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Parkinsonism with favorable response to dopaminergic medication

MedGen UID:
375989
Concept ID:
C1846868
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
Synonyms: Favorable response to levodopa; Favourable response to levodopa; Parkinsonism with favourable response to dopaminergic medication
 
HPO: HP:0002548

Definition

Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome that is a feature of a number of different diseases, including Parkinson disease itself, other neurodegenerative diseases such as progressive supranuclear palsy, and as a side-effect of some neuroleptic medications. Some but not all individuals with Parkinsonism show responsiveness to dopaminergic medication defined as a substantial reduction of amelioration of the component signs of Parkinsonism (including mainly tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability) upon administration of dopaminergic medication. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVParkinsonism with favorable response to dopaminergic medication

Conditions with this feature

Wilson disease
MedGen UID:
42426
Concept ID:
C0019202
Disease or Syndrome
Wilson disease is a disorder of copper metabolism that can present with hepatic, neurologic, or psychiatric disturbances, or a combination of these, in individuals ranging from age three years to older than 50 years; symptoms vary among and within families. Liver disease includes recurrent jaundice, simple acute self-limited hepatitis-like illness, autoimmune-type hepatitis, fulminant hepatic failure, or chronic liver disease. Neurologic presentations include movement disorders (tremors, poor coordination, loss of fine-motor control, chorea, choreoathetosis) or rigid dystonia (mask-like facies, rigidity, gait disturbance, pseudobulbar involvement). Psychiatric disturbance includes depression, neurotic behaviors, disorganization of personality, and, occasionally, intellectual deterioration. Kayser-Fleischer rings, frequently present, result from copper deposition in Descemet's membrane of the cornea and reflect a high degree of copper storage in the body.
Early-onset parkinsonism-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
208674
Concept ID:
C0796195
Disease or Syndrome
Waisman syndrome is an X-linked neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, impaired intellectual development, and early-onset Parkinson disease (summary by Wilson et al., 2014).
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
371919
Concept ID:
C1834846
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism
MedGen UID:
326820
Concept ID:
C1839130
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP) have dystonia of varying severity and parkinsonism. XDP afflicts primarily Filipino men and, rarely, women. The mean age of onset in men is 39 years; the clinical course is highly variable with parkinsonism as the initial presenting sign, overshadowed by dystonia as the disease progresses. Features of parkinsonism include resting tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, and severe shuffling gait. The dystonia develops focally, most commonly in the jaw, neck, trunk, and eyes, and less commonly in the limbs, tongue, pharynx, and larynx, the most characteristic being jaw dystonia often progressing to neck dystonia. Individuals with pure parkinsonism have non-disabling symptoms that are only slowly progressive; those who develop a combination of parkinsonism and dystonia can develop multifocal or generalized symptoms within a few years and die prematurely from pneumonia or intercurrent infections. Female carriers are mostly asymptomatic, though a small minority may manifest dystonia, parkinsonism, or chorea.
Autosomal dominant Parkinson disease 8
MedGen UID:
339628
Concept ID:
C1846862
Disease or Syndrome
LRRK2 Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by features consistent with idiopathic PD: initial motor features of slowly progressive asymmetric tremor at rest and/or bradykinesia, cogwheel muscle rigidity, postural instability, and gait abnormalities that may include festination and freezing. Certain nonmotor symptoms in LRRK2-PD, especially REM sleep behavior disorder and cognitive decline, may occur at similar or slightly reduced frequency compared to typical idiopathic* PD. Onset is generally after age 50, although early-onset (in the 20s) and late-onset (in the 90s) disease has been described. * Idiopathic PD refers to the presence of signs and symptoms of PD for which the etiology is currently unknown and in which there is no known family history of PD.
Kufor-Rakeb syndrome
MedGen UID:
338281
Concept ID:
C1847640
Disease or Syndrome
Kufor-Rakeb syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive form of juvenile-onset atypical Parkinson disease (PARK9) associated with supranuclear gaze palsy, spasticity, and dementia. Some patients have neuroradiologic evidence of iron deposition in the basal ganglia, indicating that the pathogenesis of PARK9 can be considered among the syndromes of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA; see 234200) (summary by Bruggemann et al., 2010). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease (PD), see 168600. Biallelic mutation in the ATP13A2 gene also causes autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-78 (SPG78; 617225), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder with overlapping features. Patients with SPG78 have later onset and prominent spasticity, but rarely parkinsonism. Loss of ATP13A2 function results in a multidimensional spectrum of neurologic features reflecting various regions of the brain and nervous system, including cortical, pyramidal, extrapyramidal, brainstem, cerebellar, and peripheral (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017).
Parkinsonian-pyramidal syndrome
MedGen UID:
337969
Concept ID:
C1850100
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.\n\nGenerally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.\n\nOften the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.\n\nParkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory.
Dystonia 5
MedGen UID:
342121
Concept ID:
C1851920
Disease or Syndrome
