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Spastic ataxia 2(SPAX2)

MedGen UID:
370750
Concept ID:
C1969796
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Ataxia, spastic, 2, autosomal recessive
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
 
Gene (location): KIF1C (17p13.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0012651
OMIM®: 611302
Orphanet: ORPHA397946

Definition

Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia-2 (SPAX2) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset in the first 2 decades of cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and variable spasticity of the lower limbs. Cognition is not affected (summary by Dor et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of spastic ataxia, see SPAX1 (108600). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Ankle clonus
MedGen UID:
68672
Concept ID:
C0238651
Finding
Clonus is an involuntary tendon reflex that causes repeated flexion and extension of the foot. Ankle clonus is tested by rapidly flexing the foot upward.
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Fasciculations
MedGen UID:
5124
Concept ID:
C0015644
Sign or Symptom
Fasciculations are observed as small, local, involuntary muscle contractions (twitching) visible under the skin. Fasciculations result from increased irritability of an axon (which in turn is often a manifestation of disease of a motor neuron). This leads to sporadic discharges of all the muscle fibers controlled by the axon in isolation from other motor units.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Babinski sign
MedGen UID:
19708
Concept ID:
C0034935
Finding
Upturning of the big toe (and sometimes fanning of the other toes) in response to stimulation of the sole of the foot. If the Babinski sign is present it can indicate damage to the corticospinal tract.
Torticollis
MedGen UID:
11859
Concept ID:
C0040485
Sign or Symptom
Torticollis is a twisted neck as a result of shortening of sternocleidomastoid muscle. This short and fibrotic muscle pulls the head laterally and rotates the chin and face to the opposite end. Facial asymmetry may be a manifestation (summary by Engin et al., 1997).
Tremor
MedGen UID:
21635
Concept ID:
C0040822
Sign or Symptom
An unintentional, oscillating to-and-fro muscle movement about a joint axis.
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles.
Dysmetria
MedGen UID:
68583
Concept ID:
C0234162
Finding
A type of ataxia characterized by the inability to carry out movements with the correct range and motion across the plane of more than one joint related to incorrect estimation of the distances required for targeted movements.
Mental deterioration
MedGen UID:
66713
Concept ID:
C0234985
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Loss of previously present mental abilities, generally in adults.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
Cerebellar atrophy
MedGen UID:
196624
Concept ID:
C0740279
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar atrophy is defined as a cerebellum with initially normal structures, in a posterior fossa with normal size, which displays enlarged fissures (interfolial spaces) in comparison to the foliae secondary to loss of tissue. Cerebellar atrophy implies irreversible loss of tissue and result from an ongoing progressive disease until a final stage is reached or a single injury, e.g. an intoxication or infectious event.
Gait ataxia
MedGen UID:
155642
Concept ID:
C0751837
Sign or Symptom
A type of ataxia characterized by the impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal walking. Gait ataxia is characteirzed by a wide-based staggering gait with a tendency to fall.
Head titubation
MedGen UID:
299071
Concept ID:
C1608410
Sign or Symptom
A head tremor of moderate speed (3 to 4 Hz) in the anterior-posterior direction.
Spastic ataxia
MedGen UID:
376528
Concept ID:
C1849156
Disease or Syndrome
Frequent falls
MedGen UID:
163408
Concept ID:
C0850703
Finding
Distal amyotrophy
MedGen UID:
338530
Concept ID:
C1848736
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular atrophy affecting muscles in the distal portions of the extremities.
Reduced visual acuity
MedGen UID:
65889
Concept ID:
C0234632
Finding
Diminished clarity of vision.
Horizontal nystagmus
MedGen UID:
124399
Concept ID:
C0271385
Disease or Syndrome
Nystagmus consisting of horizontal to-and-fro eye movements.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVSpastic ataxia 2
Follow this link to review classifications for Spastic ataxia 2 in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Perry SE, Troche M, Huber JE, Curtis J, Kiefer B, Sevitz J, Dennard Q, Borders J, Browy JR, Dakin A, Gonzalez V, Chapman J, Wu T, Katz L, Britton D
Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2024 Mar 7;33(2):1069-1097. Epub 2024 Jan 17 doi: 10.1044/2023_AJSLP-23-00274. PMID: 38232176
van de Warrenburg BP, van Gaalen J, Boesch S, Burgunder JM, Dürr A, Giunti P, Klockgether T, Mariotti C, Pandolfo M, Riess O
Eur J Neurol 2014 Apr;21(4):552-62. Epub 2014 Jan 13 doi: 10.1111/ene.12341. PMID: 24418350
Anheim M, Fleury M, Monga B, Laugel V, Chaigne D, Rodier G, Ginglinger E, Boulay C, Courtois S, Drouot N, Fritsch M, Delaunoy JP, Stoppa-Lyonnet D, Tranchant C, Koenig M
Neurogenetics 2010 Feb;11(1):1-12. Epub 2009 May 14 doi: 10.1007/s10048-009-0196-y. PMID: 19440741

