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Proximal placement of thumb

MedGen UID:
356033
Concept ID:
C1865572
Finding
Synonyms: Low-set thumbs; Proximally placed thumb; Proximally placed thumbs
 
HPO: HP:0009623

Definition

Proximal mislocalization of the thumb. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVProximal placement of thumb

Conditions with this feature

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome
MedGen UID:
61231
Concept ID:
C0175694
Disease or Syndrome
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a congenital multiple-anomaly / cognitive impairment syndrome caused by an abnormality in cholesterol metabolism resulting from deficiency of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase. It is characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and multiple major and minor malformations. The malformations include distinctive facial features, cleft palate, cardiac defects, underdeveloped external genitalia in males, postaxial polydactyly, and 2-3 syndactyly of the toes. The clinical spectrum is wide; individuals with normal development and only minor malformations have been described.
Aicardi syndrome
MedGen UID:
61236
Concept ID:
C0175713
Disease or Syndrome
Aicardi syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects primarily females. Initially it was characterized by a typical triad of agenesis of the corpus callosum, central chorioretinal lacunae, and infantile spasms. As more affected individuals have been ascertained, it has become clear that not all affected girls have all three features of the classic triad and that other neurologic and systemic defects are common, including other brain malformations, optic nerve abnormalities, other seizure types, intellectual disability of varying severity, and scoliosis.
Fryns syndrome
MedGen UID:
65088
Concept ID:
C0220730
Disease or Syndrome
Fryns syndrome is characterized by diaphragmatic defects (diaphragmatic hernia, eventration, hypoplasia, or agenesis); characteristic facial appearance (coarse facies, wide-set eyes, a wide and depressed nasal bridge with a broad nasal tip, long philtrum, low-set and anomalous ears, tented vermilion of the upper lip, wide mouth, and a small jaw); short distal phalanges of the fingers and toes (the nails may also be small); pulmonary hypoplasia; and associated anomalies (polyhydramnios, cloudy corneas and/or microphthalmia, orofacial clefting, renal dysplasia / renal cortical cysts, and/or malformations involving the brain, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, and/or genitalia). Survival beyond the neonatal period is rare. Data on postnatal growth and psychomotor development are limited; however, severe developmental delay and intellectual disability are common.
Holt-Oram syndrome
MedGen UID:
120524
Concept ID:
C0265264
Disease or Syndrome
Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is characterized by upper-limb defects, congenital heart malformation, and cardiac conduction disease. Upper-limb malformations may be unilateral, bilateral/symmetric, or bilateral/asymmetric and can range from triphalangeal or absent thumb(s) to phocomelia. Other upper-limb malformations can include unequal arm length caused by aplasia or hypoplasia of the radius, fusion or anomalous development of the carpal and thenar bones, abnormal forearm pronation and supination, abnormal opposition of the thumb, sloping shoulders, and restriction of shoulder joint movement. An abnormal carpal bone is present in all affected individuals and may be the only evidence of disease. A congenital heart malformation is present in 75% of individuals with HOS and most commonly involves the septum. Atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect can vary in number, size, and location. Complex congenital heart malformations can also occur in individuals with HOS. Individuals with HOS with or without a congenital heart malformation are at risk for cardiac conduction disease. While individuals may present at birth with sinus bradycardia and first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block, AV block can progress unpredictably to a higher grade including complete heart block with and without atrial fibrillation.
Branchiooculofacial syndrome
MedGen UID:
91261
Concept ID:
C0376524
Disease or Syndrome
The branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS) is characterized by: branchial (cervical or infra- or supra-auricular) skin defects that range from barely perceptible thin skin or hair patch to erythematous "hemangiomatous" lesions to large weeping erosions; ocular anomalies that can include microphthalmia, anophthalmia, coloboma, and nasolacrimal duct stenosis/atresia; and facial anomalies that can include ocular hypertelorism or telecanthus, broad nasal tip, upslanted palpebral fissures, cleft lip or prominent philtral pillars that give the appearance of a repaired cleft lip (formerly called "pseudocleft lip") with or without cleft palate, upper lip pits, and lower facial weakness (asymmetric crying face or partial 7th cranial nerve weakness). Malformed and prominent pinnae and hearing loss from inner ear and/or petrous bone anomalies are common. Intellect is usually normal.
Deletion of long arm of chromosome 18
MedGen UID:
96605
Concept ID:
C0432443
Disease or Syndrome
Monosomy 18q is a partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 18 characterized by highly variable phenotype, most commonly including hypotonia, developmental delay, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, hearing loss and external ear anomalies, intellectual disability, palatal defects, dysmorphic facial features, skeletal anomalies (foot deformities, tapering fingers, scoliosis) and mood disorders.
Peters plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
163204
Concept ID:
C0796012
Disease or Syndrome
Peters plus syndrome is characterized by anterior chamber eye anomalies, short limbs with broad distal extremities, characteristic facial features, cleft lip/palate, and variable developmental delay / intellectual disability. The most common anterior chamber defect is Peters' anomaly, consisting of central corneal clouding, thinning of the posterior cornea, and iridocorneal adhesions. Cataracts and glaucoma are common. Developmental delay is observed in about 80% of children; intellectual disability can range from mild to severe.
