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Orofaciodigital syndrome V(OFD5)

MedGen UID:
358131
Concept ID:
C1868118
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: OFD syndrome 5; OFDS 5; OFDS V; Oral facial digital syndrome type 5; ORAL-FACIAL-DIGITAL SYNDROME, TYPE V; Orofaciodigital syndrome 5; OROFACIODIGITAL SYNDROME, THURSTON TYPE; Polydactyly postaxial with median cleft of upper lip; Thurston syndrome
SNOMED CT: Oro-facial digital syndrome type 5 (722105002); Orofaciodigital syndrome type 5 (722105002); Orofaciodigital syndrome Thurston type (722105002); Thurston syndrome (722105002)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): DDX59 (1q32.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0008267
OMIM®: 174300
Orphanet: ORPHA2919

Definition

Orofaciodigital syndrome V (OFD5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cleft palate/uvula, lobulated tongue, frontal bossing, hypertelorism, postaxial polydactyly, and impaired intellectual development (summary by Faily et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Abnormalities of the digits can affect both the fingers and the toes in people with oral-facial-digital syndrome. These abnormalities include fusion of certain fingers or toes (syndactyly), digits that are shorter than usual (brachydactyly), or digits that are unusually curved (clinodactyly). The presence of extra digits (polydactyly) is also seen in most forms of oral-facial-digital syndrome.

Distinctive facial features often associated with oral-facial-digital syndrome include a split in the lip (a cleft lip); a wide nose with a broad, flat nasal bridge; and widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism).

Abnormalities of the oral cavity that occur in many types of oral-facial-digital syndrome include a split (cleft) in the tongue, a tongue with an unusual lobed shape, and the growth of noncancerous tumors or nodules on the tongue. Affected individuals may also have extra, missing, or defective teeth. Another common feature is an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate). Some people with oral-facial-digital syndrome have bands of extra tissue (called hyperplastic frenula) that abnormally attach the lip to the gums.

Other features occur in only one or a few types of oral-facial digital syndrome. These features help distinguish the different forms of the disorder. For example, the most common form of oral-facial-digital syndrome, type I, is associated with polycystic kidney disease. This kidney disease is characterized by the growth of fluid-filled sacs (cysts) that interfere with the kidneys' ability to filter waste products from the blood. Other forms of oral-facial-digital syndrome are characterized by neurological problems, particular changes in the structure of the brain, bone abnormalities, vision loss, and heart defects.

Researchers have identified at least 13 potential forms of oral-facial-digital syndrome. The different types are classified by their patterns of signs and symptoms. However, the features of the various types overlap significantly, and some types are not well defined. The classification system for oral-facial-digital syndrome continues to evolve as researchers find more affected individuals and learn more about this disorder.

The signs and symptoms of oral-facial-digital syndrome vary widely. However, most forms of this disorder involve problems with development of the oral cavity, facial features, and digits. Most forms are also associated with brain abnormalities and some degree of intellectual disability.

