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Intracerebral periventricular calcifications

MedGen UID:
373287
Concept ID:
C1837246
Finding
HPO: HP:0007229

Definition

The presence of calcium deposition in the cerebral white matter surrounding the cerebral ventricles. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • Intracerebral periventricular calcifications

Conditions with this feature

Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
162912
Concept ID:
C0796126
Disease or Syndrome
Most characteristically, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) manifests as an early-onset encephalopathy that usually, but not always, results in severe intellectual and physical disability. A subgroup of infants with AGS present at birth with abnormal neurologic findings, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia, a picture highly suggestive of congenital infection. Otherwise, most affected infants present at variable times after the first few weeks of life, frequently after a period of apparently normal development. Typically, they demonstrate the subacute onset of a severe encephalopathy characterized by extreme irritability, intermittent sterile pyrexias, loss of skills, and slowing of head growth. Over time, as many as 40% develop chilblain skin lesions on the fingers, toes, and ears. It is becoming apparent that atypical, sometimes milder, cases of AGS exist, and thus the true extent of the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the AGS-related genes is not yet known.
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase II deficiency, neonatal form
MedGen UID:
318896
Concept ID:
C1833518
Disease or Syndrome
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is a disorder of long-chain fatty-acid oxidation. The three clinical presentations are lethal neonatal form, severe infantile hepatocardiomuscular form, and myopathic form (which is usually mild and can manifest from infancy to adulthood). While the former two are severe multisystemic diseases characterized by liver failure with hypoketotic hypoglycemia, cardiomyopathy, seizures, and early death, the latter is characterized by exercise-induced muscle pain and weakness, sometimes associated with myoglobinuria. The myopathic form of CPT II deficiency is the most common disorder of lipid metabolism affecting skeletal muscle and the most frequent cause of hereditary myoglobinuria. Males are more likely to be affected than females.
Hereditary cryohydrocytosis with reduced stomatin
MedGen UID:
332390
Concept ID:
C1837206
Disease or Syndrome
Stomatin-deficient cryohydrocytosis with neurologic defects is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, seizures, cataracts, and pseudohyperkalemia resulting from defects in the red blood cell membrane. The disorder combines the neurologic features of Glut1 deficiency syndrome-1 (GLUT1DS1; 606777), resulting from impaired glucose transport at the blood-brain barrier, and hemolytic anemia/pseudohyperkalemia with stomatocytosis, resulting from a cation leak in erythrocytes (summary by Bawazir et al., 2012). For a discussion of clinical and genetic heterogeneity of red cell stomatocyte disorders, see 194380.
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
413116
Concept ID:
C2749659
Disease or Syndrome
Most characteristically, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) manifests as an early-onset encephalopathy that usually, but not always, results in severe intellectual and physical disability. A subgroup of infants with AGS present at birth with abnormal neurologic findings, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia, a picture highly suggestive of congenital infection. Otherwise, most affected infants present at variable times after the first few weeks of life, frequently after a period of apparently normal development. Typically, they demonstrate the subacute onset of a severe encephalopathy characterized by extreme irritability, intermittent sterile pyrexias, loss of skills, and slowing of head growth. Over time, as many as 40% develop chilblain skin lesions on the fingers, toes, and ears. It is becoming apparent that atypical, sometimes milder, cases of AGS exist, and thus the true extent of the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the AGS-related genes is not yet known.
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
854829
Concept ID:
C3888244
Disease or Syndrome
Most characteristically, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) manifests as an early-onset encephalopathy that usually, but not always, results in severe intellectual and physical disability. A subgroup of infants with AGS present at birth with abnormal neurologic findings, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia, a picture highly suggestive of congenital infection. Otherwise, most affected infants present at variable times after the first few weeks of life, frequently after a period of apparently normal development. Typically, they demonstrate the subacute onset of a severe encephalopathy characterized by extreme irritability, intermittent sterile pyrexias, loss of skills, and slowing of head growth. Over time, as many as 40% develop chilblain skin lesions on the fingers, toes, and ears. It is becoming apparent that atypical, sometimes milder, cases of AGS exist, and thus the true extent of the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the AGS-related genes is not yet known.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with intracranial hemorrhage, seizures, and spasticity
MedGen UID:
1841145
Concept ID:
C5830509
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with intracranial hemorrhage, seizures, and spasticity (NEDIHSS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by prenatal or neonatal onset of intracranial hemorrhage, usually with ventriculomegaly and calcifications, resulting in parenchymal brain damage. Some affected individuals have symptoms incompatible with life and die in utero. Those that survive show profound global developmental delay with almost no motor or cognitive skills, hypotonia, spasticity, and seizures. Other features may include facial dysmorphism, retinal vascular abnormalities, and poor overall growth. The pathogenesis of the disease likely results from dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells in the brain (Lecca et al., 2023).

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Pavlovsky S, Fisman N, Arizaga R, Castaño J, Chamoles N, Leiguarda R, Moreno R
Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1983 Spring;5(1):79-86. PMID: 6574715

Diagnosis

Nicita F, Aiello C, Carboni A, Longo D, Bertini E, Travaglini L
Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2023 Feb;225:107584. Epub 2022 Dec 31 doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2022.107584. PMID: 36603335
Jones KM, Silfvast-Kaiser A, Leake DR, Diaz LZ, Levy ML
Pediatr Dermatol 2017 Sep;34(5):e249-e253. doi: 10.1111/pde.13239. PMID: 28884918
Halder A, Panigrahi I, Pal L
Indian Pediatr 2003 May;40(5):418-23. PMID: 12768045

Therapy

Pavlovsky S, Fisman N, Arizaga R, Castaño J, Chamoles N, Leiguarda R, Moreno R
Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1983 Spring;5(1):79-86. PMID: 6574715

Prognosis

Baertling F, Haack TB, Rodenburg RJ, Schaper J, Seibt A, Strom TM, Meitinger T, Mayatepek E, Hadzik B, Selcan G, Prokisch H, Distelmaier F
Neurogenetics 2015 Jul;16(3):237-40. Epub 2015 Feb 10 doi: 10.1007/s10048-015-0440-6. PMID: 25663021
Halder A, Panigrahi I, Pal L
Indian Pediatr 2003 May;40(5):418-23. PMID: 12768045

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