Toriello-Carey syndrome
MedGen UID:
163225
Concept ID:
C0796184
Disease or Syndrome
Toriello-Carey syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder with variable systemic manifestations, most commonly including mental retardation, agenesis of the corpus callosum, postnatal growth delay, cardiac defects, usually septal defects, distal limb defects, and urogenital anomalies in affected males. Patients have facial dysmorphic features, micrognathia, including full cheeks, hypertelorism, flattened nasal bridge, anteverted nares, and short neck. Not all features are found in all patients and some patients may have additional features such as anal anomalies or hernias (summary by Toriello et al., 2003). In a review of the Toriello-Carey syndrome, Toriello et al. (2016) stated that while corpus callosum abnormalities and micrognathia with highly arched or cleft palate are seen in most patients, other manifestations are widely variable. They noted that etiologic heterogeneity has been observed in reported patients, with at least 20% of patients having chromosome anomalies, and that no good candidate genes have been identified by exome sequencing. The authors commented that this condition might not be a unitary diagnostic entity. They recommended chromosome microarray for any child suspected of having the condition, followed by standard of care by genetic testing.
Wieacker-Wolff syndrome
MedGen UID:
163227
Concept ID:
C0796200
Disease or Syndrome
Wieacker-Wolff syndrome (WRWF) is a severe X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is characterized by onset of muscle weakness in utero (fetal akinesia), which results in arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) apparent at birth. Affected boys are born with severe contractures, show delayed motor development, facial and bulbar weakness, characteristic dysmorphic facial features, and skeletal abnormalities, such as hip dislocation, scoliosis, and foot deformities. Additional features include global developmental delay with poor or absent speech and impaired intellectual development, feeding difficulties and poor growth, hypotonia, hypogenitalism, and spasticity. Carrier females may be unaffected or have mild features of the disorder (summary by Hirata et al., 2013 and Frints et al., 2019).
Congenital muscular hypertrophy-cerebral syndrome
MedGen UID:
315658
Concept ID:
C1802395
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia.
CODAS syndrome
MedGen UID:
333031
Concept ID:
C1838180
Disease or Syndrome
CODAS is an acronym for cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular, and skeletal anomalies. CODAS syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by a distinctive constellation of features that includes developmental delay, craniofacial anomalies, cataracts, ptosis, median nasal groove, delayed tooth eruption, hearing loss, short stature, delayed epiphyseal ossification, metaphyseal hip dysplasia, and vertebral coronal clefts (summary by Strauss et al., 2015).
Hand-foot-genital syndrome
MedGen UID:
331103
Concept ID:
C1841679
Disease or Syndrome
Hand-foot-genital syndrome (HFGS) is characterized by limb malformations and urogenital defects. Mild-to-severe bilateral shortening of the thumbs and great toes, caused primarily by shortening of the distal phalanx and/or the first metacarpal or metatarsal, is the most common limb malformation and results in impaired dexterity or apposition of the thumbs. Urogenital malformations include abnormalities of the ureters and urethra and various degrees of incomplete müllerian fusion in females, and hypospadias of variable severity with or without chordee in males. Vesicoureteral reflux, recurrent urinary tract infections, and chronic pyelonephritis may occur; fertility is normal.
Richieri Costa-Pereira syndrome
MedGen UID:
336581
Concept ID:
C1849348
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with Richieri-Costa-Pereira syndrome display a pattern of anomalies consisting of microstomia, micrognathia, abnormal fusion of the mandible, cleft palate/Robin sequence, absence of lower central incisors, minor ear anomalies, hypoplastic first ray, abnormal tibiae, hypoplastic halluces, and clubfeet. Learning disability is also a common finding (summary by Favaro et al., 2011).
Cornelia de Lange syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
339902
Concept ID:
C1853099
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia.
Blepharophimosis - intellectual disability syndrome, Verloes type
MedGen UID:
347661
Concept ID:
C1858538
Disease or Syndrome
Blepharophimosis-intellectual disability syndrome, Verloes type is a rare, genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by congenital microcephaly, severe epilepsy with hypsarrhythmia, adducted thumbs, abnormal genitalia, and normal thyroid function. Hypotonia, moderate to severe psychomotor delay, and characteristic facial dysmorphism (including round face with prominent cheeks, blepharophimosis, large, bulbous nose with wide alae nasi, posteriorly rotated ears with dysplastic conchae, narrow mouth, cleft palate, and mild micrognathia) are additional characteristic features.
Mandibulofacial dysostosis-microcephaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
355264
Concept ID:
C1864652
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibulofacial dysostosis with microcephaly (MFDM) is characterized by malar and mandibular hypoplasia, microcephaly (congenital or postnatal onset), intellectual disability (mild, moderate, or severe), malformations of the external ear, and hearing loss that is typically conductive. Associated craniofacial malformations may include cleft palate, choanal atresia, zygomatic arch cleft (identified on cranial CT scan), and facial asymmetry. Other relatively common findings (present in 25%-35% of individuals) can include cardiac anomalies, thumb anomalies, esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula, short stature, spine anomalies, and epilepsy.
