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Enamel hypoplasia

MedGen UID:
3730
Concept ID:
C0011351
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
Synonyms: Dental enamel hypoplasia; Hypoplasia of dental enamel
SNOMED CT: Enamel hypoplasia (26597004)
 
HPO: HP:0006297
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0004038

Definition

Developmental hypoplasia of the dental enamel. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Cleidocranial dysostosis
MedGen UID:
3486
Concept ID:
C0008928
Disease or Syndrome
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) spectrum disorder is a skeletal dysplasia that represents a clinical continuum ranging from classic CCD (triad of delayed closure of the cranial sutures, hypoplastic or aplastic clavicles, and dental abnormalities) to mild CCD to isolated dental anomalies without the skeletal features. Most individuals come to diagnosis because they have classic features. At birth, affected individuals typically have abnormally large, wide-open fontanelles that may remain open throughout life. Clavicular hypoplasia can result in narrow, sloping shoulders that can be opposed at the midline. Moderate short stature may be observed, with most affected individuals being shorter than their unaffected sibs. Dental anomalies may include supernumerary teeth, eruption failure of the permanent teeth, and presence of the second permanent molar with the primary dentition. Individuals with CCD spectrum disorder are at increased risk of developing recurrent sinus infections, recurrent ear infections leading to conductive hearing loss, and upper-airway obstruction. Intelligence is typically normal.
Focal dermal hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
42055
Concept ID:
C0016395
Disease or Syndrome
Focal dermal hypoplasia is a multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. Skin manifestations present at birth include atrophic and hypoplastic areas of skin; cutis aplasia; fat nodules in the dermis manifesting as soft, yellow-pink cutaneous nodules; and pigmentary changes. Verrucoid papillomas of the skin and mucous membranes may appear later. The nails can be ridged, dysplastic, or hypoplastic; hair can be sparse or absent. Limb malformations include oligo-/syndactyly and split hand/foot. Developmental abnormalities of the eye can include anophthalmia/microphthalmia, iris and chorioretinal coloboma, and lacrimal duct abnormalities. Craniofacial findings can include facial asymmetry, notched alae nasi, cleft lip and palate, and pointed chin. Occasional findings include dental anomalies, abdominal wall defects, diaphragmatic hernia, and renal anomalies. Psychomotor development is usually normal; some individuals have cognitive impairment.
Lowe syndrome
MedGen UID:
18145
Concept ID:
C0028860
Disease or Syndrome
Lowe syndrome (oculocerebrorenal syndrome) is characterized by involvement of the eyes, central nervous system, and kidneys. Dense congenital cataracts are found in all affected boys and infantile glaucoma in approximately 50%. All boys have impaired vision; corrected acuity is rarely better than 20/100. Generalized hypotonia is noted at birth and is of central (brain) origin. Deep tendon reflexes are usually absent. Hypotonia may slowly improve with age, but normal motor tone and strength are never achieved. Motor milestones are delayed. Almost all affected males have some degree of intellectual disability; 10%-25% function in the low-normal or borderline range, approximately 25% in the mild-to-moderate range, and 50%-65% in the severe-to-profound range of intellectual disability. Affected males have varying degrees of proximal renal tubular dysfunction of the Fanconi type, including low molecular-weight (LMW) proteinuria, aminoaciduria, bicarbonate wasting and renal tubular acidosis, phosphaturia with hypophosphatemia and renal rickets, hypercalciuria, sodium and potassium wasting, and polyuria. The features of symptomatic Fanconi syndrome do not usually become manifest until after the first few months of life, except for LMW proteinuria. Glomerulosclerosis associated with chronic tubular injury usually results in slowly progressive chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease between the second and fourth decades of life.
Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism
MedGen UID:
10995
Concept ID:
C0033835
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of GNAS inactivation include the phenotypes pseudohypoparathyroidism Ia, Ib, and Ic (PHP-Ia, -Ib, -Ic), pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP), progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH), and osteoma cutis (OC). PHP-Ia and PHP-Ic are characterized by: End-organ resistance to endocrine hormones including parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins (LH and FSH), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and CNS neurotransmitters (leading to obesity and variable degrees of intellectual disability and developmental delay); and The Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) phenotype (short stature, round facies, and subcutaneous ossifications) and brachydactyly type E (shortening mainly of the 4th and/or 5th metacarpals and metatarsals and distal phalanx of the thumb). Although PHP-Ib is characterized principally by PTH resistance, some individuals also have partial TSH resistance and mild features of AHO (e.g., brachydactyly). PPHP, a more limited form of PHP-Ia, is characterized by various manifestations of the AHO phenotype without the hormone resistance or obesity. POH and OC are even more restricted variants of PPHP: POH consists of dermal ossification beginning in infancy, followed by increasing and extensive bone formation in deep muscle and fascia. OC consists of extra-skeletal ossification that is limited to the dermis and subcutaneous tissues.
Sjögren-Larsson syndrome
MedGen UID:
11443
Concept ID:
C0037231
Disease or Syndrome
Sjogren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an autosomal recessive, early childhood-onset disorder characterized by ichthyosis, impaired intellectual development, spastic paraparesis, macular dystrophy, and leukoencephalopathy. It is caused by deficiency of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (summary by Lossos et al., 2006).
Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa
MedGen UID:
36311
Concept ID:
C0079474
Disease or Syndrome
Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a genetic skin disorder affecting skin and nails that usually presents at birth. DEB is divided into two major types depending on inheritance pattern: recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) and dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DDEB). Each type is further divided into multiple clinical subtypes. Absence of a known family history of DEB does not preclude the diagnosis. Clinical findings in severe generalized RDEB include skin fragility manifest by blistering with minimal trauma that heals with milia and scarring. Blistering and erosions affecting the whole body may be present in the neonatal period. Oral involvement may lead to mouth blistering, fusion of the tongue to the floor of the mouth, and progressive diminution of the size of the oral cavity. Esophageal erosions can lead to webs and strictures that can cause severe dysphagia. Consequently, malnutrition and vitamin and mineral deficiency may lead to growth restriction in young children. Corneal erosions can lead to scarring and loss of vision. Blistering of the hands and feet followed by scarring fuses the digits into "mitten" hands and feet, with contractures and pseudosyndactyly. The lifetime risk of aggressive squamous cell carcinoma is higher than 90%. In contrast, the blistering in the less severe forms of RDEB may be localized to hands, feet, knees, and elbows with or without involvement of flexural areas and the trunk, and without the mutilating scarring seen in severe generalized RDEB. In DDEB, blistering is often mild and limited to hands, feet, knees, and elbows, but nonetheless heals with scarring. Dystrophic nails, especially toenails, are common and may be the only manifestation of DDEB.
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa gravis of Herlitz
MedGen UID:
36328
Concept ID:
C0079683
Disease or Syndrome
