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Hereditary spastic paraplegia 5A(SPG5A)

MedGen UID:
376521
Concept ID:
C1849115
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia; Spastic paraplegia 5A; SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA 5A, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE; SPG5A
SNOMED CT: Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia type 5A (763373005)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): CYP7B1 (8q12.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0010047
OMIM®: 270800
Orphanet: ORPHA100986

Definition

Spastic paraplegia-5A (SPG5A) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with a wide phenotypic spectrum. Some patients have pure spastic paraplegia affecting only gait, whereas others may have a complicated phenotype with additional manifestations, including optic atrophy or cerebellar ataxia (summary by Arnoldi et al., 2012). The hereditary spastic paraplegias (SPG) are a group of clinically and genetically diverse disorders characterized by progressive, usually severe, lower extremity spasticity; see reviews of Fink et al. (1996) and Fink (1997). Inheritance is most often autosomal dominant (see 182600), but X-linked (see 303350) and autosomal recessive forms also occur. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Spastic Paraplegia Autosomal recessive forms of SPG include SPG7 (607259), caused by mutation in the paraplegin gene (602783) on chromosome 16q24; SPG9B (616586), caused by mutation in the ALDH18A1 gene (138250) on 10q24; SPG11 (604360), caused by mutation in the spatacsin gene (610844) on 15q21; SPG15 (270700), caused by mutation in the ZFYVE26 gene (612012) on 14q24; SPG18 (611225), caused by mutation in the ERLIN2 gene (611605) on 8p11; SPG20 (275900), caused by mutation in the spartin gene (607111) on 13q12; SPG21 (248900), caused by mutation in the maspardin gene (608181) on 15q21; SPG26 (609195), caused by mutation in the B4GALNT1 gene (601873) on 12q13; SPG28 (609340), caused by mutation in the DDHD1 gene (614603) on 14q22; SPG30 (610357), caused by mutation in the KIF1A gene (601255) on 2q37; SPG35 (612319), caused by mutation in the FA2H gene (611026) on 16q23; SPG39 (612020), caused by mutation in the PNPLA6 gene (603197) on 19p13.3; SPG43 (615043), caused by mutation in the C19ORF12 gene (614297) on 19q12; SPG44 (613206), caused by mutation in the GJC2 gene (608803) on 1q42; SPG45 (613162), caused by mutation in the NT5C2 gene (600417) on 10q24; SPG46 (614409), caused by mutation in the GBA2 gene (609471) on 9p13; SPG48 (613647), caused by mutation in the KIAA0415 gene (613653) on 7p22.1; SPG50 (612936), caused by mutation in the AP4M1 gene (602296) on 7q22; SPG51 (613744), caused by mutation in the AP4E1 gene (607244) on 15q21; SPG52 (614067), caused by mutation in the AP4S1 gene (607243) on 14q12; SPG53 (614898), caused by mutation in the VPS37A gene (609927) on 8p22; SPG54 (615033), caused by mutation in the DDHD2 gene (615003) on 8p11; SPG55 (615035), caused by mutation in the MTRFR gene on 12q24; SPG56 (615030), caused by mutation in the CYP2U1 gene (610670) on 4q25; SPG57 (615658), caused by mutation in the TFG gene (602498) on 3q12; SPG61 (615685), caused by mutation in the ARL6IP1 gene (607669) on 1p12; SPG62 (615681), caused by mutation in the ERLIN1 gene on 10q24; SPG63 (615686), caused by mutation in the AMPD2 gene (102771) on 1p13; SPG64 (615683), caused by mutation in the ENTPD1 gene (601752) on 10q24; SPG72 (615625), caused by mutation in the REEP2 gene (609347) on 5q31; SPG74 (616451), caused by mutation in the IBA57 gene (615316) on 1q42; SPG75 (616680), caused by mutation in the MAG gene (159460) on 19q13; SPG76 (616907), caused by mutation in the CAPN1 gene (114220) on 11q13; SPG77 (617046), caused by mutation in the FARS2 gene (611592) on 6p25; SPG78 (617225), caused by mutation in the ATP13A2 gene (610513) on 1p36; SPG79 (615491), caused by mutation in the UCHL1 gene (191342) on 4p13; SPG81 (618768), caused by mutation in the SELENOI gene (607915) on 2p23; SPG82 (618770), caused by mutation in the PCYT2 gene (602679) on 17q25; SPG83 (619027), caused by mutation in the HPDL gene (618994) on 1p34; SPG84 (619621), caused by mutation in the PI4KA gene (600286) on 22q11; SPG85 (619686), caused by mutation in the RNF170 gene (614649) on 8p11; SPG86 (619735), caused by mutation in the ABHD16A gene (142620) on 6p21; SPG87 (619966), caused by mutation in the TMEM63C gene (619953) on 14q24; SPG89 (620379), caused by mutation in the AMFR gene (603243) on 16q13; and SPG90B (620417), caused by mutation in the SPTSSA gene (613540) on 14q13. Additional autosomal recessive forms of SPG have been mapped to chromosomes 3q (SPG14; 605229), 13q14 (SPG24; 607584), 6q (SPG25; 608220), and 10q22 (SPG27; 609041). A disorder that was formerly designated SPG49 has been reclassified as hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy-9 with developmental delay (HSAN9; 615031). [from OMIM]