Oral-facial-digital syndrome is actually a group of related conditions that affect the development of the oral cavity (the mouth and teeth), facial features, and digits (fingers and toes).  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/oral-facial-digital-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Hamartoma of tongue
MedGen UID:
98465
Concept ID:
C0431565
Finding
A benign (noncancerous) tumorlike malformation made up of an abnormal mixture of cells and tissues that originates in the tongue.
Horseshoe kidney
MedGen UID:
65140
Concept ID:
C0221353
Congenital Abnormality
A connection of the right and left kidney by an isthmus of functioning renal parenchyma or fibrous tissue that crosses the midline.
Unilateral cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
98467
Concept ID:
C0431664
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of a testis from the scrotum on one side owing to failure of the testis or testes to descend through the inguinal canal to the scrotum.
Postaxial polydactyly
MedGen UID:
67394
Concept ID:
C0220697
Disease or Syndrome
Polydactyly refers to the occurrence of supernumerary digits and is the most frequent of congenital hand and foot deformities. Based on the location of the extra digits, polydactyly can be classified into preaxial, involving the thumb or great toe; postaxial, affecting the fifth digit; and central, involving the 3 central digits. Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is further subclassified into 2 types: in type A, a well-formed extra digit articulates with the fifth or a sixth metacarpal, whereas in type B, a rudimentary, poorly developed extra digit is present (summary by Umm-e-Kalsoom et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Postaxial Polydactyly Other forms of postaxial polydactyly type A include PAPA2 (602085) on chromosome 13q21; PAPA3 (607324) on chromosome 19p13; PAPA4 (608562) on chromosome 7q22; PAPA5 (263450) on chromosome 13q13; PAPA6 (615226), caused by mutation in the ZNF141 gene (194648) on chromosome 4p16; PAPA7 (617642), caused by mutation in the IQCE gene (617631) on chromosome 7p22; PAPA8 (618123), caused by mutation in the GLI1 gene (165220) on chromosome 12q13; PAPA9 (618219), caused by mutation in the FAM98A gene (617273) on chromosome 8q22; and PAPA10 (618498), caused by mutation in the KIAA0825 gene (617266) on chromosome 5q15.
Postaxial hand polydactyly
MedGen UID:
609221
Concept ID:
C0431904
Congenital Abnormality
Supernumerary digits located at the ulnar side of the hand (that is, on the side with the fifth finger).
Sandal gap
MedGen UID:
374376
Concept ID:
C1840069
Finding
A widely spaced gap between the first toe (the great toe) and the second toe.
Postaxial foot polydactyly
MedGen UID:
384489
Concept ID:
C2112129
Finding
Polydactyly of the foot most commonly refers to the presence of six toes on one foot. Postaxial polydactyly affects the lateral ray and the duplication may range from a well-formed articulated digit to a rudimentary digit.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Tetralogy of Fallot
MedGen UID:
21498
Concept ID:
C0039685
Congenital Abnormality
People with CCHD have one or more specific heart defects. The heart defects classified as CCHD include coarctation of the aorta, double-outlet right ventricle, D-transposition of the great arteries, Ebstein anomaly, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, interrupted aortic arch, pulmonary atresia with intact septum, single ventricle, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, tetralogy of Fallot, tricuspid atresia, and truncus arteriosus.\n\nEach of the heart defects associated with CCHD affects the flow of blood into, out of, or through the heart. Some of the heart defects involve structures within the heart itself, such as the two lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles) or the valves that control blood flow through the heart. Others affect the structure of the large blood vessels leading into and out of the heart (including the aorta and pulmonary artery). Still others involve a combination of these structural abnormalities.\n\nSome people with treated CCHD have few related health problems later in life. However, long-term effects of CCHD can include delayed development and reduced stamina during exercise. Adults with these heart defects have an increased risk of abnormal heart rhythms, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, and premature death.