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes, manifest by blistering with little or no trauma. Blistering may be severe and granulation tissue can form on the skin around the oral and nasal cavities, fingers and toes, and internally around the upper airway. Blisters generally heal with no significant scarring. Broad classification of JEB includes JEB generalized severe and JEB generalized intermediate. In JEB generalized severe, blisters are present at birth or become apparent in the neonatal period. Congenital malformations of the urinary tract and bladder may also occur. In JEB generalized intermediate, the phenotype may be mild with blistering localized to hands, feet, knees, and elbows with or without renal or ureteral involvement. Some individuals never blister after the newborn period. Additional features shared by JEB and the other major forms of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) include congenital localized absence of skin (aplasia cutis congenita), milia, nail dystrophy, scarring alopecia, hypotrichosis, pseudosyndactyly, and other contractures.
Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, type 1
MedGen UID:
39125
Concept ID:
C0085859
Disease or Syndrome
Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I (APS1) is characterized by the presence of 2 of 3 major clinical symptoms: Addison disease, and/or hypoparathyroidism, and/or chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (Neufeld et al., 1981). However, variable APS1 phenotypes have been observed, even among sibs. In addition, some patients may exhibit apparent isolated hypoparathyroidism, an early manifestation of APS1 with peak incidence at around age 5 years; over long-term follow-up, the development of additional features of APS1 may be observed (Cranston et al., 2022).
Pili torti
MedGen UID:
82670
Concept ID:
C0263491
Finding
Pili (from Latin pilus, hair) torti (from Latin tortus, twisted) refers to short and brittle hairs that appear flattened and twisted when viewed through a microscope.
Pallister-Killian syndrome
MedGen UID:
120540
Concept ID:
C0265449
Disease or Syndrome
Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a dysmorphic condition involving most organ systems, but is also characterized by a tissue-limited mosaicism; most fibroblasts have 47 chromosomes with an extra small metacentric chromosome, whereas the karyotype of lymphocytes is normal. The extra metacentric chromosome is an isochromosome for part of the short arm of chromosome 12: i(12)(p10) (Peltomaki et al., 1987; Warburton et al., 1987).
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa, non-Herlitz type
MedGen UID:
82798
Concept ID:
C0268374
Disease or Syndrome
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes, manifest by blistering with little or no trauma. Blistering may be severe and granulation tissue can form on the skin around the oral and nasal cavities, fingers and toes, and internally around the upper airway. Blisters generally heal with no significant scarring. Broad classification of JEB includes JEB generalized severe and JEB generalized intermediate. In JEB generalized severe, blisters are present at birth or become apparent in the neonatal period. Congenital malformations of the urinary tract and bladder may also occur. In JEB generalized intermediate, the phenotype may be mild with blistering localized to hands, feet, knees, and elbows with or without renal or ureteral involvement. Some individuals never blister after the newborn period. Additional features shared by JEB and the other major forms of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) include congenital localized absence of skin (aplasia cutis congenita), milia, nail dystrophy, scarring alopecia, hypotrichosis, pseudosyndactyly, and other contractures.
Primary hypomagnesemia
MedGen UID:
120640
Concept ID:
C0268448
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is a progressive renal disorder characterized by excessive urinary Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) excretion. There is progressive loss of kidney function, and in about 50% of cases, the need for renal replacement therapy arises as early as the second decade of life (summary by Muller et al., 2006). Amelogenesis imperfecta may also be present in some patients (Bardet et al., 2016). A similar disorder with renal magnesium wasting, renal failure, and nephrocalcinosis (HOMG5; 248190) is caused by mutations in another tight-junction gene, CLDN19 (610036), and is distinguished by the association of severe ocular involvement. For a discussion of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of familial hypomagnesemia, see HOMG1 (602014).
Vitamin D-dependent rickets, type 1
MedGen UID:
124344
Concept ID:
C0268689
Disease or Syndrome
Vitamin D-dependent rickets is a disorder of bone development that leads to softening and weakening of the bones (rickets). There are several forms of the condition that are distinguished primarily by their genetic causes: type 1A (VDDR1A), type 1B (VDDR1B), and type 2A (VDDR2A). There is also evidence of a very rare form of the condition, called type 2B (VDDR2B), although not much is known about this form.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of vitamin D-dependent rickets begin within months after birth, and most are the same for all types of the condition. The weak bones often cause bone pain and delayed growth and have a tendency to fracture. When affected children begin to walk, they may develop abnormally curved (bowed) legs because the bones are too weak to bear weight. Impaired bone development also results in widening of the areas near the ends of bones where new bone forms (metaphyses), especially in the knees, wrists, and ribs. Some people with vitamin D-dependent rickets have dental abnormalities such as thin tooth enamel and frequent cavities. Poor muscle tone (hypotonia) and muscle weakness are also common in this condition, and some affected individuals develop seizures.\n\nIn vitamin D-dependent rickets, there is an imbalance of certain substances in the blood. An early sign in all types of the condition is low levels of the mineral calcium (hypocalcemia), which is essential for the normal formation of bones and teeth. Affected individuals also develop high levels of a hormone involved in regulating calcium levels called parathyroid hormone (PTH), which leads to a condition called secondary hyperparathyroidism. Low levels of a mineral called phosphate (hypophosphatemia) also occur in affected individuals. Vitamin D-dependent rickets types 1 and 2 can be grouped by blood levels of a hormone called calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D; individuals with VDDR1A and VDDR1B have abnormally low levels of calcitriol and individuals with VDDR2A and VDDR2B have abnormally high levels.\n\nHair loss (alopecia) can occur in VDDR2A, although not everyone with this form of the condition has alopecia. Affected individuals can have sparse or patchy hair or no hair at all on their heads. Some affected individuals are missing body hair as well.
Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with alopecia
MedGen UID:
90989
Concept ID:
C0342646
Disease or Syndrome
Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2A (VDDR2A) is caused by a defect in the vitamin D receptor gene. This defect leads to an increase in the circulating ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Most patients have total alopecia in addition to rickets. VDDR2B (600785) is a form of vitamin D-dependent rickets with a phenotype similar to VDDR2A but a normal vitamin D receptor, in which end-organ resistance to vitamin D has been shown to be caused by a nuclear ribonucleoprotein that interferes with the vitamin D receptor-DNA interaction. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of rickets due to disorders in vitamin D metabolism or action, see vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A; 264700).
Dentin dysplasia type I
MedGen UID:
97996
Concept ID:
C0399379
Congenital Abnormality
In dentin dysplasia type I, both primary and secondary dentitions are affected. The color and general morphology of the teeth are usually normal, although they may be slightly opalescent and blue or brown. Teeth may be very mobile and exfoliate spontaneously because of inadequate root formation. On radiographs, the roots are short and may be more pointed than normal. Pulp chambers are usually absent except for a chevron-shaped remnant in the crown (Witkop, 1975). Root canals are usually absent. Periapical radiolucencies may be present at the apices of affected teeth, for reasons unknown. On light microscopic examination of the permanent teeth, the coronal dentin is normal, but further apically becomes irregular, fills the pulp chamber, and has a 'sand-dune' morphology. Scanning electron microscopic studies of the deciduous and permanent teeth have been reported (Sauk et al., 1972; Melnick et al., 1980). Subclassification of Dentin Dysplasia Type I O Carroll et al. (1991) and O Carroll and Duncan (1994) reviewed dentin dysplasia and proposed 4 subtypes of dentin dysplasia type I, which they designated as DD1a-d. In DD1a, there is complete obliteration of pulp chambers and no root development, with many periapical radiolucent areas. In DD1b, there are horizontal crescent-shaped radiolucent pulpal remnants and a few millimeters of root development, with many periapical radiolucent areas. DD1c shows 2 horizontal crescent-shaped radiolucent lines and significant but incomplete root development, with or without periapical radiolucent areas. DD1d is characterized by visible pulp chambers and oval pulp stones in the coronal third of the root canal with bulging of the root around the stones and few if any periapical radiolucent areas. The authors noted that the distinctions between the subtypes of DD1 were primarily useful clinically in terms of treatment options.
Amelocerebrohypohidrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
98036
Concept ID:
C0406740
Disease or Syndrome
Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome (KTZS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay, early-onset intractable seizures, spasticity, and amelogenesis imperfecta affecting both primary and secondary teeth and causing yellow or brown discoloration of the teeth. Although the phenotype is consistent, there is variability. Impaired intellectual development is related to the severity of seizures, and the disorder can thus be considered an epileptic encephalopathy. Some infants show normal development until seizure onset, whereas others are delayed from birth. The most severely affected individuals have profound mental retardation, never acquire speech, and become bedridden early in life (summary by Schossig et al., 2012 and Mory et al., 2012). See also Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome-like (KTZSL; 619229), caused by heterozygous mutation in the SATB1 gene (602075) on chromosome 3p23.
Cranioectodermal dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
96586
Concept ID:
C0432235
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur.
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II
MedGen UID:
96587
Concept ID:
C0432246
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII), the most common form of microcephalic primordial dwarfism, is characterized by extreme short stature and microcephaly along with distinctive facial features. Associated features that differentiate it from other forms of primordial dwarfism and that may necessitate treatment include: abnormal dentition, a slender bone skeletal dysplasia with hip deformity and/or scoliosis, insulin resistance / diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, cardiac malformations, and global vascular disease. The latter includes neurovascular disease such as moyamoya vasculopathy and intracranial aneurysms (which can lead to strokes), coronary artery disease (which can lead to premature myocardial infarctions), and renal vascular disease. Hypertension, which is also common, can have multiple underlying causes given the complex comorbidities.
Lenz-Majewski hyperostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
98483
Concept ID:
C0432269
Congenital Abnormality
Lenz-Majewski hyperostotic dwarfism is a rare condition characterized by intellectual disability, sclerosing bone dysplasia, distinct craniofacial and dental anomalies, loose skin, and distal limb anomalies, particularly brachydactyly and symphalangism. Patients have multiple radiographic abnormalities due to progressive generalized hyperostosis that affects the cranium, vertebrae, and diaphyses of tubular bones, leading to severe growth retardation (summary by Sousa et al., 2014).
Mulibrey nanism syndrome
MedGen UID:
99347
Concept ID:
C0524582
Disease or Syndrome
Mulibrey nanism (MUL) is a rare autosomal recessive growth disorder with prenatal onset, including occasional progressive cardiomyopathy, characteristic facial features, failure of sexual maturation, insulin resistance with type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk for Wilms tumor (summary by Hamalainen et al., 2006).
Cockayne syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
155488
Concept ID:
C0751039
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia).
Oculodentodigital dysplasia
MedGen UID:
167236
Concept ID:
C0812437
Congenital Abnormality
Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) is characterized by a typical facial appearance and variable involvement of the eyes, dentition, and fingers. Characteristic facial features include a narrow, pinched nose with hypoplastic alae nasi, prominent columella and thin anteverted nares together with a narrow nasal bridge, and prominent epicanthic folds giving the impression of hypertelorism. The teeth are usually small and carious. Typical eye findings include microphthalmia and microcornea. The characteristic digital malformation is complete syndactyly of the fourth and fifth fingers (syndactyly type III) but the third finger may be involved and associated camptodactyly is a common finding (summary by Judisch et al., 1979). Neurologic abnormalities are sometimes associated (Gutmann et al., 1991), and lymphedema has been reported in some patients with ODDD (Brice et al., 2013). See review by De Bock et al. (2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Oculodentodigital Syndrome An autosomal recessive form of ODDD (257850) is also caused by mutation in the GJA1 gene, but the majority of cases are autosomal dominant.
Laryngo-onycho-cutaneous syndrome
MedGen UID:
272227
Concept ID:
C1328355
Disease or Syndrome
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa 2C (JEB2C), also known as laryngoonychocutaneous syndrome (LOCS), is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skin erosions, nail dystrophy, dental anomalies, and excessive vascular granulation tissue of the conjunctiva and larynx. Onset is characterized by a hoarse cry soon after birth. Beginning in infancy, chronic skin ulcers and conjunctival lesions appear. Patients may die in childhood secondary to acute or chronic respiratory obstruction. Long-term survivors have visual loss and often require tracheostomy (McLean et al., 2003). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the subtypes of JEB, see JEB1A (226650). Reviews Has et al. (2020) reviewed the clinical and genetic aspects, genotype-phenotype correlations, disease-modifying factors, and natural history of epidermolysis bullosa.
Orofaciodigital syndrome I
MedGen UID:
307142
Concept ID:
C1510460
Disease or Syndrome
Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I (OFD1) is usually male lethal during gestation and predominantly affects females. OFD1 is characterized by the following features: Oral (lobulated tongue, tongue nodules, cleft of the hard or soft palate, accessory gingival frenulae, hypodontia, and other dental abnormalities). Facial (widely spaced eyes or telecanthus, hypoplasia of the alae nasi, median cleft or pseudocleft upper lip, micrognathia). Digital (brachydactyly, syndactyly, clinodactyly of the fifth finger; duplicated hallux [great toe]). Kidney (polycystic kidney disease). Brain (e.g., intracerebral cysts, agenesis of the corpus callosum, cerebellar agenesis with or without Dandy-Walker malformation). Intellectual disability (in ~50% of individuals).
Andersen Tawil syndrome
MedGen UID:
327586
Concept ID:
C1563715
Disease or Syndrome
Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) is characterized by a triad of: episodic flaccid muscle weakness (i.e., periodic paralysis); ventricular arrhythmias and prolonged QT interval; and anomalies including low-set ears, widely spaced eyes, small mandible, fifth-digit clinodactyly, syndactyly, short stature, and scoliosis. Affected individuals present in the first or second decade with either cardiac symptoms (palpitations and/or syncope) or weakness that occurs spontaneously following prolonged rest or following rest after exertion. Mild permanent weakness is common. Mild learning difficulties and a distinct neurocognitive phenotype (i.e., deficits in executive function and abstract reasoning) have been described.
Rapp-Hodgkin ectodermal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
315656
Concept ID:
C1785148
Disease or Syndrome
The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples, and hypospadias. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring, and alopecia, trismus, and excessive freckling.
Otodental syndrome
MedGen UID:
318937
Concept ID:
C1833693
Disease or Syndrome
Otodental syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by grossly enlarged canine and molar teeth (globodontia), associated with sensorineural hearing loss. Ocular coloboma segregating with otodental syndrome has been reported (summary by Gregory-Evans et al., 2007).
CODAS syndrome
MedGen UID:
333031
Concept ID:
C1838180
Disease or Syndrome