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
In addition to spasticity and weakness, people with spastic paraplegia type 5A can lose the ability to sense the position of their limbs or detect vibrations with their lower limbs. They may also have muscle wasting (amyotrophy), reduced bladder control, or high arches of the feet (pes cavus). The signs and symptoms of spastic paraplegia type 5A usually appear in adolescence but can begin at any time between infancy and mid-adulthood. The condition slowly worsens over time, often leading affected individuals to require walking support or wheelchair assistance.

Spastic paraplegia type 5A is one of a group of genetic disorders known as hereditary spastic paraplegias. These disorders are characterized by muscle stiffness (spasticity) and severe weakness in the lower limbs (paraplegia). Hereditary spastic paraplegias are often divided into two types: pure and complex. The pure types involve spasticity and weakness only in the lower limbs, while the complex types involve additional problems with other areas of the body; additional features can include changes in vision, changes in intellectual functioning, brain abnormalities, and disturbances in nerve function (neuropathy). Spastic paraplegia type 5A is usually a pure hereditary spastic paraplegia, although complex type features have been reported in some individuals, usually in those who have had the condition for many years.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/spastic-paraplegia-type-5a

Clinical features

From HPO
Urinary incontinence
MedGen UID:
22579
Concept ID:
C0042024
Finding
Loss of the ability to control the urinary bladder leading to involuntary urination.
Pes cavus
MedGen UID:
675590
Concept ID:
C0728829
Congenital Abnormality
An increase in height of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot that does not flatten on weight bearing (i.e., a distinctly hollow form of the sole of the foot when it is bearing weight).
Upper limb muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
305607
Concept ID:
C1698196
Finding
Weakness of the muscles of the arms.
Lower limb muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
324478
Concept ID:
C1836296
Finding
Weakness of the muscles of the legs.
Sensorineural hearing loss disorder
MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve.
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Babinski sign
MedGen UID:
19708
Concept ID:
C0034935
Finding
Upturning of the big toe (and sometimes fanning of the other toes) in response to stimulation of the sole of the foot. If the Babinski sign is present it can indicate damage to the corticospinal tract.
Spastic paraplegia
MedGen UID:
20882
Concept ID:
C0037772
Disease or Syndrome
Spasticity and weakness of the leg and hip muscles.
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles.
Spastic gait
MedGen UID:
115907
Concept ID:
C0231687
Finding
Spasticity is manifested by increased stretch reflex which is intensified with movement velocity. This results in excessive and inappropriate muscle activation which can contribute to muscle hypertonia. Spastic gait is characterized by manifestations such as muscle hypertonia, stiff knee, and circumduction of the leg.
Postural tremor
MedGen UID:
66696
Concept ID:
C0234378
Sign or Symptom
A type of tremors that is triggered by holding a limb in a fixed position.
Cognitive impairment
MedGen UID:
90932
Concept ID:
C0338656
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Abnormal cognition is characterized by deficits in thinking, reasoning, or remembering.
Lower limb spasticity
MedGen UID:
220865
Concept ID:
C1271100
Finding
Spasticity (velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone and hyperexcitable tendon reflexes) in the muscles of the lower limbs, hips, and pelvis
Upper limb spasticity
MedGen UID:
220882
Concept ID:
C1273957
Finding
Impaired vibration sensation in the lower limbs
MedGen UID:
338617
Concept ID:
C1849134
Finding
A decrease in the ability to perceive vibration in the legs.
Limb dysmetria
MedGen UID:
340244
Concept ID:
C1854489
Finding
A type of dysmetria involving the limbs.
Abnormal cerebellum morphology
MedGen UID:
400925
Concept ID:
C1866129
Anatomical Abnormality
Any structural abnormality of the cerebellum.
Hyperintensity of cerebral white matter on MRI
MedGen UID:
811125
Concept ID:
C2938912
Pathologic Function
A brighter than expected signal on magnetic resonance imaging emanating from the cerebral white matter.
Impaired distal proprioception
MedGen UID:
867227
Concept ID:
C4021585
Finding
A loss or impairment of the sensation of the relative position of parts of the body and joint position occuring at distal joints.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Upper limb amyotrophy
MedGen UID:
867165
Concept ID:
C4021523
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular atrophy involving the muscles of the upper limbs.
Lower limb amyotrophy
MedGen UID:
870475
Concept ID:
C4024921
Finding
Muscular atrophy affecting the lower limb.
Abnormal circulating cholesterol concentration
MedGen UID:
871179
Concept ID:
C4025656
Finding
Any deviation from the normal concentration of cholesterol in the blood circulation.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVHereditary spastic paraplegia 5A