\n\nAlthough babies with CCHD may appear healthy for the first few hours or days of life, signs and symptoms soon become apparent. These can include an abnormal heart sound during a heartbeat (heart murmur), rapid breathing (tachypnea), low blood pressure (hypotension), low levels of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia), and a blue or purple tint to the skin caused by a shortage of oxygen (cyanosis). If untreated, CCHD can lead to shock, coma, and death. However, most people with CCHD now survive past infancy due to improvements in early detection, diagnosis, and treatment.\n\nCritical congenital heart disease (CCHD) is a term that refers to a group of serious heart defects that are present from birth. These abnormalities result from problems with the formation of one or more parts of the heart during the early stages of embryonic development. CCHD prevents the heart from pumping blood effectively or reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood. As a result, organs and tissues throughout the body do not receive enough oxygen, which can lead to organ damage and life-threatening complications. Individuals with CCHD usually require surgery soon after birth.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Aganglionic megacolon
MedGen UID:
5559
Concept ID:
C0019569
Disease or Syndrome
The disorder described by Hirschsprung (1888) and known as Hirschsprung disease or aganglionic megacolon is characterized by congenital absence of intrinsic ganglion cells in the myenteric (Auerbach) and submucosal (Meissner) plexuses of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients are diagnosed with the short-segment form (S-HSCR, approximately 80% of cases) when the aganglionic segment does not extend beyond the upper sigmoid, and with the long-segment form (L-HSCR) when aganglionosis extends proximal to the sigmoid (Amiel et al., 2008). Total colonic aganglionosis and total intestinal HSCR also occur. Genetic Heterogeneity of Hirschsprung Disease Several additional loci for isolated Hirschsprung disease have been mapped. HSCR2 (600155) is associated with variation in the EDNRB gene (131244) on 13q22; HSCR3 (613711) is associated with variation in the GDNF gene (600837) on 5p13; HSCR4 (613712) is associated with variation in the EDN3 gene (131242) on 20q13; HSCR5 (600156) maps to 9q31; HSCR6 (606874) maps to 3p21; HSCR7 (606875) maps to 19q12; HSCR8 (608462) maps to 16q23; and HSCR9 (611644) maps to 4q31-q32. HSCR also occurs as a feature of several syndromes including the Waardenburg-Shah syndrome (277580), Mowat-Wilson syndrome (235730), Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome (609460), and congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS; 209880). Whereas mendelian modes of inheritance have been described for syndromic HSCR, isolated HSCR stands as a model for genetic disorders with complex patterns of inheritance. Isolated HSCR appears to be of complex nonmendelian inheritance with low sex-dependent penetrance and variable expression according to the length of the aganglionic segment, suggestive of the involvement of one or more genes with low penetrance. The development of surgical procedures decreased mortality and morbidity, which allowed the emergence of familial cases. HSCR occurs as an isolated trait in 70% of patients, is associated with chromosomal anomaly in 12% of cases, and occurs with additional congenital anomalies in 18% of cases (summary by Amiel et al., 2008).
Corpus callosum, agenesis of
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Overfriendliness
MedGen UID:
867995
Concept ID:
C4022386
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A form of hypersociability that presents as mostly inappropriate people-orientation and friendliness towards others on an inadequate level which might go as far as being dangerous considering for example young children following strangers without restriction.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Recurrent respiratory infections
MedGen UID:
812812
Concept ID:
C3806482
Finding
An increased susceptibility to respiratory infections as manifested by a history of recurrent respiratory infections.
Partial congenital absence of teeth
MedGen UID:
43794
Concept ID:
C0020608
Congenital Abnormality