CODAS is an acronym for cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular, and skeletal anomalies. CODAS syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by a distinctive constellation of features that includes developmental delay, craniofacial anomalies, cataracts, ptosis, median nasal groove, delayed tooth eruption, hearing loss, short stature, delayed epiphyseal ossification, metaphyseal hip dysplasia, and vertebral coronal clefts (summary by Strauss et al., 2015).
SCARF syndrome
MedGen UID:
326461
Concept ID:
C1839321
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with the association of skeletal abnormalities, cutis laxa, craniostenosis, ambiguous genitalia, psychomotor retardation and facial abnormalities. So far, it has been described in two males (maternal first cousins). The mode of inheritance was suggested to be X-linked recessive.
Neonatal ichthyosis-sclerosing cholangitis syndrome
MedGen UID:
334382
Concept ID:
C1843355
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare complex ichthyosis syndrome with characteristics of scalp hypotrichosis, scarring alopecia, ichthyosis and sclerosing cholangitis. The ichthyosis presents with diffuse white scales sparing the skin folds and is accompanied by scalp hypotrichosis, cicatricial alopecia, and sparse eyelashes/eyebrows. Additional manifestations may include oligodontia, hypodontia and enamel dysplasia. All patients present with neonatal sclerosing cholangitis with jaundice and pruritus, hepatomegaly and biochemical cholestasis. Caused by a mutation in the CLDN1 gene on chromosome 3q28 coding for the tight junction protein claudin-1. Autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.
Amelogenesis imperfecta type 1E
MedGen UID:
336847
Concept ID:
C1845053
Disease or Syndrome
Amelogenesis imperfecta is an inherited defect of dental enamel formation that shows both clinical and genetic heterogeneity. In the hypoplastic type of AI, the enamel is of normal hardness but does not develop to normal thickness. The thinness of the enamel makes the teeth appear small. Radiographically, enamel contrasts normally from dentin. The surface of the enamel can vary, showing smooth, rough, pitted, or local forms (Witkop, 1988).
Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
341339
Concept ID:
C1848934
Disease or Syndrome
The FLNB disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild to severe. At the mild end are spondylocarpotarsal synostosis (SCT) syndrome and Larsen syndrome; at the severe end are the phenotypic continuum of atelosteogenesis types I (AOI) and III (AOIII) and Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD). SCT syndrome is characterized by postnatal disproportionate short stature, scoliosis and lordosis, clubfeet, hearing loss, dental enamel hypoplasia, carpal and tarsal synostosis, and vertebral fusions. Larsen syndrome is characterized by congenital dislocations of the hip, knee, and elbow; clubfeet (equinovarus or equinovalgus foot deformities); scoliosis and cervical kyphosis, which can be associated with a cervical myelopathy; short, broad, spatulate distal phalanges; distinctive craniofacies (prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, malar flattening, and widely spaced eyes); vertebral anomalies; and supernumerary carpal and tarsal bone ossification centers. Individuals with SCT syndrome and Larsen syndrome can have midline cleft palate and hearing loss. AOI and AOIII are characterized by severe short-limbed dwarfism; dislocated hips, knees, and elbows; and clubfeet. AOI is lethal in the perinatal period. In individuals with AOIII, survival beyond the neonatal period is possible with intensive and invasive respiratory support. Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD) is a perinatal-lethal micromelic dwarfism characterized by flipper-like limbs (polysyndactyly with complete syndactyly of all fingers and toes, hypoplastic or absent first digits, and duplicated intermediate and distal phalanges), macrobrachycephaly, prominant forehead, hypertelorism, and exophthalmos. Occasional features include cleft palate, omphalocele, and cardiac and genitourinary anomalies. The radiographic features at mid-gestation are characteristic.
Lethal osteosclerotic bone dysplasia
MedGen UID:
342416
Concept ID:
C1850106
Disease or Syndrome
Raine syndrome (RNS) is a neonatal osteosclerotic bone dysplasia of early and aggressive onset that usually results in death within the first few weeks of life, although there have been some reports of survival into childhood. Radiographic studies show a generalized increase in the density of all bones and a marked increase in the ossification of the skull. The increased ossification of the basal structures of the skull and facial bones underlies the characteristic facial features, which include narrow prominent forehead, proptosis, depressed nasal bridge, and midface hypoplasia. Periosteal bone formation is also characteristic of this disorder and differentiates it from osteopetrosis and other known lethal and nonlethal osteosclerotic bone dysplasias. The periosteal bone formation typically extends along the diaphysis of long bones adjacent to areas of cellular soft tissue (summary by Simpson et al., 2009). Some patients survive infancy (Simpson et al., 2009; Fradin et al., 2011).
Hall-Riggs syndrome
MedGen UID:
341089
Concept ID:
C1856198
Disease or Syndrome
Hall-Riggs syndrome is a very rare syndrome consisting of microcephaly with facial dysmorphism, spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia and severe intellectual deficit.
Cenani-Lenz syndactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
395226
Concept ID:
C1859309
Disease or Syndrome
Cenani-Lenz syndactyly syndrome (CLSS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by mainly by anomalies of distal limb development, with fusion and disorganization of metacarpal and phalangeal bones, radius and ulnar shortening, radioulnar synostosis, and severe syndactyly of hands and feet. Mild facial dysmorphism is present in most patients. Kidney anomalies, including renal agenesis and hypoplasia, occur in over half of patients (summary by Li et al., 2010).
Celiac disease, susceptibility to, 1
MedGen UID:
395227
Concept ID:
C1859310
Finding
Celiac disease is a systemic autoimmune disease that can be associated with gastrointestinal findings (diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain and distension, bloating, vomiting, and weight loss) and/or highly variable non-gastrointestinal findings (dermatitis herpetiformis, chronic fatigue, joint pain/inflammation, iron deficiency anemia, migraines, depression, attention-deficit disorder, epilepsy, osteoporosis/osteopenia, infertility and/or recurrent fetal loss, vitamin deficiencies, short stature, failure to thrive, delayed puberty, dental enamel defects, and autoimmune disorders). Classic celiac disease, characterized by mild to severe gastrointestinal symptoms, is less common than non-classic celiac disease, characterized by absence of gastrointestinal symptoms.
Hypomaturation-hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta with taurodontism
MedGen UID:
350816
Concept ID:
C1863012
Disease or Syndrome
Any amelogenesis imperfecta in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the DLX3 gene.
Craniofacial dysplasia - osteopenia syndrome
MedGen UID:
370148
Concept ID:
C1970027
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic developmental defect during embryogenesis disorder with characteristics of craniofacial dysmorphism (including brachycephaly, prominent forehead, sparse lateral eyebrows, severe hypertelorism, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, protruding ears, broad nasal bridge, pointed nasal tip, flat philtrum, anteverted nostrils, large mouth, thin upper vermilion border, highly arched palate and mild micrognathia) associated with osteopenia leading to repeated long bone fractures, severe myopia, mild to moderate sensorineural or mixed hearing loss, enamel hypoplasia, sloping shoulders and mild intellectual disability. There is evidence the disease can be caused by homozygous mutation in the IRX5 gene on chromosome 16q11.2.
XFE progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
410064
Concept ID:
C1970416
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive condition caused by mutation(s) in the ERCC4 gene, encoding DNA repair endonuclease XPF. it is characterized by characterized by cutaneous photosensitivity and progeroid features in multiple organ systems.
Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
412573
Concept ID:
C2748527
Disease or Syndrome
Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD) is an uncommon genodermatosis characterized by follicular hyperkeratosis, progressive cicatricial alopecia, and photophobia. Most reported cases show X-linked inheritance (KFSDX; 308800) (Castori et al., 2009).
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 5B, with muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
