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Sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis(SANDO)

MedGen UID:
375302
Concept ID:
C1843851
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: C10orf2-Related Ataxia Neuropathy Spectrum Disorders; Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic, type 5; POLG-Related Ataxia Neuropathy Spectrum Disorders; SANDO; SENSORY ATAXIC NEUROPATHY WITH MITOCHONDRIAL DNA DELETIONS, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE; Sensory ataxic neuropathy-dysarthria-ophthalmoparesis syndrome
SNOMED CT: Sensory ataxic neuropathy with dysarthria and ophthalmoparesis syndrome (717266001); SANDO (sensory ataxic neuropathy dysarthria ophthalmoparesis) syndrome (717266001)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Genes (locations): POLG (15q26.1); TWNK (10q24.31)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0011835
OMIM®: 607459
Orphanet: ORPHA70595

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: POLG-Related Disorders
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+"). [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Bruce H Cohen  |  Patrick F Chinnery  |  William C Copeland   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
SANDO is an autosomal recessive systemic disorder characterized mainly by adult onset of sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis (SANDO) resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction and associated with mtDNA depletion in skeletal muscle and peripheral nerve tissue (Fadic et al., 1997). The phenotype varies widely, even within the same family, and can include myopathy, seizures, and hearing loss, but the common clinical feature appears to be sensory ataxia (review by Milone and Massie, 2010). Spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE) is a similar disorder with a higher frequency of migraine headaches and seizures (Winterthun et al., 2005).  http://www.omim.org/entry/607459
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Ataxia neuropathy spectrum is part of a group of conditions called the POLG-related disorders. The conditions in this group feature a range of similar signs and symptoms involving muscle-, nerve-, and brain-related functions. Ataxia neuropathy spectrum now includes the conditions previously called mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO).

As the name implies, people with ataxia neuropathy spectrum typically have problems with coordination and balance (ataxia) and disturbances in nerve function (neuropathy). The neuropathy can be classified as sensory, motor, or a combination of the two (mixed). Sensory neuropathy causes numbness, tingling, or pain in the arms and legs, and motor neuropathy refers to disturbance in the nerves used for muscle movement.

Most people with ataxia neuropathy spectrum also have severe brain dysfunction (encephalopathy) and seizures. Some affected individuals have weakness of the external muscles of the eye (ophthalmoplegia), which leads to drooping eyelids (ptosis). Other signs and symptoms can include involuntary muscle twitches (myoclonus), liver disease, depression, migraine headaches, or blindness.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/ataxia-neuropathy-spectrum