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Chen J, Zhao Z, Shen H, Bing Q, Li N, Guo X, Hu J
BMC Neurol 2022 May 16;22(1):180. doi: 10.1186/s12883-022-02708-z. PMID: 35578252Free PMC Article
Chelban V, Alsagob M, Kloth K, Chirita-Emandi A, Vandrovcova J, Maroofian R, Davagnanam I, Bakhtiari S, AlSayed MD, Rahbeeni Z, AlZaidan H, Malintan NT, Johannsen J, Efthymiou S, Ghayoor Karimiani E, Mankad K, Al-Shahrani SA, Beiraghi Toosi M, AlShammari M, Groppa S, Haridy NA, AlQuait L, Qari A, Huma R, Salih MA, Almass R, Almutairi FB, Hamad MH, Alorainy IA, Ramzan K, Imtiaz F, Puiu M, Kruer MC, Bierhals T, Wood NW, Colak D, Houlden H, Kaya N
Eur J Neurol 2020 Feb;27(2):334-342. Epub 2019 Oct 17 doi: 10.1111/ene.14082. PMID: 31509304Free PMC Article
Coutelier M, Hammer MB, Stevanin G, Monin ML, Davoine CS, Mochel F, Labauge P, Ewenczyk C, Ding J, Gibbs JR, Hannequin D, Melki J, Toutain A, Laugel V, Forlani S, Charles P, Broussolle E, Thobois S, Afenjar A, Anheim M, Calvas P, Castelnovo G, de Broucker T, Vidailhet M, Moulignier A, Ghnassia RT, Tallaksen C, Mignot C, Goizet C, Le Ber I, Ollagnon-Roman E, Pouget J, Brice A, Singleton A, Durr A; Spastic Paraplegia and Ataxia Network
JAMA Neurol 2018 May 1;75(5):591-599. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.5121. PMID: 29482223Free PMC Article
Chelban V, Patel N, Vandrovcova J, Zanetti MN, Lynch DS, Ryten M, Botía JA, Bello O, Tribollet E, Efthymiou S, Davagnanam I; SYNAPSE Study Group, Bashiri FA, Wood NW, Rothman JE, Alkuraya FS, Houlden H
Am J Hum Genet 2017 Jun 1;100(6):969-977. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.05.009. PMID: 28575651Free PMC Article
Storey E
Semin Neurol 2014 Jul;34(3):280-92. Epub 2014 Sep 5 doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1386766. PMID: 25192506