418981
Concept ID:
C2931072
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1C
MedGen UID:
420958
Concept ID:
C2932716
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of GNAS inactivation include the phenotypes pseudohypoparathyroidism Ia, Ib, and Ic (PHP-Ia, -Ib, -Ic), pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP), progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH), and osteoma cutis (OC). PHP-Ia and PHP-Ic are characterized by: End-organ resistance to endocrine hormones including parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins (LH and FSH), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and CNS neurotransmitters (leading to obesity and variable degrees of intellectual disability and developmental delay); and The Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) phenotype (short stature, round facies, and subcutaneous ossifications) and brachydactyly type E (shortening mainly of the 4th and/or 5th metacarpals and metatarsals and distal phalanx of the thumb). Although PHP-Ib is characterized principally by PTH resistance, some individuals also have partial TSH resistance and mild features of AHO (e.g., brachydactyly). PPHP, a more limited form of PHP-Ia, is characterized by various manifestations of the AHO phenotype without the hormone resistance or obesity. POH and OC are even more restricted variants of PPHP: POH consists of dermal ossification beginning in infancy, followed by increasing and extensive bone formation in deep muscle and fascia. OC consists of extra-skeletal ossification that is limited to the dermis and subcutaneous tissues.
Ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
462157
Concept ID:
C3150807
Disease or Syndrome
Ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome (EDSS) is characterized by sparse to absent scalp hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes, hypoplastic nails, tooth enamel hypoplasia, conical-shaped teeth, palmoplantar keratoderma, and partial cutaneous syndactyly (summary by Raza et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Ectodermal Dysplasia-Syndactyly Syndrome Ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome-2 (EDSS2; 613576) maps to chromosome 7p21-p14.
Ectodermal dysplasia-cutaneous syndactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
462159
Concept ID:
C3150809
Disease or Syndrome
Seckel syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
462537
Concept ID:
C3151187
Disease or Syndrome
Seckel syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by proportionate short stature, severe microcephaly, mental retardation, and a typical 'bird-head' facial appearance (summary by Kalay et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Seckel syndrome, see 210600.
Familial cutaneous telangiectasia and oropharyngeal predisposition cancer syndrome
MedGen UID:
482833
Concept ID:
C3281203
Neoplastic Process
Patients with this syndrome develop cutaneous telangiectases in infancy with patchy alopecia over areas of affected skin, thinning of the lateral eyebrows, and mild dental and nail anomalies. Affected individuals are at increased risk of developing oropharyngeal cancer, and other malignancies have been reported as well (Tanaka et al., 2012).
Pseudohypoparathyroidism type I A
MedGen UID:
488447
Concept ID:
C3494506
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of GNAS inactivation include the phenotypes pseudohypoparathyroidism Ia, Ib, and Ic (PHP-Ia, -Ib, -Ic), pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP), progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH), and osteoma cutis (OC). PHP-Ia and PHP-Ic are characterized by: End-organ resistance to endocrine hormones including parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins (LH and FSH), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and CNS neurotransmitters (leading to obesity and variable degrees of intellectual disability and developmental delay); and The Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) phenotype (short stature, round facies, and subcutaneous ossifications) and brachydactyly type E (shortening mainly of the 4th and/or 5th metacarpals and metatarsals and distal phalanx of the thumb). Although PHP-Ib is characterized principally by PTH resistance, some individuals also have partial TSH resistance and mild features of AHO (e.g., brachydactyly). PPHP, a more limited form of PHP-Ia, is characterized by various manifestations of the AHO phenotype without the hormone resistance or obesity. POH and OC are even more restricted variants of PPHP: POH consists of dermal ossification beginning in infancy, followed by increasing and extensive bone formation in deep muscle and fascia. OC consists of extra-skeletal ossification that is limited to the dermis and subcutaneous tissues.
17q11.2 microduplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
501218
Concept ID:
C3495679
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome that has characteristics of dysmorphic features and intellectual deficit. It has been described in seven patients within one family. 17q11.2 microduplication encompasses the NF1 region. The underlying mechanism may be non-allelic homologous recombination. The study of pedigree suggests that this microduplication segregates within the family for at least two generations. Two patients displayed a normal clinical presentation, suggesting an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with incomplete penetrance.
COG6-ongenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
766144
Concept ID:
C3553230
Disease or Syndrome
CDG2L is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder apparent from birth or early infancy. It is characterized by poor growth, gastrointestinal and liver abnormalities, delayed psychomotor development, hypotonia, recurrent infections, hematologic abnormalities, increased bleeding tendency, and hyperhidrosis or hyperkeratosis. More variable features include nonspecific dysmorphic facial features and cardiac septal defects. The disorder often results in death in infancy or the first years of life (summary by Rymen et al., 2015). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066).
Amelogenesis imperfecta hypomaturation type 2A4
MedGen UID:
766744
Concept ID:
C3553830
Disease or Syndrome
Any amelogenesis imperfecta in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ODAPH gene.
SLC35A2-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
813018
Concept ID:
C3806688
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIm, or developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-22 (DEE22), is an X-linked dominant severe neurologic disorder characterized by infantile-onset seizures, hypsarrhythmia on EEG, hypotonia, and developmental delay associated with severe intellectual disability and lack of speech. These features are consistent with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). Brain malformations usually include cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. Additionally, some patients may have dysmorphic features or coarse facies (Ng et al., 2013; Kodera et al., 2013). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Hypohidrosis-enamel hypoplasia-palmoplantar keratoderma-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
815490
Concept ID:
C3809160
Disease or Syndrome
Shaheen syndrome is an autosomal recessive form of syndromic mental retardation. Affected individuals show severe intellectual disability, hypohidrosis, dental enamel hypoplasia, and hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles. Some may develop mild microcephaly (summary by Shaheen et al., 2013).
Amelogenesis imperfecta type 1A
MedGen UID:
859840
Concept ID:
C4011403
Disease or Syndrome
Hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta IA is characterized by enamel that may not develop to normal thickness. The enamel may have pits on the labial or buccal surfaces that are often arranged in rows and columns (see Witkop, 1989).
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 42
MedGen UID:
862780
Concept ID:
C4014343
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic features, spasticity, and brain abnormalities (NEDDSBA) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed global development, with hypotonia, impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech. Most patients have spasticity with limb hypertonia and brisk tendon reflexes. Additional features include nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, structural brain abnormalities, and cortical visual impairment (summary by Bosch et al., 2015). Novarino et al. (2014) labeled the disorder 'spastic paraplegia-67' (SPG67). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Nail and teeth abnormalities-marginal palmoplantar keratoderma-oral hyperpigmentation syndrome