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Deng R, Medico-Salsench E, Nikoncuk A, Ramakrishnan R, Lanko K, Kühn NA, van der Linde HC, Lor-Zade S, Albuainain F, Shi Y, Yousefi S, Capo I, van den Herik EM, van Slegtenhorst M, van Minkelen R, Geeven G, Mulder MT, Ruijter GJG, Lütjohann D, Jacobs EH, Houlden H, Pagnamenta AT, Metcalfe K, Jackson A, Banka S, De Simone L, Schwaede A, Kuntz N, Palculict TB, Abbas S, Umair M, AlMuhaizea M, Colak D, AlQudairy H, Alsagob M, Pereira C, Trunzo R, Karageorgou V, Bertoli-Avella AM, Bauer P, Bouman A, Hoefsloot LH, van Ham TJ, Issa M, Zaki MS, Gleeson JG, Willemsen R, Kaya N, Arold ST, Maroofian R, Sanderson LE, Barakat TS
Acta Neuropathol 2023 Aug;146(2):353-368. Epub 2023 Apr 29 doi: 10.1007/s00401-023-02579-9. PMID: 37119330Free PMC Article
de Boer EMJ, van Rheenen W, Goedee HS, Kamsteeg EJ, Brilstra EH, Veldink JH, van Den Berg LH, van Es MA
Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener 2021 Nov;22(7-8):561-570. Epub 2021 Apr 8 doi: 10.1080/21678421.2021.1907412. PMID: 33829936