Diagnosis

Pauly MG, Brüggemann N, Efthymiou S, Grözinger A, Diaw SH, Chelban V, Turchetti V, Vona B, Tadic V, Houlden H, Münchau A, Lohmann K
Int J Mol Sci 2023 Jan 18;24(3) doi: 10.3390/ijms24031874. PMID: 36768210Free PMC Article
Infante J, Serrano-Cárdenas KM, Corral-Juan M, Farré X, Sánchez I, de Lucas EM, García A, Martín-Gurpegui JL, Berciano J, Matilla-Dueñas A
J Neurol 2020 Feb;267(2):324-330. Epub 2019 Oct 21 doi: 10.1007/s00415-019-09574-9. PMID: 31637490
Chelban V, Alsagob M, Kloth K, Chirita-Emandi A, Vandrovcova J, Maroofian R, Davagnanam I, Bakhtiari S, AlSayed MD, Rahbeeni Z, AlZaidan H, Malintan NT, Johannsen J, Efthymiou S, Ghayoor Karimiani E, Mankad K, Al-Shahrani SA, Beiraghi Toosi M, AlShammari M, Groppa S, Haridy NA, AlQuait L, Qari A, Huma R, Salih MA, Almass R, Almutairi FB, Hamad MH, Alorainy IA, Ramzan K, Imtiaz F, Puiu M, Kruer MC, Bierhals T, Wood NW, Colak D, Houlden H, Kaya N
Eur J Neurol 2020 Feb;27(2):334-342. Epub 2019 Oct 17 doi: 10.1111/ene.14082. PMID: 31509304Free PMC Article
Coutelier M, Hammer MB, Stevanin G, Monin ML, Davoine CS, Mochel F, Labauge P, Ewenczyk C, Ding J, Gibbs JR, Hannequin D, Melki J, Toutain A, Laugel V, Forlani S, Charles P, Broussolle E, Thobois S, Afenjar A, Anheim M, Calvas P, Castelnovo G, de Broucker T, Vidailhet M, Moulignier A, Ghnassia RT, Tallaksen C, Mignot C, Goizet C, Le Ber I, Ollagnon-Roman E, Pouget J, Brice A, Singleton A, Durr A; Spastic Paraplegia and Ataxia Network
JAMA Neurol 2018 May 1;75(5):591-599. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.5121. PMID: 29482223Free PMC Article
Storey E
Semin Neurol 2014 Jul;34(3):280-92. Epub 2014 Sep 5 doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1386766. PMID: 25192506

Therapy

Lessard I, Côté I, St-Gelais R, Hébert LJ, Brais B, Mathieu J, Rodrigue X, Gagnon C
Cerebellum 2024 Apr;23(2):489-501. Epub 2023 Apr 27 doi: 10.1007/s12311-023-01558-w. PMID: 37101017
Traschütz A, Adarmes-Gómez AD, Anheim M, Baets J, Brais B, Gagnon C, Gburek-Augustat J, Doss S, Hanağası HA, Kamm C, Klivenyi P, Klockgether T, Klopstock T, Minnerop M, Münchau A, Renaud M, Santorelli FM, Schöls L, Thieme A, Vielhaber S, van de Warrenburg BP, Zanni G, Hilgers RD; PREPARE Consortium, Synofzik M
Ann Neurol 2023 Sep;94(3):470-485. Epub 2023 Jun 12 doi: 10.1002/ana.26712. PMID: 37243847
Bourcier D, Bélanger M, Côté I, Brais B, Synofzik M, Brisson JD, Rodrigue X, Gagnon MM, Mathieu J, Gagnon C
J Neurol Sci 2020 Oct 15;417:117050. Epub 2020 Jul 18 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2020.117050. PMID: 32736199
Al-Muhaizea MA, AlQuait L, AlRasheed A, AlHarbi S, Albader AA, AlMass R, Albakheet A, Alhumaidan A, AlRasheed MM, Colak D, Kaya N
Neuromuscul Disord 2020 Jul;30(7):611-615. Epub 2020 May 15 doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2020.04.007. PMID: 32616363
Rosafio F, Cavallieri F, Guaraldi P, Taroni F, Nichelli PF, Mandrioli J
Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2016 Apr;143:1-3. Epub 2016 Feb 4 doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2016.01.032. PMID: 26874936