MedGen UID:
863424
Concept ID:
C4014987
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic ectodermal dysplasia syndrome characterized by short stature, nail dystrophy and/or nail loss, oral mucosa and/or tongue hyperpigmentation, dentition abnormalities (delayed teeth eruption, hypodontia, enamel hypoplasia), keratoderma on the margins of the palms and soles and focal hyperkeratosis on the dorsum of the hands and feet. Additionally, dysphagia with esophageal strictures, sensorineural deafness, bronchial asthma and severe iron-deficiency anemia have also been observed.
Amelogenesis imperfecta type 1H
MedGen UID:
863994
Concept ID:
C4015557
Disease or Syndrome
Amelogenesis imperfecta type IH is characterized by hypoplastic and hypomineralized tooth enamel that may be rough, pitted, and/or discolored (Wang et al., 2014 and Poulter et al., 2014).
Amelogenesis imperfecta type 1F
MedGen UID:
898597
Concept ID:
C4225394
Disease or Syndrome
Amelogenesis imperfecta type IF (AI1F) is characterized by hypoplastic enamel of the primary and secondary dentition. The teeth may appear rough and discolored, and the tooth enamel may be absent, pitted, or of varying thickness (Poulter et al. (2014)).
Amelogenesis imperfecta, type 1J
MedGen UID:
934597
Concept ID:
C4310630
Congenital Abnormality
Amelogenesis imperfecta is an inherited defect of dental enamel formation that shows both clinical and genetic heterogeneity. In the hypoplastic type of AI, the enamel is of normal hardness but does not develop to normal thickness. The thinness of the enamel makes the teeth appear small. Radiographically, enamel contrasts normally from dentin. The surface of the enamel can vary, showing smooth, rough, pitted, or local forms (Witkop, 1988).
Bone marrow failure syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
934711
Concept ID:
C4310744
Disease or Syndrome
Bone marrow failure syndrome-3 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of pancytopenia in early childhood. Patients may have additional variable nonspecific somatic abnormalities, including poor growth, microcephaly, and skin anomalies (summary by Tummala et al., 2016). BMFS3 has a distinct phenotype and may include features that overlap with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS1; 260400), such as pancreatic insufficiency and short stature, and with dyskeratosis congenita (see, e.g., DKCA1, 127550), such as dental and hair abnormalities and shortened telomeres. In addition, some patients may have joint and skeletal abnormalities, impaired development, and retinal dysplasia (summary by D'Amours et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of BMFS, see BMFS1 (614675).
Seckel syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1637056
Concept ID:
C4551474
Disease or Syndrome
Seckel syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, dwarfism, microcephaly with mental retardation, and a characteristic 'bird-headed' facial appearance (Shanske et al., 1997). Genetic Heterogeneity of Seckel Syndrome Other forms of Seckel syndrome include SCKL2 (606744), caused by mutation in the RBBP8 gene (604124) on chromosome 18q11; SCKL4 (613676), caused by mutation in the CENPJ gene (609279) on chromosome 13q12; SCKL5 (613823), caused by mutation in the CEP152 gene (613529) on chromosome 15q21; SCKL6 (614728), caused by mutation in the CEP63 gene (614724) on chromosome 3q22; SCKL7 (614851), caused by mutation in the NIN gene (608684) on chromosome 14q22; SCKL8 (615807), caused by mutation in the DNA2 gene (601810) on chromosome 10q21; SCKL9 (616777), caused by mutation in the TRAIP gene (605958) on chromosome 3p21; SCKL10 (617253), caused by mutation in the NSMCE2 gene (617246) on chromosome 8q24; and SCKL11 (620767), caused by mutation in the CEP295 gene (617728) on chromosome 11q21. The report of a Seckel syndrome locus on chromosome 14q, designated SCKL3, by Kilinc et al. (2003) was found to be in error; see History section.
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome due to CREBBP mutations
MedGen UID:
1639327
Concept ID:
C4551859
Disease or Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, short stature, and moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low-hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal, then height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Short stature is typical in adulthood. Obesity may develop in childhood or adolescence. Average IQ ranges between 35 and 50; however, developmental outcome varies considerably. Some individuals with EP300-RSTS have normal intellect. Additional features include ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, respiratory difficulties, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, feeding problems, recurrent infections, and severe constipation.
Heimler syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1647369
Concept ID:
C4551980
Disease or Syndrome
Heimler syndrome-1 (HMLR1), which represents the mildest end of the peroxisomal biogenesis disorder spectrum (see PBD1A, 214100), is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, enamel hyoplasia of the secondary dentition, and nail abnormalities (Ratbi et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Heimler Syndrome Another form of Heimler syndrome (HMLR2; 616617) is caused by mutation in the PEX6 gene (601498) on chromosome 6p21.
Tumoral calcinosis, hyperphosphatemic, familial, 1
MedGen UID:
1642611
Concept ID:
C4692564
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC) is characterized by: Ectopic calcifications (tumoral calcinosis) typically found in periarticular soft tissues exposed to repetitive trauma or prolonged pressure (e.g., hips, elbows, and shoulders); and Painful swellings (referred to as hyperostosis) in the areas overlying the diaphyses of the tibiae (and less often the ulna, metacarpal bones, and radius). The dental phenotype unique to HFTC includes enamel hypoplasia, short and bulbous roots, obliteration of pulp chambers and canals, and pulp stones. Less common are large and small vessel calcifications that are often asymptomatic incidental findings on radiologic studies but can also cause peripheral vascular insufficiency (e.g., pain, cold extremities, and decreased peripheral pulses). Less frequently reported findings include testicular microlithiasis and angioid streaks of the retina.
Hypotonia, ataxia, developmental delay, and tooth enamel defect syndrome
MedGen UID:
1647427
Concept ID:
C4693578
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant condition caused by mutations(s) in the CTBP1 gene, encoding C-terminal-binding protein 1. It is characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, developmental delay, and tooth enamel defects.
Snijders Blok-Campeau syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648495
Concept ID:
C4748701
Disease or Syndrome
Snijders Blok-Campeau syndrome (SNIBCPS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and delayed speech acquisition. Affected individuals tend to have expressive language deficits, with speech apraxia and dysarthria. Other features include macrocephaly and characteristic facial features, such as prominent forehead and hypertelorism, hypotonia, and joint laxity. The severity of the neurologic deficits and presence of nonneurologic features is variable (summary by Snijders Blok et al., 2018).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
1675829
Concept ID:
C5193045
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome-8 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired psychomotor development, poor overall growth with microcephaly, and early-onset progressive nephrotic syndrome associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on renal biopsy. Some patients may have seizures, and some may die in childhood (summary by Fujita et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Short stature, amelogenesis imperfecta, and skeletal dysplasia with scoliosis
MedGen UID:
1676818
Concept ID:
C5193055
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature, amelogenesis imperfecta, and skeletal dysplasia with scoliosis (SSASKS)is characterized by disproportionate short stature, defective tooth enamel formation, and skeletal dysplasia with severe scoliosis in some patients. Variable features include facial dysmorphism, moderate hearing impairment, and mildly impaired intellectual development (Ashikov et al., 2018).
Ectodermal dysplasia with facial dysmorphism and acral, ocular, and brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684719
Concept ID:
C5231477
Disease or Syndrome