Brachyphalangy, polydactyly, and tibial aplasia/hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
355340
Concept ID:
C1864965
Disease or Syndrome
Weyers ulnar ray/oligodactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
356030
Concept ID:
C1865566
Disease or Syndrome
Brachydactyly type B2
MedGen UID:
409880
Concept ID:
C1969652
Disease or Syndrome
Brachydactyly type B2 (BDB2) is a subtype of brachydactyly characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of distal phalanges in combination with distal symphalangism, fusion of carpal/tarsal bones, and partial cutaneous syndactyly (summary by Lehmann et al., 2007).
Temple-Baraitser syndrome
MedGen UID:
395636
Concept ID:
C2678486
Disease or Syndrome
Temple-Baraitser syndrome is a rare developmental disorder characterized by severe mental retardation and anomalies of the first ray of the upper and lower limbs with absence/hypoplasia of the nails. Most patients also have seizures; various dysmorphic facial features have been reported (summary by Jacquinet et al., 2010).
Spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
412869
Concept ID:
C2750066
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature with a short and stiff neck and trunk; relatively long limbs that may show flexion contractures of the distal joints; delayed and impaired ossification of the vertebral bodies and the presence of large epiphyseal ossification centers and wide growth plates in the long tubular bones; and numerous pseudoepiphyses of the short tubular bones in hands and feet (summary by Hellemans et al., 2009).
MGAT2-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443956
Concept ID:
C2931008
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzymatic defects in the synthesis and processing of asparagine (N)-linked glycans or oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. These glycoconjugates play critical roles in metabolism, cell recognition and adhesion, cell migration, protease resistance, host defense, and antigenicity, among others. CDGs are divided into 2 main groups: type I CDGs (see, e.g., CDG1A, 212065) comprise defects in the assembly of the dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) chain and its transfer to the nascent protein, whereas type II CDGs refer to defects in the trimming and processing of the protein-bound glycans either late in the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi compartments. The biochemical changes of CDGs are most readily observed in serum transferrin (TF; 190000), and the diagnosis is usually made by isoelectric focusing of this glycoprotein (reviews by Marquardt and Denecke, 2003; Grunewald et al., 2002). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Type II Multiple forms of CDG type II have been identified; see CDG2B (606056) through CDG2Z (620201), and CDG2AA (620454) to CDG2BB (620546).
VACTERL association, X-linked, with or without hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
419019
Concept ID:
C2931228
Disease or Syndrome
VACTERL is an acronym for vertebral anomalies (similar to those of spondylocostal dysplasia), anal atresia, cardiac malformations, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal anomalies (urethral atresia with hydronephrosis), and limb anomalies (hexadactyly, humeral hypoplasia, radial aplasia, and proximally placed thumb; see 192350). Some patients may have hydrocephalus, which is referred to as VACTERL-H (Briard et al., 1984).
Fanconi anemia complementation group O
MedGen UID:
462003
Concept ID:
C3150653
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Chromosome 16p13.3 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
462058
Concept ID:
C3150708
Disease or Syndrome
16p13.3 microduplication syndrome is a rare chromosomal anomaly syndrome resulting from a partial duplication of the short arm of chromosome 16 and manifesting with a variable phenotype which is mostly characterized by: mild to moderate intellectual deficit and developmental delay (particularly speech), normal growth, short, proximally implanted thumbs and other hand and feet malformations (such as camptodactyly, syndactyly, club feet), mild arthrogryposis and characteristic facies (upslanting, narrow palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, mid face hypoplasia, bulbous nasal tip and low set ears). Other reported manifestations include cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia and behavioral problems.
Chromosome 17p13.1 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462419
Concept ID:
C3151069
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
763817
Concept ID:
C3550903
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia.
Chromosome 3q13.31 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
815820
Concept ID:
C3809490
Disease or Syndrome
The chromosome 3q13.31 deletion syndrome is characterized by marked developmental delay, characteristic facies with a short philtrum and protruding lips, and abnormal male genitalia (Molin et al., 2012). Patients with Primrose syndrome (PRIMS; 259050) exhibit features overlapping those of the chromosome 3q13.31 deletion syndrome but also have ossified ear cartilage, severe muscle wasting, and abnormalities of glucose metabolism resulting in insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus in adulthood. Primrose syndrome is caused by mutation in the ZBTB20 gene (606025) on chromosome 3q13.
Short stature with microcephaly and distinctive facies
MedGen UID:
862776
Concept ID:
C4014339
Disease or Syndrome
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome type 3 (RTS3) is characterized by poikiloderma, sparse hair, short stature, and skeletal defects. Patients also exhibit microcephaly, with moderate to severe neurodevelopmental delay and seizures (Averdunk et al., 2023). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, see RTS2 (268400).
Neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease, multisystem, infantile-onset 1
MedGen UID:
864165
Concept ID:
C4015728