GTP cyclohydrolase 1-deficient dopa-responsive dystonia (GTPCH1-deficient DRD) is characterized by childhood-onset dystonia and a dramatic and sustained response to low doses of oral administration of levodopa. This disorder typically presents with gait disturbance caused by foot dystonia, later development of parkinsonism, and diurnal fluctuation of symptoms (aggravation of symptoms toward the evening and alleviation of symptoms in the morning after sleep). Initial symptoms are often gait difficulties attributable to flexion-inversion (equinovarus posture) of the foot. Occasionally, initial symptoms are arm dystonia, postural tremor of the hand, or slowness of movements. Brisk deep-tendon reflexes in the legs, ankle clonus, and/or the striatal toe (dystonic extension of the big toe) are present in many affected individuals. In general, gradual progression to generalized dystonia is observed. Intellectual, cerebellar, sensory, and autonomic disturbances generally do not occur.
Parkinson disease 13, autosomal dominant, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
343992
Concept ID:
C1853202
Finding
Parkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory.\n\nOften the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.\n\nGenerally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.\n\nParkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.
Autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson disease 7
MedGen UID:
344049
Concept ID:
C1853445
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.\n\nGenerally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.\n\nOften the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.\n\nParkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory.
Autosomal recessive DOPA responsive dystonia
MedGen UID:
382128
Concept ID:
C2673535
Disease or Syndrome
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) deficiency is associated with a broad phenotypic spectrum. Based on severity of symptoms/signs as well as responsiveness to levodopa therapy, clinical phenotypes caused by pathogenic variants in TH are divided into (1) TH-deficient dopa-responsive dystonia (the mild form of TH deficiency), (2) TH-deficient infantile parkinsonism with motor delay (the severe form), and (3) TH-deficient progressive infantile encephalopathy (the very severe form). In individuals with TH-deficient dopa-responsive dystonia (DYT5b, DYT-TH), onset is between age 12 months and 12 years; initial symptoms are typically lower-limb dystonia and/or difficulty in walking. Diurnal fluctuation of symptoms (worsening of the symptoms toward the evening and their alleviation in the morning after sleep) may be present. In most individuals with TH-deficient infantile parkinsonism with motor delay, onset is between age three and 12 months. In contrast to TH-deficient DRD, motor milestones are overtly delayed in this severe form. Affected infants demonstrate truncal hypotonia and parkinsonian symptoms and signs (hypokinesia, rigidity of extremities, and/or tremor). In individuals with TH-deficient progressive infantile encephalopathy, onset is before age three to six months. Fetal distress is reported in most. Affected individuals have marked delay in motor development, truncal hypotonia, severe hypokinesia, limb hypertonia (rigidity and/or spasticity), hyperreflexia, oculogyric crises, ptosis, intellectual disability, and paroxysmal periods of lethargy (with increased sweating and drooling) alternating with irritability.
Parkinson disease 5, autosomal dominant, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
462249
Concept ID:
C3150899
Finding
Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.\n\nGenerally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.\n\nOften the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.\n\nParkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory.
Parkinson disease 11, autosomal dominant, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
896658
Concept ID:
C4083045
Finding
Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.\n\nGenerally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.\n\nOften the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.\n\nParkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory.
Parkinson disease 22, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
907886
Concept ID:
C4225238
Disease or Syndrome
Any Parkinson disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CHCHD2 gene.
Parkinsonism with polyneuropathy
MedGen UID:
1783451
Concept ID:
C5543299
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinsonism with polyneuropathy (PKNPY) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by asymmetrical tremor-dependent parkinsonism. The age of onset ranges from the late forties to mid-sixties, and patients have a good response to levodopa (summary by Lin et al., 2020).
Parkinson disease 24, autosomal dominant, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
1794179
Concept ID:
C5561969
Finding
Parkinson disease-24 (PARK24) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by classic Parkinson disease features, including adult onset, asymmetric limb involvement initially, and slowly progressive motor dysfunction. PARK24 shows incomplete penetrance, consistent with the presence of the PSAP mutation being a susceptibility factor for development of the disease (Oji et al., 2020). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease, see 168600.
Parkinson disease 25, autosomal recessive early-onset, with impaired intellectual development
MedGen UID:
1845571
Concept ID:
C5882680
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinson disease-25 (PARK25) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of parkinsonism in late childhood/adolescence and developmental delay/impaired intellectual development. Cognitive impairment is mild to moderate and nonprogressive (Fevga et al., 2023).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Fluchère F, Burle B, Vidal F, van den Wildenberg W, Witjas T, Eusebio A, Azulay JP, Hasbroucq T
Neuropsychologia 2018 Aug;117:167-177. Epub 2018 Feb 16 doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.02.016. PMID: 29458074
Hanson MR, Gálvez-Jiménez N
Semin Neurol 2001;21(1):15-22. doi: 10.1055/s-2001-13115. PMID: 11346021
van der Drift JH
Adv Neurol 1987;45:529-34. PMID: 3825731

