired speech, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1794207
Concept ID:
C5561997
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with hypotonia, impaired speech, and dysmorphic facies (IDDHISD) is characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, hypotonia, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and nonspecific dysmorphic features. Some affected individuals have seizures, and a few have involvement of other organ systems (Goodman et al., 2021).
Developmental delay, hypotonia, musculoskeletal defects, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794222
Concept ID:
C5562012
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, hypotonia, musculoskeletal defects, and behavioral abnormalities (DEHMBA) is an early-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by these features. Affected individuals also have nonspecific and variable dysmorphic facial features that do not constitute a recognizable gestalt. Although the disorder is caused by truncating mutations in the SRCAP gene as is FLHS, the DEHMBA phenotype is clinically distinguishable from FLHS by the lack of short stature, brachydactyly, and delayed bone age, as well as absence of a specific facial appearance. There are some overlapping features between the 2 disorders, mainly impaired intellectual development and speech delay (summary by Rots et al., 2021).
Trichothiodystrophy 8, nonphotosensitive
MedGen UID:
1794267
Concept ID:
C5562057
Disease or Syndrome
Nonphotosensitive trichothiodystrophy-8 (TTD8) is characterized by brittle hair and nails and scaly skin, accompanied by failure to thrive, microcephaly, and neuromotor developmental delay. Hair analysis shows low sulfur content, and skin fibroblasts demonstrate normal DNA repair efficiency after UV irradiation (Botta et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of trichothiodystrophy, see TTD1 (601675).
Rauch-Steindl syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794271
Concept ID:
C5562061
Disease or Syndrome
Rauch-Steindl syndrome (RAUST) is characterized by poor pre- and postnatal growth, sometimes with short stature and small head circumference, characteristic dysmorphic facial features, and variable developmental delay with delayed motor and speech acquisition and impaired intellectual function that can be mild. Other features may include hypotonia and behavioral abnormalities. The phenotype represents a mild form of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS; 194190), which is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome caused by heterozygous deletion of several genes on chromosome 4p16. The clinical features of RAUST are similar to but milder than those of WHS, with less severe dysmorphic facial features, less severe developmental disabilities in general, and absence of a seizure disorder. The phenotype and expressivity of RAUST is highly variable (summary by Rauch et al., 2001; Zanoni et al., 2021).
Mucopolysaccharidosis, type 10
MedGen UID:
1794274
Concept ID:
C5562064
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type X (MPS10) is an autosomal recessive childhood-onset disorder associated with disproportionate short-trunk short stature and skeletal, cardiac, and ophthalmologic abnormalities (Verheyen et al., 2022).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 25
MedGen UID:
1799165
Concept ID:
C5567742
Disease or Syndrome
A rare mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation disorder with decreased respiratory complex I and IV enzyme activity. Characteristics of this disease hypotonia, global developmental delay, neonatal onset of progressive pectus carinatum without other skeletal abnormalities, poor growth, sensorineural hearing loss, dysmorphic features and brain abnormalities such as cerebral atrophy, quadriventricular dilatation and thin corpus callosum posteriorly.
NEK9-related lethal skeletal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
1799564
Concept ID:
C5568141
Disease or Syndrome
A rare lethal primary bone dysplasia with characteristics of fetal akinesia, multiple contractures, shortening of all long bones, short, broad ribs, narrow chest and thorax, pulmonary hypoplasia and a protruding abdomen. Short bowed femurs may also be associated.
Craniotubular dysplasia, Ikegawa type
MedGen UID:
1806238
Concept ID:
C5575335
Disease or Syndrome
Craniotubular dysplasia, Ikegawa type (CTDI) is characterized by childhood-onset short stature in association with macrocephaly, dolichocephaly, or prominent forehead. Radiography shows hyperostosis of the calvaria and skull base, with metadiaphyseal undermodeling of the long tubular bones and mild shortening and diaphyseal broadening of the short tubular bones. Affected individuals experience progressive vision loss in the first decade of life due to optic nerve compression, and deafness may develop in the second decade of life (Guo et al., 2021).
Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1801103
Concept ID:
C5676905
Disease or Syndrome
Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome-1 (BRYLIB1) is a highly variable phenotype characterized predominantly by moderate to severe global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and delayed motor milestones. Most patients have hypotonia, although some have peripheral hypertonia. Common features include abnormal head shape, variable dysmorphic facial features, oculomotor abnormalities, feeding problems, and nonspecific brain imaging abnormalities. Additional features may include hearing loss, seizures, short stature, and mild skeletal defects (summary by Bryant et al., 2020). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bryant-Li-Bhoj Neurodevelopmental Syndrome See also BRYLIB2 (619721), caused by heterozygous mutation in the H3F3B gene (601058).
Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1811435
Concept ID:
C5676906
Disease or Syndrome
Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome-2 (BRYLIB2) is a highly variable phenotype characterized predominantly by moderate to severe global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and delayed motor milestones. Most patients have hypotonia, although some have peripheral hypertonia. Common features include variable dysmorphic facial features, oculomotor abnormalities, feeding problems, and nonspecific brain imaging abnormalities. Additional features may include hearing loss, seizures, short stature, and mild skeletal defects (summary by Bryant et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome, see BRYLIB1 (619720).
Noonan syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
1807988
Concept ID:
C5676916
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-14 (NS14) is a recessive developmental disorder within the RASopathy clinical spectrum. Patients exhibit developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and short stature, as well as distinctive dysmorphic features including bitemporal narrowing, hypertelorism, low-set posteriorly rotated ears, prominent nasal bridge, low posterior hairline with a short webbed neck, and pectus excavatum (Motta et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Noonan syndrome, see NS1 (163950).
Kury-Isidor syndrome
MedGen UID:
1807460
Concept ID:
C5676925
Disease or Syndrome
Kury-Isidor syndrome (KURIS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. It is characterized mainly by mild global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood with walking delayed by a few years and speech delay, often with language deficits. Intellectual development may be mildly delayed, borderline, or even normal; most patients have behavioral problems, including autism. Additional variable systemic features may include poor overall growth, hypotonia, distal skeletal anomalies, seizures, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features (summary by Kury et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with poor growth and skeletal anomalies
MedGen UID:
1804653
Concept ID:
C5676990
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with poor growth and skeletal anomalies (NEDGS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay and impaired intellectual development apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have hypotonia, delayed walking, poor or absent speech, and variable skeletal anomalies. More variable features include seizures, nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, oculomotor apraxia, and nonspecific brain imaging abnormalities (Iqbal et al., 2021).
Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1800921
Concept ID:
C5677012
Disease or Syndrome
Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome-2 (CFZS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by weakness of the facial musculature, hypomimic facies, increased overbite, micrognathia, and facial dysmorphism. Other features may include failure to thrive, axial hypotonia, and progressive scoliosis (Ramirez-Martinez et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome, see CFZS1 (254940).
Paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14
MedGen UID:
1843450
Concept ID:
C5680251
Disease or Syndrome
Kagami-Ogata syndrome (KOS) is a rare imprinting disorder characterized prenatally by polyhydramnios, macrosomia, and placentomegaly. After birth, infants often have respiratory distress, feeding difficulties, and postnatal growth retardation. Thoracic abnormalities include small bell-shaped thorax, 'coat-hanger' ribs, narrow chest wall, and cardiac anomalies. Abdominal wall defects include omphalocele, diastasis recti, and inguinal hernias. Hepatoblastoma is present in some patients. Dysmorphic facial features include frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge, hairy forehead, anteverted nares, micrognathia, and a short neck. Developmental findings include hypotonia, speech and/or motor delays, and normal to mildly impaired intellectual development (summary by Prasasya et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with severe motor impairment, absent language, cerebral hypomyelination, and brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1823958
Concept ID:
C5774185
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with severe motor impairment, absent language, cerebral hypomyelination, and brain atrophy (NEDMLHB) is characterized by the onset of these features soon after birth or in early infancy. Affected individuals make almost no developmental progress, are unable to sit or walk, do not acquire speech, have poor visual fixation, and show poor overall growth associated with feeding problems. Some may have a progressive disease course, suggesting neurodegeneration. Additional more variable features include seizures, spasticity, and joint contractures. Brain imaging shows hypomyelination, thin corpus callosum, and cerebral and cerebellar atrophy (Wong et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity, seizures, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1823970
Concept ID:
C5774197
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity, seizures, and brain abnormalities (NEDSSBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent in infancy, axial hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, and early-onset seizures of various types and severity. Affected individuals have delayed walking or are unable to walk and show impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Brain imaging may show developmental defects of the operculum, cerebellum, and corpus callosum. Death in early childhood may occur (Calame et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with facial dysmorphism, absent language, and pseudo-pelger-huet anomaly
MedGen UID:
1824005
Concept ID:
C5774232
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with facial dysmorphism, absent language, and pseudo-Pelger-Huet anomaly (NEDFLPH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development. Affected individuals often have behavioral abnormalities and may have variable findings on brain imaging, such as thin corpus callosum. Laboratory studies show nuclear lobulation defects in a subset of neutrophils, indicating a pseudo-Pelger-Huet anomaly (see 169400) and suggesting defects in the integrity of the nuclear envelope, where TMEM147 localizes (Thomas et al., 2022).
Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 11
MedGen UID:
1824043
Concept ID:
C5774270
Disease or Syndrome
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-11 (CDCBM11) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by dilated ventricles and reduced white matter and associated with axonal developmental defects (Qian et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039).
Atelis syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1824054
Concept ID:
C5774281
Disease or Syndrome
Atelis syndrome-1 (ATELS1) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with learning difficulties and poor overall growth with short stature and microcephaly. Most patients have anemia, some have immunologic defects, and some have congenital heart septal defects. More variable features may include hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features, skin pigmentary anomalies, and mild skeletal defects. Patient cells show multiple chromosomal abnormalities due to impaired DNA replication and disrupted mitosis (Grange et al., 2022). See also ATELS2 (620185), caused by mutation in the SMC5 gene (609386) on chromosome 9q21. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MVA, see MVA1 (257300).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skin abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1824058
Concept ID:
C5774285
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skin abnormalities (NEDHFS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech. Affected individuals have dysmorphic facies, including large abnormally shaped ears and strabismus, hypotonia, and dry skin with keratosis pilaris. Some patients develop seizures. Metabolic studies are unremarkable (Morava et al., 2021).
Lymphatic malformation 13
MedGen UID:
1840915
Concept ID:
C5830279
Disease or Syndrome
Lymphatic malformation-13 (LMPHM13) is characterized by the presence of nonimmune hydrops fetalis which often resolves with age. Capillary or cavernous hemangiomas are present in most patients, as are cardiac defects, often mild (Abdelrahman et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lymphatic malformation, see 153100.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, spasticity, and complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1840932
Concept ID:
C5830296
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, spasticity, and partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum (NEDSSCC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by axial hypotonia and global developmental delay apparent from the first days or months of life. Affected individuals often have feeding difficulties and develop early-onset seizures that tend to be well-controlled. Other features include peripheral spasticity with hyperreflexia, variable dysmorphic features, impaired intellectual development, behavioral abnormalities, and hypoplasia or absence of the corpus callosum on brain imaging (Faqeih et al., 2023).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 71, with behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1841073
Concept ID:
C5830437
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-71 with behavioral abnormalities (MRD71) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia, speech delay, and variably impaired cognitive development. Almost all affected individuals show marked behavioral manifestations, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD, hypersensitivity, and aggression. Many have dysmorphic features, although there is not a common gestalt (Harris et al., 2021).
Teebi hypertelorism syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
989457
Concept ID:
CN306405
Disease or Syndrome
Teebi hypertelorism syndrome-1 (TBHS1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertelorism with upslanting palpebral fissures, prominent forehead, broad and depressed nasal bridge with short nose, thick eyebrows, and widow's peak. Additional features include small broad hands with mild interdigital webbing and shawl scrotum. Umbilical malformations, cardiac defects, natal teeth, cleft lip/palate, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and malformations of the central nervous system (ventriculomegaly, abnormal corpus callosum) have also been reported. Development is typically normal, although some patients with developmental delays have been reported (summary by Bhoj et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Teebi Hypertelorism Syndrome Teebi hypertelorism syndrome-2 (TBHS2; 619736) is caused by mutation in the CDH11 gene (600023) on chromosome 16q21.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