Prognosis

Rezk M, Pittock SJ, Kapadia RK, Knight AM, Guo Y, Gupta P, LaFrance-Corey RG, Zekeridou A, McKeon A, Dasari S, Mills JR, Dubey D
Front Immunol 2023;14:1243946. Epub 2023 Sep 18 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1243946. PMID: 37795104Free PMC Article
Chen J, Zhao Z, Shen H, Bing Q, Li N, Guo X, Hu J
BMC Neurol 2022 May 16;22(1):180. doi: 10.1186/s12883-022-02708-z. PMID: 35578252Free PMC Article
Shivaram S, Nagappa M, Seshagiri DV, Saini J, Govindaraj P, Sinha S, Bindu PS, Taly AB
Can J Neurol Sci 2022 Sep;49(5):708-712. Epub 2021 Sep 2 doi: 10.1017/cjn.2021.202. PMID: 34663487
Chelban V, Alsagob M, Kloth K, Chirita-Emandi A, Vandrovcova J, Maroofian R, Davagnanam I, Bakhtiari S, AlSayed MD, Rahbeeni Z, AlZaidan H, Malintan NT, Johannsen J, Efthymiou S, Ghayoor Karimiani E, Mankad K, Al-Shahrani SA, Beiraghi Toosi M, AlShammari M, Groppa S, Haridy NA, AlQuait L, Qari A, Huma R, Salih MA, Almass R, Almutairi FB, Hamad MH, Alorainy IA, Ramzan K, Imtiaz F, Puiu M, Kruer MC, Bierhals T, Wood NW, Colak D, Houlden H, Kaya N
Eur J Neurol 2020 Feb;27(2):334-342. Epub 2019 Oct 17 doi: 10.1111/ene.14082. PMID: 31509304Free PMC Article
Gagnon C, Lessard I, Lavoie C, Côté I, St-Gelais R, Mathieu J, Brais B
Neurology 2018 Oct 2;91(14):e1307-e1311. Epub 2018 Aug 29 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000006290. PMID: 30158165Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Kanzler CM, Lessard I, Gassert R, Brais B, Gagnon C, Lambercy O
Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2022 Apr;9(4):432-443. Epub 2022 Feb 27 doi: 10.1002/acn3.51493. PMID: 35224896Free PMC Article
Di Donato I, Gallo A, Ricca I, Fini N, Silvestri G, Gurrieri F, Cirillo M, Cerase A, Natale G, Matrone F, Riso V, Melone MAB, Tessa A, De Michele G, Federico A, Filla A, Dotti MT, Santorelli FM
Neurol Sci 2022 Feb;43(2):1071-1077. Epub 2021 Jul 23 doi: 10.1007/s10072-021-05462-1. PMID: 34296356Free PMC Article
Hosseini Bereshneh A, Hosseipour S, Rasoulinezhad MS, Pak N, Garshasbi M, Tavasoli AR
Eur J Med Genet 2020 May;63(5):103868. Epub 2020 Jan 28 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2020.103868. PMID: 32004679
Infante J, Serrano-Cárdenas KM, Corral-Juan M, Farré X, Sánchez I, de Lucas EM, García A, Martín-Gurpegui JL, Berciano J, Matilla-Dueñas A
J Neurol 2020 Feb;267(2):324-330. Epub 2019 Oct 21 doi: 10.1007/s00415-019-09574-9. PMID: 31637490
Chelban V, Patel N, Vandrovcova J, Zanetti MN, Lynch DS, Ryten M, Botía JA, Bello O, Tribollet E, Efthymiou S, Davagnanam I; SYNAPSE Study Group, Bashiri FA, Wood NW, Rothman JE, Alkuraya FS, Houlden H
Am J Hum Genet 2017 Jun 1;100(6):969-977. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.05.009. PMID: 28575651Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Perry SE, Troche M, Huber JE, Curtis J, Kiefer B, Sevitz J, Dennard Q, Borders J, Browy JR, Dakin A, Gonzalez V, Chapman J, Wu T, Katz L, Britton D
Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2024 Mar 7;33(2):1069-1097. Epub 2024 Jan 17 doi: 10.1044/2023_AJSLP-23-00274. PMID: 38232176

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