Clinical features

From HPO
Exercise intolerance
MedGen UID:
603270
Concept ID:
C0424551
Finding
A functional motor deficit where individuals whose responses to the challenges of exercise fail to achieve levels considered normal for their age and gender.
Scapular winging
MedGen UID:
66822
Concept ID:
C0240953
Anatomical Abnormality
Abnormal protrusion of the scapula away from the surface of the back.
Absent Achilles reflex
MedGen UID:
108240
Concept ID:
C0558845
Finding
Absence of the Achilles reflex (also known as the ankle jerk reflex), which can normally be elicited by tapping the tendon is tapped while the foot is dorsiflexed.
Pes cavus
MedGen UID:
675590
Concept ID:
C0728829
Congenital Abnormality
An increase in height of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot that does not flatten on weight bearing (i.e., a distinctly hollow form of the sole of the foot when it is bearing weight).
Primary dilated cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
2880
Concept ID:
C0007193
Disease or Syndrome
Familial dilated cardiomyopathy is a genetic form of heart disease. It occurs when heart (cardiac) muscle becomes thin and weakened in at least one chamber of the heart, causing the open area of the chamber to become enlarged (dilated). As a result, the heart is unable to pump blood as efficiently as usual. To compensate, the heart attempts to increase the amount of blood being pumped through the heart, leading to further thinning and weakening of the cardiac muscle. Over time, this condition results in heart failure.\n\nIt usually takes many years for symptoms of familial dilated cardiomyopathy to cause health problems. They typically begin in mid-adulthood, but can occur at any time from infancy to late adulthood. Signs and symptoms of familial dilated cardiomyopathy can include an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia), shortness of breath (dyspnea), extreme tiredness (fatigue), fainting episodes (syncope), and swelling of the legs and feet. In some cases, the first sign of the disorder is sudden cardiac death. The severity of the condition varies among affected individuals, even in members of the same family.
Mitral regurgitation
MedGen UID:
7670
Concept ID:
C0026266
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the mitral valve characterized by insufficiency or incompetence of the mitral valve resulting in retrograde leaking of blood through the mitral valve upon ventricular contraction.
Mitral valve prolapse
MedGen UID:
7671
Concept ID:
C0026267
Disease or Syndrome
One or both of the leaflets (cusps) of the mitral valve bulges back into the left atrium upon contraction of the left ventricle.
Weight loss
MedGen UID:
853198
Concept ID:
C1262477
Finding
Reduction of total body weight.
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
Difficulty in swallowing.
Intestinal pseudo-obstruction
MedGen UID:
5864
Concept ID:
C0021847
Disease or Syndrome
A functional rather than mechanical obstruction of the intestines, associated with manifestations that resemble those caused by an intestinal obstruction, including distension, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea, in an individual in whom a mechanical blockage has been excluded.
Gastroparesis
MedGen UID:
101809
Concept ID:
C0152020
Disease or Syndrome
Decreased strength of the muscle layer of stomach, which leads to a decreased ability to empty the contents of the stomach despite the absence of obstruction.
Sensorineural hearing loss disorder
MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve.
Abnormal vestibular function
MedGen UID:
334848
Concept ID:
C1843865
Finding
An abnormality of the functioning of the vestibular apparatus.
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Depression
MedGen UID:
4229
Concept ID:
C0011581
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Frequently experiencing feelings of being down, miserable, and/or hopeless; struggling to recover from these moods; having a pessimistic outlook on the future; feeling a pervasive sense of shame; having a low self-worth; experiencing thoughts of suicide and engaging in suicidal behavior.
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Hypoesthesia
MedGen UID:
6974
Concept ID:
C0020580
Finding
Decreased ability to perceive touch.
Myoclonus
MedGen UID:
10234
Concept ID:
C0027066
Finding
Very brief, involuntary random muscular contractions occurring at rest, in response to sensory stimuli, or accompanying voluntary movements.
Babinski sign
MedGen UID:
19708
Concept ID:
C0034935
Finding
Upturning of the big toe (and sometimes fanning of the other toes) in response to stimulation of the sole of the foot. If the Babinski sign is present it can indicate damage to the corticospinal tract.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Emotional lability
MedGen UID:
39319
Concept ID:
C0085633
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Unstable emotional experiences and frequent mood changes; emotions that are easily aroused, intense, and/or disproportionate to events and circumstances.
Migraine
MedGen UID:
57451
Concept ID:
C0149931
Disease or Syndrome
Migraine is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by episodic attacks of headache and associated symptoms.
Muscle fibrillation
MedGen UID:
65418
Concept ID:
C0231531
Finding
Fine, rapid twitching of individual muscle fibers with little or no movement of the muscle as a whole. If a motor neuron or its axon is destroyed, the muscle fibers it innervates undergo denervation atrophy. This leads to hypersensitivity of individual muscle fibers to acetyl choline so that they may contract spontaneously. Isolated activity of individual muscle fibers is generally so fine it cannot be seen through the intact skin, although it can be recorded as a short-duration spike in the EMG.
Areflexia
MedGen UID:
115943
Concept ID:
C0234146
Finding
Absence of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Dysmetria
MedGen UID:
68583
Concept ID:
C0234162
Finding
A type of ataxia characterized by the inability to carry out movements with the correct range and motion across the plane of more than one joint related to incorrect estimation of the distances required for targeted movements.