EDFAOB is characterized by linear hypopigmentation and craniofacial asymmetry in association with ocular, dental, and acral anomalies. Brain imaging has revealed some abnormalities, including diffuse cystic leukoencephalopathy and mildly enlarged lateral ventricles, but patients show no intellectual or neurologic impairment (Vabres et al., 2019).
Blepharophimosis-impaired intellectual development syndrome
MedGen UID:
1779966
Concept ID:
C5443984
Disease or Syndrome
Blepharophimosis-impaired intellectual development syndrome (BIS) is a congenital disorder characterized by a distinct facial appearance with blepharophimosis and global development delay. Affected individuals have delayed motor skills, sometimes with inability to walk, and impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech; some patients show behavioral abnormalities. There are recognizable facial features, including epicanthal folds, sparse eyebrows, broad nasal bridge, short nose with downturned tip, and open mouth with thin upper lip. Other more variable features include distal skeletal anomalies, feeding difficulties with poor growth, respiratory infections, and hypotonia with peripheral spasticity (summary by Cappuccio et al., 2020).
Short stature, facial dysmorphism, and skeletal anomalies with or without cardiac anomalies 2
MedGen UID:
1782253
Concept ID:
C5543057
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature, facial dysmorphism, and skeletal anomalies with or without cardiac anomalies-2 (SSFSC2) is characterized by thin and short long bones, distinctive facial dysmorphism, and dental and skeletal abnormalities, in the absence of developmental delay or intellectual disability. Cardiac anomalies have been reported in some patients (Lin et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of SSFSC, see SSFSC1 (617877).
Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome-like
MedGen UID:
1781649
Concept ID:
C5543202
Disease or Syndrome
Den Hoed-de Boer-Voisin syndrome (DHDBV) is characterized by global developmental delay with moderately to severely impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and delayed motor skills. Although the severity of the disorder varies, many patients are nonverbal and have hypotonia with inability to sit or walk. Early-onset epilepsy is common and may be refractory to treatment, leading to epileptic encephalopathy and further interruption of developmental progress. Most patients have feeding difficulties with poor overall growth and dysmorphic facial features, as well as significant dental anomalies resembling amelogenesis imperfecta. The phenotype is reminiscent of Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome (KTZS; 226750). More variable features of DHDBV include visual defects, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific involvement of other organ systems (summary by den Hoed et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1794184
Concept ID:
C5561974
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies (NEDHYDF) is characterized by global developmental delay and hypotonia apparent from birth. Affected individuals have variably impaired intellectual development, often with speech delay and delayed walking. Seizures are generally not observed, although some patients may have single seizures or late-onset epilepsy. Most patients have prominent dysmorphic facial features. Additional features may include congenital cardiac defects (without arrhythmia), nonspecific renal anomalies, joint contractures or joint hyperextensibility, dry skin, and cryptorchidism. There is significant phenotypic variability in both the neurologic and extraneurologic manifestations (summary by Tan et al., 2022).
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia
MedGen UID:
1810975
Concept ID:
C5676875
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia (EB-PA) is characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes, manifested by blistering with little or no trauma; congenital pyloric atresia; and ureteral and renal anomalies (dysplastic/multicystic kidney, hydronephrosis/hydroureter, ureterocele, duplicated renal collecting system, absent bladder). The course of EB-PA is usually severe and often lethal in the neonatal period. Most affected children succumb as neonates; those who survive may have severe blistering with formation of granulation tissue on the skin around the mouth, nose, fingers, and toes, and internally around the trachea. However, some affected individuals have little or no blistering later in life. Additional features shared by EB-PA and the other major forms of EB include congenital localized absence of skin (aplasia cutis congenita) affecting the extremities and/or head, milia, nail dystrophy, scarring alopecia, hypotrichosis, contractures, and dilated cardiomyopathy.
Knobloch syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1812153
Concept ID:
C5676897
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 100
MedGen UID:
1809351
Concept ID:
C5676932
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-100 (DEE100) is a severe neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay and onset of variable types of seizures in the first months or years of life. Most patients have refractory seizures and show developmental regression after seizure onset. Affected individuals have ataxic gait or inability to walk and severe to profoundly impaired intellectual development, often with absent speech. Additional more variable features may include axial hypotonia, hyperkinetic movements, dysmorphic facial features, and brain imaging abnormalities (summary by Schneider et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Gastrointestinal defects and immunodeficiency syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1806192
Concept ID:
C5680044
Disease or Syndrome
Gastrointestinal defects and immunodeficiency syndrome-1 (GIDID1) is characterized by multiple intestinal atresia, in which atresia occurs at various levels throughout the small and large intestines. Surgical outcomes are poor, and the condition is usually fatal within the first month of life. Some patients exhibit inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with or without intestinal atresia, and in some cases, the intestinal features are associated with either mild or severe combined immunodeficiency (Samuels et al., 2013; Avitzur et al., 2014; Lemoine et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of GIDID See also GIDID2 (619708), caused by mutation in the PI4KA gene (600286) on chromosome 22q11.
Braddock-carey syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1823961
Concept ID:
C5774188
Disease or Syndrome
Braddock-Carey syndrome (BRDCS) is characterized by Pierre-Robin sequence, persistent congenital thrombocytopenia, agenesis of the corpus callosum, severe developmental delay, microcephaly, high forehead, sparse curly hair, downslanting palpebral fissures, telecanthus, inverted U-shaped upper vermilion, enamel hypoplasia, large posteriorly rotated ears, clinodactyly, and camptodactyly (Braddock et al., 2016). Genetic Heterogeneity of Braddock-Carey Syndrome BRDCS2 (619981) is caused by mutation in the KIF15 gene (617569) on chromosome 3p21.
Amelogenesis imperfecta, IIa 1K
MedGen UID:
1824019
Concept ID:
C5774246
Disease or Syndrome
Amelogenesis imperfecta type 1K (AI1K) is characterized by hypoplastic enamel of all teeth. In some individuals, the pulp chambers may be enlarged and some molars may exhibit taurodontism (summary by Kim et al., 2021).
Lacrimoauriculodentodigital syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1824060
Concept ID:
C5774287
Disease or Syndrome
Lacrimoauriculodentodigital syndrome-3 (LADD3) is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder characterized by aplasia, atresia or hypoplasia of the lacrimal and salivary systems, cup-shaped ears, hearing loss, and dental and digital anomalies (summary by Milunsky et al., 2006).
LADD syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1824096
Concept ID:
C5774323
Disease or Syndrome
Lacrimoauriculodentodigital syndrome-1 (LADD1) is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder mainly affecting lacrimal glands and ducts, salivary glands and ducts, ears, teeth, and distal limb segments (summary by Rohmann et al., 2006). Genetic Heterogeneity of Lacrimoauriculodentodigital Syndrome LADD syndrome-2 (LADD2; 620192) is caused by mutation in the FGFR3 gene (134934) on chromosome 4p16, and LADD syndrome-3 (LADD3; 620193) is caused by mutation in the FGF10 gene, an FGFR ligand, on chromosome 5p12.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Seow WK
Aust Dent J 2014 Jun;59 Suppl 1:143-54. Epub 2013 Oct 27 doi: 10.1111/adj.12104. PMID: 24164394
Salanitri S, Seow WK
Aust Dent J 2013 Jun;58(2):133-40; quiz 266. Epub 2013 May 5 doi: 10.1111/adj.12039. PMID: 23713631
Seow WK
Int Dent J 1997 Jun;47(3):173-82. doi: 10.1002/j.1875-595x.1997.tb00783.x. PMID: 9448804