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Nicolas A, Kenna KP, Renton AE, Ticozzi N, Faghri F, Chia R, Dominov JA, Kenna BJ, Nalls MA, Keagle P, Rivera AM, van Rheenen W, Murphy NA, van Vugt JJFA, Geiger JT, Van der Spek RA, Pliner HA, Shankaracharya, Smith BN, Marangi G, Topp SD, Abramzon Y, Gkazi AS, Eicher JD, Kenna A; ITALSGEN Consortium, Mora G, Calvo A, Mazzini L, Riva N, Mandrioli J, Caponnetto C, Battistini S, Volanti P, La Bella V, Conforti FL, Borghero G, Messina S, Simone IL, Trojsi F, Salvi F, Logullo FO, D'Alfonso S, Corrado L, Capasso M, Ferrucci L; Genomic Translation for ALS Care (GTAC) Consortium, Moreno CAM, Kamalakaran S, Goldstein DB; ALS Sequencing Consortium, Gitler AD, Harris T, Myers RM; NYGC ALS Consortium, Phatnani H, Musunuri RL, Evani US, Abhyankar A, Zody MC; Answer ALS Foundation, Kaye J, Finkbeiner S, Wyman SK, LeNail A, Lima L, Fraenkel E, Svendsen CN, Thompson LM, Van Eyk JE, Berry JD, Miller TM, Kolb SJ, Cudkowicz M, Baxi E; Clinical Research in ALS and Related Disorders for Therapeutic Development (CReATe) Consortium, Benatar M, Taylor JP, Rampersaud E, Wu G, Wuu J; SLAGEN Consortium, Lauria G, Verde F, Fogh I, Tiloca C, Comi GP, Sorarù G, Cereda C; French ALS Consortium, Corcia P, Laaksovirta H, Myllykangas L, Jansson L, Valori M, Ealing J, Hamdalla H, Rollinson S, Pickering-Brown S, Orrell RW, Sidle KC, Malaspina A, Hardy J, Singleton AB, Johnson JO, Arepalli S, Sapp PC, McKenna-Yasek D, Polak M, Asress S, Al-Sarraj S, King A, Troakes C, Vance C, de Belleroche J, Baas F, Ten Asbroek ALMA, Muñoz-Blanco JL, Hernandez DG, Ding J, Gibbs JR, Scholz SW, Floeter MK, Campbell RH, Landi F, Bowser R, Pulst SM, Ravits JM, MacGowan DJL, Kirby J, Pioro EP, Pamphlett R, Broach J, Gerhard G, Dunckley TL, Brady CB, Kowall NW, Troncoso JC, Le Ber I, Mouzat K, Lumbroso S, Heiman-Patterson TD, Kamel F, Van Den Bosch L, Baloh RH, Strom TM, Meitinger T, Shatunov A, Van Eijk KR, de Carvalho M, Kooyman M, Middelkoop B, Moisse M, McLaughlin RL, Van Es MA, Weber M, Boylan KB, Van Blitterswijk M, Rademakers R, Morrison KE, Basak AN, Mora JS, Drory VE, Shaw PJ, Turner MR, Talbot K, Hardiman O, Williams KL, Fifita JA, Nicholson GA, Blair IP, Rouleau GA, Esteban-Pérez J, García-Redondo A, Al-Chalabi A; Project MinE ALS Sequencing Consortium, Rogaeva E, Zinman L, Ostrow LW, Maragakis NJ, Rothstein JD, Simmons Z, Cooper-Knock J, Brice A, Goutman SA, Feldman EL, Gibson SB, Taroni F, Ratti A, Gellera C, Van Damme P, Robberecht W, Fratta P, Sabatelli M, Lunetta C, Ludolph AC, Andersen PM, Weishaupt JH, Camu W, Trojanowski JQ, Van Deerlin VM, Brown RH Jr, van den Berg LH, Veldink JH, Harms MB, Glass JD, Stone DJ, Tienari P, Silani V, Chiò A, Shaw CE, Traynor BJ, Landers JE
Neuron 2018 Mar 21;97(6):1268-1283.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.02.027. PMID: 29566793Free PMC Article
Yang Y, Liu W, Fang Z, Shi J, Che F, He C, Yao L, Wang E, Wu Y
Hum Mutat 2016 Feb;37(2):165-9. Epub 2015 Dec 10 doi: 10.1002/humu.22930. PMID: 26553276
Roos P, Svenstrup K, Danielsen ER, Thomsen C, Nielsen JE
Acta Neurol Scand 2014 May;129(5):330-4. Epub 2013 Oct 1 doi: 10.1111/ane.12188. PMID: 24117163