Diminished ability to concentrate
MedGen UID:
65900
Concept ID:
C0235198
Finding
Being unable to focus one's attention or mental effort on a particular object or activity.
Positive Romberg sign
MedGen UID:
66017
Concept ID:
C0240914
Finding
The patient stands with the feet placed together and balance and is asked to close his or her eyes. A loss of balance upon eye closure is a positive Romberg sign and is interpreted as indicating a deficit in proprioception.
Sensory ataxia
MedGen UID:
66020
Concept ID:
C0240991
Sign or Symptom
Incoordination of movement caused by a deficit in the sensory nervous system. Sensory ataxia can be distinguished from cerebellar ataxia by asking the patient to close his or her eyes. Persons with cerebellar ataxia show only a minimal worsening of symptoms, whereas persons with sensory ataxia show a marked worsening of symptoms.
Cognitive impairment
MedGen UID:
90932
Concept ID:
C0338656
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Abnormal cognition is characterized by deficits in thinking, reasoning, or remembering.
Dementia
MedGen UID:
99229
Concept ID:
C0497327
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A loss of global cognitive ability of sufficient amount to interfere with normal social or occupational function. Dementia represents a loss of previously present cognitive abilities, generally in adults, and can affect memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior.
Hyporeflexia
MedGen UID:
195967
Concept ID:
C0700078
Finding
Reduction of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Gait ataxia
MedGen UID:
155642
Concept ID:
C0751837
Sign or Symptom
A type of ataxia characterized by the impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal walking. Gait ataxia is characteirzed by a wide-based staggering gait with a tendency to fall.
Broad-based gait
MedGen UID:
167799
Concept ID:
C0856863
Finding
An abnormal gait pattern in which persons stand and walk with their feet spaced widely apart. This is often a component of cerebellar ataxia.
Peripheral axonal neuropathy
MedGen UID:
266071
Concept ID:
C1263857
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality characterized by disruption of the normal functioning of peripheral axons.
Sensory axonal neuropathy
MedGen UID:
334116
Concept ID:
C1842587
Finding
An axonal neuropathy of peripheral sensory nerves.
Atrophy/Degeneration involving the spinal cord
MedGen UID:
375304
Concept ID:
C1843858
Finding
Sensory ataxic neuropathy
MedGen UID:
336060
Concept ID:
C1843859
Finding
Progressive gait ataxia
MedGen UID:
375309
Concept ID:
C1843885
Finding
A type of gait ataxia displaying progression of clinical severity.
Impaired distal vibration sensation
MedGen UID:
381262
Concept ID:
C1853767
Finding
A decrease in the ability to perceive vibration in the distal portions of the limbs.
Impaired distal tactile sensation
MedGen UID:
867225
Concept ID:
C4021583
Finding
A reduced sense of touch (tactile sensation) on the skin of the distal limbs. This is usually tested with a wisp of cotton or a fine camel's hair brush, by asking patients to say 'now' each time they feel the stimulus.
Impaired distal proprioception
MedGen UID:
867227
Concept ID:
C4021585
Finding
A loss or impairment of the sensation of the relative position of parts of the body and joint position occuring at distal joints.
Myopathy
MedGen UID:
10135
Concept ID:
C0026848
Disease or Syndrome
A disorder of muscle unrelated to impairment of innervation or neuromuscular junction.
Muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
57735
Concept ID:
C0151786
Finding
Reduced strength of muscles.
Proximal muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
113169
Concept ID:
C0221629
Finding
A lack of strength of the proximal muscles.
Difficulty climbing stairs
MedGen UID:
68676
Concept ID:
C0239067
Finding
Reduced ability to climb stairs.
Weakness of facial musculature
MedGen UID:
98103
Concept ID:
C0427055
Disease or Syndrome
Reduced strength of one or more muscles innervated by the facial nerve (the seventh cranial nerve).
Distal muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
140883
Concept ID:
C0427065
Finding
Reduced strength of the musculature of the distal extremities.
Muscular atrophy
MedGen UID:
892680
Concept ID:
C0541794
Pathologic Function
The presence of skeletal muscular atrophy (which is also known as amyotrophy).
Generalized muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
155433
Concept ID:
C0746674
Sign or Symptom
Generalized weakness or decreased strength of the muscles, affecting both distal and proximal musculature.
Frequent falls
MedGen UID:
163408
Concept ID:
C0850703
Finding
Generalized amyotrophy
MedGen UID:
234650
Concept ID:
C1389113
Disease or Syndrome
Generalized (diffuse, unlocalized) amyotrophy (muscle atrophy) affecting multiple muscles.
Centrally nucleated skeletal muscle fibers
MedGen UID:
330782
Concept ID:
C1842170
Finding
An abnormality in which the nuclei of sarcomeres take on an abnormally central localization (or in which this feature is found in an increased proportion of muscle cells).
Increased variability in muscle fiber diameter
MedGen UID:
336019
Concept ID:
C1843700
Finding
An abnormally high degree of muscle fiber size variation. This phenotypic feature can be observed upon muscle biopsy.
Muscle fiber necrosis
MedGen UID:
376893
Concept ID:
C1850848
Pathologic Function
Abnormal cell death involving muscle fibers usually associated with break in, or absence of, muscle surface fiber membrane and resulting in irreversible damage to muscle fibers.
Ragged-red muscle fibers
MedGen UID:
477048
Concept ID:
C3275417
Finding
An abnormal appearance of muscle fibers observed on muscle biopsy. Ragged red fibers can be visualized with Gomori trichrome staining as irregular and intensely red subsarcolemmal zones, whereas the normal myofibrils are green. The margins of affect fibers appear red and ragged. The ragged-red is due to the accumulation of abnormal mitochondria below the plasma membrane of the muscle fiber, leading to the appearance of a red rim and speckled sarcoplasm.
Fiber type grouping
MedGen UID:
478824
Concept ID:
C3277194
Finding