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset multisystem neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease-1 (IMNEPD1) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with variable expressivity. The core features usually include global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and speech delay, ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, and pancreatic insufficiency. Additional features may include peripheral neuropathy, postnatal microcephaly, dysmorphic facial features, and cerebellar atrophy. However, some patients may not display all features (summary by Picker-Minh et al., 2016, Sharkia et al., 2017). Genetic Heterogeneity of Infantile-Onset Multisystem Neurologic, Endocrine, and Pancreatic Disease See also IMNEPD2 (619418), caused by mutation in the YARS1 gene (603623) on chromosome 1p35.
Macrothrombocytopenia-lymphedema-developmental delay-facial dysmorphism-camptodactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
906646
Concept ID:
C4225222
Disease or Syndrome
Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome is a highly heterogeneous autosomal dominant complex congenital developmental disorder affecting multiple organ systems. The core phenotype includes delayed psychomotor development with variable intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, and cardiac, genitourinary, and hematologic or lymphatic defects, including thrombocytopenia and lymphedema. Additional features may include abnormalities on brain imaging, skeletal anomalies, and recurrent infections. Some patients have a milder disease course reminiscent of Noonan syndrome (see, e.g., NS1, 163950) (summary by Martinelli et al., 2018).
SIN3A-related intellectual disability syndrome due to a point mutation
MedGen UID:
934771
Concept ID:
C4310804
Disease or Syndrome
Witteveen-Kolk syndrome (WITKOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with characteristic distinctive facial features, microcephaly, short stature, and mildly impaired intellectual development with delayed cognitive and motor development and subtle anomalies on MRI-brain imaging (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2021).
Cornelia de Lange syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1645760
Concept ID:
C4551851
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group S
MedGen UID:
1632414
Concept ID:
C4554406
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Weiss-kruszka syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684748
Concept ID:
C5231429
Disease or Syndrome
Weiss-Kruszka syndrome is characterized by metopic ridging or synostosis, ptosis, nonspecific dysmorphic features, developmental delay, and autistic features. Brain imaging may identify abnormalities of the corpus callosum. Developmental delay can present as global delay, motor delay, or speech delay. Affected individuals may also have ear anomalies, feeding difficulties (sometimes requiring placement of a gastrostomy tube), and congenital heart defects. There is significant variability in the clinical features, even between affected members of the same family.
Noonan syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
1684730
Concept ID:
C5231432
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cardiomyopathy, spasticity, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1750805
Concept ID:
C5436848
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cardiomyopathy, spasticity, and brain abnormalities (NEDCASB) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder characterized by global neurodevelopmental delay, severely impaired intellectual development, poor overall growth, and spasticity of the lower limbs resulting in gait difficulties. Most affected individuals also develop progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in childhood or have cardiac developmental anomalies. Additional more variable features include dysmorphic facies and axonal sensory peripheral neuropathy. Brain imaging tends to show thin corpus callosum and polymicrogyria (summary by Garcia-Cazorla et al., 2020).
Kury-Isidor syndrome
MedGen UID:
1807460
Concept ID:
C5676925
Disease or Syndrome
Kury-Isidor syndrome (KURIS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. It is characterized mainly by mild global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood with walking delayed by a few years and speech delay, often with language deficits. Intellectual development may be mildly delayed, borderline, or even normal; most patients have behavioral problems, including autism. Additional variable systemic features may include poor overall growth, hypotonia, distal skeletal anomalies, seizures, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features (summary by Kury et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with growth retardation, dysmorphic facies, and corpus callosum abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1824024
Concept ID:
C5774251
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with growth retardation, dysmorphic facies, and corpus callosum abnormalities (NEDGFC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by these cardinal features apparent from infancy. There is phenotypic variability both in disease manifestations and severity. More severely affected individuals are unable to walk independently, are nonverbal, and may have other anomalies, including congenital heart defects, feeding difficulties, or skeletal defects, whereas others show mildly delayed motor and speech acquisition with mild or borderline intellectual disability (summary by von Elsner et al., 2022).
RECON progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
1841140
Concept ID:
C5830504
Disease or Syndrome
RECON progeroid syndrome (RECON) is a chromosomal instability disorder characterized by postnatal growth retardation, progeroid facial appearance, hypoplastic nose, prominent premaxilla, skin photosensitivity and xeroderma, muscle wasting with reduced subcutaneous fat, and slender elongated thumbs (Abu-Libdeh et al., 2022).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Keenan MA
Clin Orthop Relat Res 1988 Aug;(233):116-25. PMID: 3042230