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Vinueza-Gavilanes R, Bravo-González JJ, Basurco L, Boncristiani C, Fernández-Irigoyen J, Santamaría E, Marcilla I, Pérez-Mediavilla A, Luquin MR, Vales A, González-Aseguinolaza G, Aymerich MS, Aragón T, Arrasate M
Neurobiol Dis 2023 Jul;183:106166. Epub 2023 May 26 doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2023.106166. PMID: 37245833
Soileau MJ, Aldred J, Budur K, Fisseha N, Fung VS, Jeong A, Kimber TE, Klos K, Litvan I, O'Neill D, Robieson WZ, Spindler MA, Standaert DG, Talapala S, Vaou EO, Zheng H, Facheris MF, Hauser RA
Lancet Neurol 2022 Dec;21(12):1099-1109. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00400-8. PMID: 36402160
Hauser RA, Zeitlin L, Fisher S, D'Souza R
J Parkinsons Dis 2020;10(3):915-925. doi: 10.3233/JPD-202010. PMID: 32568108Free PMC Article
Masellis M, Collinson S, Freeman N, Tampakeras M, Levy J, Tchelet A, Eyal E, Berkovich E, Eliaz RE, Abler V, Grossman I, Fitzer-Attas C, Tiwari A, Hayden MR, Kennedy JL, Lang AE, Knight J; ADAGIO investigators
Brain 2016 Jul;139(Pt 7):2050-62. Epub 2016 May 13 doi: 10.1093/brain/aww109. PMID: 27190009
van Hilten JJ, Ramaker CC, Stowe R, Ives NJ
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007 Oct 17;2007(4):CD002258. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002258.pub2. PMID: 17943771Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Fluchère F, Burle B, Vidal F, van den Wildenberg W, Witjas T, Eusebio A, Azulay JP, Hasbroucq T
Neuropsychologia 2018 Aug;117:167-177. Epub 2018 Feb 16 doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.02.016. PMID: 29458074
Lee MJ, Kim SL, Kim HI, Oh YJ, Lee SH, Kim HK, Han CS, Lyoo CH, Ryu YH, Lee MS
Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2015 Jul;21(7):704-8. Epub 2015 Apr 20 doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2015.04.007. PMID: 25937616
Engelman A, Perumal K, Mehta M
Pract Radiat Oncol 2015 Jul-Aug;5(4):e327-35. Epub 2015 Feb 4 doi: 10.1016/j.prro.2014.12.001. PMID: 25659287
Schwingenschuh P, Ruge D, Edwards MJ, Terranova C, Katschnig P, Carrillo F, Silveira-Moriyama L, Schneider SA, Kägi G, Palomar FJ, Talelli P, Dickson J, Lees AJ, Quinn N, Mir P, Rothwell JC, Bhatia KP
Mov Disord 2010 Apr 15;25(5):560-9. doi: 10.1002/mds.23019. PMID: 20131394Free PMC Article
Cantello R, Tarletti R, Civardi C
Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2002 Feb;38(3):309-27. doi: 10.1016/s0165-0173(01)00158-8. PMID: 11890979