An abnormal distribution of muscle fiber types in muscle tissue. Human skeletal muscle contains at least two fiber types recognizable by histochemical techniques. In transverse sections of normal skeletal muscle, type 1 and type 2 fibers are distributed in a random fashion. Grouping of fibers of the same type can be seen in certain peripheral neuropathies, thought to be due to reinnervation of denervated muscle fibers by sprouting axons. With grouping, motor units enlarge. The fibers of a motor unit, which are normally scattered, come to lie adjacent to one another. Histochemical examination shows groups of muscle fibers of the same histochemical type.
Multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions
MedGen UID:
479006
Concept ID:
C3277376
Finding
The presence of multiple deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA).
Cytochrome C oxidase-negative muscle fibers
MedGen UID:
867360
Concept ID:
C4021724
Finding
An abnormally reduced activity of the enzyme cytochrome C oxidase in muscle tissue.
Subsarcolemmal accumulations of abnormally shaped mitochondria
MedGen UID:
871128
Concept ID:
C4025597
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormally increased number of mitochondria in the cytoplasma adjacent to the sarcolemma (muscle cell membrane), whereby the mitochondria also possess an abnormal morphology.
Respiratory insufficiency
MedGen UID:
11197
Concept ID:
C0035229
Pathologic Function
Impairment of gas exchange within the lungs secondary to a disease process, neoplasm, or trauma, possibly resulting in hypoxia, hypercarbia, or both, but not requiring intubation or mechanical ventilation. Patients are normally managed with pharmaceutical therapy, supplemental oxygen, or both.
Mildly elevated creatine kinase
MedGen UID:
342469
Concept ID:
C1850309
Finding
Hypernasal speech
MedGen UID:
107884
Concept ID:
C0566620
Finding
A type of speech characterized by the presence of an abnormally increased nasal airflow during speech associated with structural abnormality of the nasal passages.
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
External ophthalmoplegia
MedGen UID:
57662
Concept ID:
C0162292
Disease or Syndrome
Paralysis of the external ocular muscles.
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia
MedGen UID:
102439
Concept ID:
C0162674
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is a condition characterized by weakness of the eye muscles. The condition typically appears in adults between ages 18 and 40 and slowly worsens over time. The first sign of progressive external ophthalmoplegia is typically drooping eyelids (ptosis), which can affect one or both eyelids. As ptosis worsens, affected individuals may use the forehead muscles to try to lift the eyelids, or they may lift up their chin in order to see. Another characteristic feature of progressive external ophthalmoplegia is weakness or paralysis of the muscles that move the eye (ophthalmoplegia). Affected individuals have to turn their head to see in different directions, especially as the ophthalmoplegia worsens. People with progressive external ophthalmoplegia may also have general weakness of the muscles used for movement (myopathy), particularly those in the neck, arms, or legs. The weakness may be especially noticeable during exercise (exercise intolerance). Muscle weakness may also cause difficulty swallowing (dysphagia).\n\nProgressive external ophthalmoplegia is part of a spectrum of disorders with overlapping signs and symptoms. Similar disorders include ataxia neuropathy spectrum and Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Like progressive external ophthalmoplegia, the other conditions in this spectrum can involve weakness of the eye muscles. However, these conditions have many additional features not shared by most people with progressive external ophthalmoplegia.\n\nWhen the muscle cells of affected individuals are stained and viewed under a microscope, these cells usually appear abnormal. These abnormal muscle cells contain an excess of cell structures called mitochondria and are known as ragged-red fibers.\n\nAlthough muscle weakness is the primary symptom of progressive external ophthalmoplegia, this condition can be accompanied by other signs and symptoms. In these instances, the condition is referred to as progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus (PEO+). Additional signs and symptoms can include hearing loss caused by nerve damage in the inner ear (sensorineural hearing loss), weakness and loss of sensation in the limbs due to nerve damage (neuropathy), impaired muscle coordination (ataxia), a pattern of movement abnormalities known as parkinsonism, and depression.
Ophthalmoparesis
MedGen UID:
155551
Concept ID:
C0751401
Sign or Symptom
Ophthalmoplegia is a paralysis or weakness of one or more of the muscles that control eye movement.
Retinal pigment epithelial mottling
MedGen UID:
347513
Concept ID:
C1857644
Finding
Mottling (spots or blotches with different shades) of the retinal pigment epithelium, i.e., localized or generalized fundal pigment granularity associated with processes at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVSensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis
Follow this link to review classifications for Sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis in Orphanet.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Hanisch F, Kornhuber M, Alston CL, Taylor RW, Deschauer M, Zierz S
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2015 Jun;86(6):630-4. Epub 2014 Aug 20 doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2013-306748. PMID: 25143630
Neeve VC, Samuels DC, Bindoff LA, van den Bosch B, Van Goethem G, Smeets H, Lombès A, Jardel C, Hirano M, Dimauro S, De Vries M, Smeitink J, Smits BW, de Coo IF, Saft C, Klopstock T, Keiling BC, Czermin B, Abicht A, Lochmüller H, Hudson G, Gorman GG, Turnbull DM, Taylor RW, Holinski-Feder E, Chinnery PF, Horvath R
Brain 2012 Dec;135(Pt 12):3614-26. doi: 10.1093/brain/aws298. PMID: 23250882Free PMC Article
Habek M, Barun B, Adamec I, Mitrović Z, Ozretić D, Brinar VV
Neurologist 2012 Sep;18(5):287-9. doi: 10.1097/NRL.0b013e318266f5a6. PMID: 22931735