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Eur J Med Genet 2022 Mar;65(3):104448. Epub 2022 Feb 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2022.104448. PMID: 35150935
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Diagnosis

Choi Y, Choi J, Do H, Hwang S, Seo GH, Choi IH, Keum C, Choi JH, Kang M, Kim GH, Yoo HW, Lee BH
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2023 Apr;11(4):e2127. Epub 2022 Dec 23 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.2127. PMID: 36564961Free PMC Article
Conlon CJ, Abu-Ghname A, Raghuram AC, Davis MJ, Guillen DE, Sutton VR, Carvalho CMB, Maricevich RS
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Dec;185(12):3606-3612. Epub 2020 Nov 25 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61986. PMID: 33237614
Roessler HI, Shields K, Grange DK, Knoers NVAM, van Haaften G, Hammond P, van Haelst MM
Am J Med Genet A 2020 May;182(5):1041-1052. Epub 2020 Feb 26 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61517. PMID: 32100467Free PMC Article
Kosho T
Pediatr Int 2016 Feb;58(2):88-99. doi: 10.1111/ped.12878. PMID: 26646600
Sharma D, Murki S, Pratap T, Vasikarla M
BMJ Case Rep 2014 May 19;2014 doi: 10.1136/bcr-2014-203923. PMID: 24842361Free PMC Article

Therapy

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Prognosis

Chen J, Xia Z, Zhou Y, Ma X, Wang X, Guo Q
BMC Med Genomics 2021 Mar 2;14(1):68. doi: 10.1186/s12920-021-00920-3. PMID: 33653342Free PMC Article
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J Med Genet 2019 Apr;56(4):236-245. Epub 2018 Nov 21 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2018-105588. PMID: 30464053
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BMJ Case Rep 2014 May 19;2014 doi: 10.1136/bcr-2014-203923. PMID: 24842361Free PMC Article
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Clinical prediction guides

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Choi Y, Choi J, Do H, Hwang S, Seo GH, Choi IH, Keum C, Choi JH, Kang M, Kim GH, Yoo HW, Lee BH
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2023 Apr;11(4):e2127. Epub 2022 Dec 23 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.2127. PMID: 36564961Free PMC Article
Conlon CJ, Abu-Ghname A, Raghuram AC, Davis MJ, Guillen DE, Sutton VR, Carvalho CMB, Maricevich RS
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Dec;185(12):3606-3612. Epub 2020 Nov 25 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61986. PMID: 33237614
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