Tooth agenesis in some form is a common human anomaly that affects approximately 20% of the population. Although tooth agenesis is associated with numerous syndromes, several case reports describe nonsyndromic forms that are either sporadic or familial in nature, as reviewed by Gorlin et al. (1990). The incidence of familial tooth agenesis varies with each class of teeth. Most commonly affected are third molars (wisdom teeth), followed by either upper lateral incisors or lower second premolars; agenesis involving first and second molars is very rare. Also see 114600 and 302400. Selective tooth agenesis without associated systemic disorders has sometimes been divided into 2 types: oligodontia, defined as agenesis of 6 or more permanent teeth, and hypodontia, defined as agenesis of less than 6 teeth. The number in both cases does not include absence of third molars (wisdom teeth). Faulty use of the terms, however, have confounded their use. The term 'partial anodontia' is obsolete (Salinas, 1978). Genetic Heterogeneity of Selective Tooth Agenesis Other forms of selective tooth agenesis include STHAG2 (602639), mapped to chromosome 16q12; STHAG3 (604625), caused by mutation in the PAX9 gene (167416) on chromosome 14q12; STHAG4 (150400), caused by mutation in the WNT10A gene (606268) on chromosome 2q35; STHAG5 (610926), mapped to chromosome 10q11; STHAG7 (616724), caused by mutation in the LRP6 gene (603507) on chromosome 12p13; STHAG8 (617073), caused by mutation in the WNT10B gene (601906) on chromosome 12q13; STHAG9 (617275), caused by mutation in the GREM2 gene (608832) on chromosome 1q43; STHAG10 (620173), caused by mutation in the TSPEAR gene (612920) on chromosome 21q22; and STHAGX1 (313500), caused by mutation in the EDA gene (300451) on chromosome Xq13. A type of selective tooth agenesis that was formerly designated STHAG6 has been incorporated into the dental anomalies and short stature syndrome (DASS; 601216). Of 34 unrelated patients with nonsyndromic tooth agenesis, van den Boogaard et al. (2012) found that 56% (19 patients) had mutations in the WNT10A gene (STHAG4), whereas only 3% and 9% had mutations in the MSX1 (STHAG1) and PAX9 (STHAG3) genes, respectively. The authors concluded that WNT10A is a major gene in the etiology of isolated hypodontia. Genotype-Phenotype Correlations Yu et al. (2016) observed that the most frequently missing permanent teeth in WNT10B-associated oligodontia were the lateral incisors (83.3%), whereas premolars were missing only 51.4% of the time, which they noted was a pattern 'clearly different' from the oligodontia patterns resulting from WNT10A mutations. They also stated that the selective pattern in WNT10B mutants was different from that associated with mutations in other genes, such as MSX1, in which second premolars are missing, and PAX9, in which there is agenesis of molars.
Ankyloglossia
MedGen UID:
56288
Concept ID:
C0152415
Congenital Abnormality
Ankyloglossia, commonly known as 'tongue-tie,' is a congenital anomaly that occurs predominantly in males and is characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. The phenotype varies from absence of clinical significance to rare complete ankyloglossia where the ventral part of the tongue is fused to the floor of the mouth (Klockars, 2007). Some patients also exhibit absence of lower incisors (Acevedo et al., 2010).
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Bifid tongue
MedGen UID:
82731
Concept ID:
C0266111
Congenital Abnormality
Tongue with a median apical indentation or fork.
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Lobulated tongue
MedGen UID:
140914
Concept ID:
C0431564
Congenital Abnormality
Multiple indentations and/or elevations on the edge and/or surface of the tongue producing an irregular surface contour.
Facial asymmetry
MedGen UID:
266298
Concept ID:
C1306710
Finding
An abnormal difference between the left and right sides of the face.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Bifid uvula
MedGen UID:
1646931
Concept ID:
C4551488
Congenital Abnormality
Uvula separated into two parts most easily seen at the tip.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Coloboma of optic nerve
MedGen UID:
57832
Concept ID:
C0155299
Disease or Syndrome
A cleft of the optic nerve that extends inferiorly.
Unilateral ptosis
MedGen UID:
401085
Concept ID:
C1866806
Finding
A unilateral form of ptosis.
Esodeviation
MedGen UID:
1641033
Concept ID:
C4551734
Disease or Syndrome
A manifest or latent ocular deviation in which one or both eyes tends to deviate nasally.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVOrofaciodigital syndrome V
Follow this link to review classifications for Orofaciodigital syndrome V in Orphanet.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Jain K, Singh M
Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2020 Apr;57(4):524-528. Epub 2019 Oct 24 doi: 10.1177/1055665619884431. PMID: 31648526

Diagnosis

Ks A, Bansal A, Verma PK, Bhat NK
BMJ Case Rep 2023 Dec 30;16(12) doi: 10.1136/bcr-2022-253086. PMID: 38160027Free PMC Article
John JR, Kumar P, Sharma RK
J Craniofac Surg 2013 Mar;24(2):e132-4. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e318275ee68. PMID: 23524810

Prognosis

Ks A, Bansal A, Verma PK, Bhat NK
BMJ Case Rep 2023 Dec 30;16(12) doi: 10.1136/bcr-2022-253086. PMID: 38160027Free PMC Article

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