Diagnosis

van Leeuwen RB, Smits BW, Rodenburg RJ, van Engelen BG
J Clin Neuromuscul Dis 2016 Sep;18(1):34-6. doi: 10.1097/CND.0000000000000126. PMID: 27552387
Neeve VC, Samuels DC, Bindoff LA, van den Bosch B, Van Goethem G, Smeets H, Lombès A, Jardel C, Hirano M, Dimauro S, De Vries M, Smeitink J, Smits BW, de Coo IF, Saft C, Klopstock T, Keiling BC, Czermin B, Abicht A, Lochmüller H, Hudson G, Gorman GG, Turnbull DM, Taylor RW, Holinski-Feder E, Chinnery PF, Horvath R
Brain 2012 Dec;135(Pt 12):3614-26. doi: 10.1093/brain/aws298. PMID: 23250882Free PMC Article
Gáti I, Danielsson O, Jonasson J, Landtblom AM
Acta Myol 2011 Dec;30(3):188-90. PMID: 22616202Free PMC Article
McHugh JC, Lonergan R, Howley R, O'Rourke K, Taylor RW, Farrell M, Hutchinson M, Connolly S
Muscle Nerve 2010 Feb;41(2):265-9. doi: 10.1002/mus.21494. PMID: 19813183
Fadic R, Russell JA, Vedanarayanan VV, Lehar M, Kuncl RW, Johns DR
Neurology 1997 Jul;49(1):239-45. doi: 10.1212/wnl.49.1.239. PMID: 9222196

Therapy

Bandettini di Poggio M, Nesti C, Bruno C, Meschini MC, Schenone A, Santorelli FM
BMC Med Genet 2013 Oct 7;14:105. doi: 10.1186/1471-2350-14-105. PMID: 24099403Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Gáti I, Danielsson O, Jonasson J, Landtblom AM
Acta Myol 2011 Dec;30(3):188-90. PMID: 22616202Free PMC Article
McHugh JC, Lonergan R, Howley R, O'Rourke K, Taylor RW, Farrell M, Hutchinson M, Connolly S
Muscle Nerve 2010 Feb;41(2):265-9. doi: 10.1002/mus.21494. PMID: 19813183

Clinical prediction guides

Li LX, Jiang LT, Pan YG, Zhang XL, Pan LZ, Nie ZY, Chen YH, Jin LJ
J Mol Neurosci 2021 Dec;71(12):2462-2467. Epub 2021 Apr 1 doi: 10.1007/s12031-021-01831-9. PMID: 33791913
Sanderson KG, Millar E, Tumber A, Klatt R, Sondheimer N, Vincent A
Doc Ophthalmol 2021 Feb;142(1):111-118. Epub 2020 Jun 21 doi: 10.1007/s10633-020-09777-w. PMID: 32567010
Hanisch F, Kornhuber M, Alston CL, Taylor RW, Deschauer M, Zierz S
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2015 Jun;86(6):630-4. Epub 2014 Aug 20 doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2013-306748. PMID: 25143630

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