Therapy

Ayuso P, Jiménez-Jiménez FJ, Gómez-Tabales J, Alonso-Navarro H, García-Martín E, Agúndez JAG
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2023 Jul-Dec;19(7):447-460. Epub 2023 Aug 24 doi: 10.1080/17425255.2023.2249404. PMID: 37599424
Soileau MJ, Aldred J, Budur K, Fisseha N, Fung VS, Jeong A, Kimber TE, Klos K, Litvan I, O'Neill D, Robieson WZ, Spindler MA, Standaert DG, Talapala S, Vaou EO, Zheng H, Facheris MF, Hauser RA
Lancet Neurol 2022 Dec;21(12):1099-1109. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00400-8. PMID: 36402160
Hauser RA, Zeitlin L, Fisher S, D'Souza R
J Parkinsons Dis 2020;10(3):915-925. doi: 10.3233/JPD-202010. PMID: 32568108Free PMC Article
van Hilten JJ, Ramaker CC, Stowe R, Ives NJ
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007 Oct 17;2007(4):CD002258. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002258.pub2. PMID: 17943771Free PMC Article
Hanson MR, Gálvez-Jiménez N
Semin Neurol 2001;21(1):15-22. doi: 10.1055/s-2001-13115. PMID: 11346021

Prognosis

Masellis M, Collinson S, Freeman N, Tampakeras M, Levy J, Tchelet A, Eyal E, Berkovich E, Eliaz RE, Abler V, Grossman I, Fitzer-Attas C, Tiwari A, Hayden MR, Kennedy JL, Lang AE, Knight J; ADAGIO investigators
Brain 2016 Jul;139(Pt 7):2050-62. Epub 2016 May 13 doi: 10.1093/brain/aww109. PMID: 27190009
Schiffer AM, Nevado-Holgado AJ, Johnen A, Schönberger AR, Fink GR, Schubotz RI
Neuropsychologia 2015 Nov;78:29-40. Epub 2015 Sep 30 doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.09.034. PMID: 26432343
Lee MJ, Kim SL, Kim HI, Oh YJ, Lee SH, Kim HK, Han CS, Lyoo CH, Ryu YH, Lee MS
Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2015 Jul;21(7):704-8. Epub 2015 Apr 20 doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2015.04.007. PMID: 25937616
Hauser RA, Isaacson S, Clinch T; Tigan/Apokyn Study Investigators
Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2014 Nov;20(11):1171-6. Epub 2014 Aug 27 doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.08.010. PMID: 25239603
Kleedorfer B, Poewe W
J Neural Transm Park Dis Dement Sect 1992;4(2):173-8. doi: 10.1007/BF02251480. PMID: 1571080

Clinical prediction guides

Hauser RA, Zeitlin L, Fisher S, D'Souza R
J Parkinsons Dis 2020;10(3):915-925. doi: 10.3233/JPD-202010. PMID: 32568108Free PMC Article
Schiffer AM, Nevado-Holgado AJ, Johnen A, Schönberger AR, Fink GR, Schubotz RI
Neuropsychologia 2015 Nov;78:29-40. Epub 2015 Sep 30 doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.09.034. PMID: 26432343
Lee MJ, Kim SL, Kim HI, Oh YJ, Lee SH, Kim HK, Han CS, Lyoo CH, Ryu YH, Lee MS
Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2015 Jul;21(7):704-8. Epub 2015 Apr 20 doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2015.04.007. PMID: 25937616
Engelman A, Perumal K, Mehta M
Pract Radiat Oncol 2015 Jul-Aug;5(4):e327-35. Epub 2015 Feb 4 doi: 10.1016/j.prro.2014.12.001. PMID: 25659287
Hauser RA, Isaacson S, Clinch T; Tigan/Apokyn Study Investigators
Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2014 Nov;20(11):1171-6. Epub 2014 Aug 27 doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.08.010. PMID: 25239603

Recent systematic reviews

van Hilten JJ, Ramaker CC, Stowe R, Ives NJ
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007 Oct 17;2007(4):CD002258. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002258.pub2. PMID: 17943771Free PMC Article
Ramaker C, van Hilten JJ
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;(3):CD002258. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002258. PMID: 10908538

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