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Lygidakis NA, Garot E, Somani C, Taylor GD, Rouas P, Wong FSL
Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2022 Feb;23(1):3-21. Epub 2021 Oct 20 doi: 10.1007/s40368-021-00668-5. PMID: 34669177Free PMC Article
Seow WK
Pediatr Clin North Am 2018 Oct;65(5):941-954. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2018.05.004. PMID: 30213355
Seow WK
Aust Dent J 2014 Jun;59 Suppl 1:143-54. Epub 2013 Oct 27 doi: 10.1111/adj.12104. PMID: 24164394
Salanitri S, Seow WK
Aust Dent J 2013 Jun;58(2):133-40; quiz 266. Epub 2013 May 5 doi: 10.1111/adj.12039. PMID: 23713631
Taji S, Seow WK
Aust Dent J 2010 Dec;55(4):358-67; quiz 475. doi: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2010.01255.x. PMID: 21133936

Diagnosis

Rodd HD, Graham A, Tajmehr N, Timms L, Hasmun N
Int Dent J 2021 Aug;71(4):285-291. Epub 2021 Jan 27 doi: 10.1111/idj.12624. PMID: 34286697Free PMC Article
Bandeira Lopes L, Machado V, Botelho J, Haubek D
Acta Odontol Scand 2021 Jul;79(5):359-369. Epub 2021 Feb 1 doi: 10.1080/00016357.2020.1863461. PMID: 33524270
Seow WK
Aust Dent J 2014 Jun;59 Suppl 1:143-54. Epub 2013 Oct 27 doi: 10.1111/adj.12104. PMID: 24164394
Taji S, Seow WK
Aust Dent J 2010 Dec;55(4):358-67; quiz 475. doi: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2010.01255.x. PMID: 21133936
Rodríguez-Caballero A, Torres-Lagares D, Rodríguez-Pérez A, Serrera-Figallo MA, Hernández-Guisado JM, Machuca-Portillo G
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2010 May 1;15(3):e473-8. doi: 10.4317/medoral.15.e473. PMID: 20038906

Therapy

Qian S, Kumar P, Testai FD
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2022 Jul;22(7):343-353. Epub 2022 May 19 doi: 10.1007/s11910-022-01204-8. PMID: 35588044
Ballikaya E, Ünverdi GE, Cehreli ZC
Clin Oral Investig 2022 Feb;26(2):2197-2205. Epub 2021 Nov 6 doi: 10.1007/s00784-021-04236-5. PMID: 34743243Free PMC Article
Lygidakis NA, Garot E, Somani C, Taylor GD, Rouas P, Wong FSL
Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2022 Feb;23(1):3-21. Epub 2021 Oct 20 doi: 10.1007/s40368-021-00668-5. PMID: 34669177Free PMC Article
Bezamat M, Souza JF, Silva FMF, Corrêa EG, Fatturi AL, Brancher JA, Carvalho FM, Cavallari T, Bertolazo L, Machado-Souza C, Koruyucu M, Bayram M, Racic A, Harrison BM, Sweat YY, Letra A, Studen-Pavlovich D, Seymen F, Amendt B, Werneck RI, Costa MC, Modesto A, Vieira AR
PLoS One 2021;16(1):e0241898. Epub 2021 Jan 6 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241898. PMID: 33406080Free PMC Article
Taji S, Seow WK
Aust Dent J 2010 Dec;55(4):358-67; quiz 475. doi: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2010.01255.x. PMID: 21133936

Prognosis

Bandeira Lopes L, Machado V, Botelho J, Haubek D
Acta Odontol Scand 2021 Jul;79(5):359-369. Epub 2021 Feb 1 doi: 10.1080/00016357.2020.1863461. PMID: 33524270
Yates TM, Drucker M, Barnicoat A, Low K, Gerkes EH, Fry AE, Parker MJ, O'Driscoll M, Charles P, Cox H, Marey I, Keren B, Rinne T, McEntagart M, Ramachandran V, Drury S, Vansenne F, Sival DA, Herkert JC, Callewaert B, Tan WH, Balasubramanian M
Hum Mutat 2020 May;41(5):1042-1050. Epub 2020 Mar 5 doi: 10.1002/humu.24001. PMID: 32097528
Rao MH, Aluru SC, Jayam C, Bandlapalli A, Patel N
J Contemp Dent Pract 2016 Jul 1;17(7):609-13. PMID: 27595731
Mathrawala NR, Hegde RJ
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2011 Apr-Jun;29(2):168-70. doi: 10.4103/0970-4388.84693. PMID: 21911959
Rodríguez-Caballero A, Torres-Lagares D, Rodríguez-Pérez A, Serrera-Figallo MA, Hernández-Guisado JM, Machuca-Portillo G
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2010 May 1;15(3):e473-8. doi: 10.4317/medoral.15.e473. PMID: 20038906

Clinical prediction guides

Qian S, Kumar P, Testai FD
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2022 Jul;22(7):343-353. Epub 2022 May 19 doi: 10.1007/s11910-022-01204-8. PMID: 35588044
Ballikaya E, Ünverdi GE, Cehreli ZC
Clin Oral Investig 2022 Feb;26(2):2197-2205. Epub 2021 Nov 6 doi: 10.1007/s00784-021-04236-5. PMID: 34743243Free PMC Article
Lopes LB, Machado V, Mascarenhas P, Mendes JJ, Botelho J
Sci Rep 2021 Nov 17;11(1):22405. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-01541-7. PMID: 34789780Free PMC Article
Bandeira Lopes L, Machado V, Botelho J, Haubek D
Acta Odontol Scand 2021 Jul;79(5):359-369. Epub 2021 Feb 1 doi: 10.1080/00016357.2020.1863461. PMID: 33524270
Elhennawy K, Schwendicke F
J Dent 2016 Dec;55:16-24. Epub 2016 Sep 28 doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2016.09.012. PMID: 27693779

Recent systematic reviews

Jiménez ADP, Mora VSA, Dávila M, Montesinos-Guevara C
J Clin Pediatr Dent 2023 Jul;47(4):9-15. Epub 2023 Jul 3 doi: 10.22514/jocpd.2023.030. PMID: 37408341
Lopes LB, Machado V, Mascarenhas P, Mendes JJ, Botelho J
Sci Rep 2021 Nov 17;11(1):22405. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-01541-7. PMID: 34789780Free PMC Article
da Cunha Coelho ASE, Mata PCM, Lino CA, Macho VMP, Areias CMFGP, Norton APMAP, Augusto APCM
J Esthet Restor Dent 2019 Jan;31(1):26-39. Epub 2018 Oct 4 doi: 10.1111/jerd.12420. PMID: 30284749
Elhennawy K, Schwendicke F
J Dent 2016 Dec;55:16-24. Epub 2016 Sep 28 doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2016.09.012. PMID: 27693779
Silva MJ, Scurrah KJ, Craig JM, Manton DJ, Kilpatrick N
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2016 Aug;44(4):342-53. Epub 2016 Apr 28 doi: 10.1111/cdoe.12229. PMID: 27121068

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