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Druel T, Vanpoulle G, Michard R, Barbary S, Gazarian A, Walch A, Tchurukdichian A
Hand Surg Rehabil 2024 Feb;43(1):101630. Epub 2024 Jan 5 doi: 10.1016/j.hansur.2023.12.004. PMID: 38185367
Jurbala B, Burbank T
J Hand Surg Am 2022 Mar;47(3):289.e1-289.e6. Epub 2021 Jun 18 doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2021.04.033. PMID: 34148789
Brauns A, Caekebeke P, Duerinckx J
J Hand Surg Eur Vol 2019 Sep;44(7):708-713. Epub 2019 Jun 2 doi: 10.1177/1753193419851775. PMID: 31156021
Iwamoto T, Matsumura N, Sato K, Momohara S, Toyama Y, Nakamura T
J Hand Surg Am 2013 Dec;38(12):2360-4. Epub 2013 Nov 1 doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2013.09.026. PMID: 24183505
Sahajpal DT, Blonna D, O'Driscoll SW
Arthroscopy 2010 Aug;26(8):1045-52. Epub 2010 Jun 16 doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2009.12.029. PMID: 20678701

Diagnosis

Sutton VR, Hopkins BJ, Eble TN, Gambhir N, Lewis RA, Van den Veyver IB
Am J Med Genet A 2005 Oct 15;138A(3):254-8. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.30963. PMID: 16158440
Mori K, Saida Y, Kuramoto K, Anno I, Yoshioka H, Irie T, Itai Y
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2000 Jun;41(3):463-7. PMID: 10952342

Therapy

El-Hadidi S, Al-Kdah H
Hand Surg 2003 Jul;8(1):21-4. doi: 10.1142/s0218810403001364. PMID: 12923930

Prognosis

Hoang D, Vu CL, Jackson M, Huang JI
J Hand Surg Am 2021 Feb;46(2):149.e1-149.e8. Epub 2020 Oct 19 doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2020.08.007. PMID: 33092908
Ansuini C, Santello M, Massaccesi S, Castiello U
J Neurophysiol 2006 Apr;95(4):2456-65. Epub 2005 Dec 28 doi: 10.1152/jn.01107.2005. PMID: 16381806
Jupiter JB, Sheppard JE
Clin Orthop Relat Res 1987 Jan;(214):113-20. PMID: 3791732

Clinical prediction guides

Hoang D, Vu CL, Jackson M, Huang JI
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