Diagnosis

Dulski J, Strongosky AJ, Al-Shaikh RH, Wszolek ZK
Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener 2023 May;24(3-4):347-350. Epub 2023 Jan 5 doi: 10.1080/21678421.2022.2164204. PMID: 36604770
Kovalskaia VA, Zabnenkova VV, Petukhova MS, Markova ZG, Tabakov VY, Ryzhkova OP
Genes (Basel) 2022 Nov 23;13(12) doi: 10.3390/genes13122186. PMID: 36553453Free PMC Article
Nicolas A, Kenna KP, Renton AE, Ticozzi N, Faghri F, Chia R, Dominov JA, Kenna BJ, Nalls MA, Keagle P, Rivera AM, van Rheenen W, Murphy NA, van Vugt JJFA, Geiger JT, Van der Spek RA, Pliner HA, Shankaracharya, Smith BN, Marangi G, Topp SD, Abramzon Y, Gkazi AS, Eicher JD, Kenna A; ITALSGEN Consortium, Mora G, Calvo A, Mazzini L, Riva N, Mandrioli J, Caponnetto C, Battistini S, Volanti P, La Bella V, Conforti FL, Borghero G, Messina S, Simone IL, Trojsi F, Salvi F, Logullo FO, D'Alfonso S, Corrado L, Capasso M, Ferrucci L; Genomic Translation for ALS Care (GTAC) Consortium, Moreno CAM, Kamalakaran S, Goldstein DB; ALS Sequencing Consortium, Gitler AD, Harris T, Myers RM; NYGC ALS Consortium, Phatnani H, Musunuri RL, Evani US, Abhyankar A, Zody MC; Answer ALS Foundation, Kaye J, Finkbeiner S, Wyman SK, LeNail A, Lima L, Fraenkel E, Svendsen CN, Thompson LM, Van Eyk JE, Berry JD, Miller TM, Kolb SJ, Cudkowicz M, Baxi E; Clinical Research in ALS and Related Disorders for Therapeutic Development (CReATe) Consortium, Benatar M, Taylor JP, Rampersaud E, Wu G, Wuu J; SLAGEN Consortium, Lauria G, Verde F, Fogh I, Tiloca C, Comi GP, Sorarù G, Cereda C; French ALS Consortium, Corcia P, Laaksovirta H, Myllykangas L, Jansson L, Valori M, Ealing J, Hamdalla H, Rollinson S, Pickering-Brown S, Orrell RW, Sidle KC, Malaspina A, Hardy J, Singleton AB, Johnson JO, Arepalli S, Sapp PC, McKenna-Yasek D, Polak M, Asress S, Al-Sarraj S, King A, Troakes C, Vance C, de Belleroche J, Baas F, Ten Asbroek ALMA, Muñoz-Blanco JL, Hernandez DG, Ding J, Gibbs JR, Scholz SW, Floeter MK, Campbell RH, Landi F, Bowser R, Pulst SM, Ravits JM, MacGowan DJL, Kirby J, Pioro EP, Pamphlett R, Broach J, Gerhard G, Dunckley TL, Brady CB, Kowall NW, Troncoso JC, Le Ber I, Mouzat K, Lumbroso S, Heiman-Patterson TD, Kamel F, Van Den Bosch L, Baloh RH, Strom TM, Meitinger T, Shatunov A, Van Eijk KR, de Carvalho M, Kooyman M, Middelkoop B, Moisse M, McLaughlin RL, Van Es MA, Weber M, Boylan KB, Van Blitterswijk M, Rademakers R, Morrison KE, Basak AN, Mora JS, Drory VE, Shaw PJ, Turner MR, Talbot K, Hardiman O, Williams KL, Fifita JA, Nicholson GA, Blair IP, Rouleau GA, Esteban-Pérez J, García-Redondo A, Al-Chalabi A; Project MinE ALS Sequencing Consortium, Rogaeva E, Zinman L, Ostrow LW, Maragakis NJ, Rothstein JD, Simmons Z, Cooper-Knock J, Brice A, Goutman SA, Feldman EL, Gibson SB, Taroni F, Ratti A, Gellera C, Van Damme P, Robberecht W, Fratta P, Sabatelli M, Lunetta C, Ludolph AC, Andersen PM, Weishaupt JH, Camu W, Trojanowski JQ, Van Deerlin VM, Brown RH Jr, van den Berg LH, Veldink JH, Harms MB, Glass JD, Stone DJ, Tienari P, Silani V, Chiò A, Shaw CE, Traynor BJ, Landers JE
Neuron 2018 Mar 21;97(6):1268-1283.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.02.027. PMID: 29566793Free PMC Article
Miura S, Morikawa T, Fujioka R, Kosaka K, Yamada K, Hattori G, Motomura M, Taniwaki T, Shibata H
Eur J Med Genet 2016 Aug;59(8):413-6. Epub 2016 May 20 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2016.05.010. PMID: 27216551
Criscuolo C, Carbone R, Lieto M, Peluso S, Guacci A, Filla A, Quarantelli M, Lanzillo R, Morra VB, De Michele G
Acta Neurol Scand 2016 Jun;133(6):410-4. Epub 2015 Sep 15 doi: 10.1111/ane.12476. PMID: 26370385

Therapy

Deng R, Medico-Salsench E, Nikoncuk A, Ramakrishnan R, Lanko K, Kühn NA, van der Linde HC, Lor-Zade S, Albuainain F, Shi Y, Yousefi S, Capo I, van den Herik EM, van Slegtenhorst M, van Minkelen R, Geeven G, Mulder MT, Ruijter GJG, Lütjohann D, Jacobs EH, Houlden H, Pagnamenta AT, Metcalfe K, Jackson A, Banka S, De Simone L, Schwaede A, Kuntz N, Palculict TB, Abbas S, Umair M, AlMuhaizea M, Colak D, AlQudairy H, Alsagob M, Pereira C, Trunzo R, Karageorgou V, Bertoli-Avella AM, Bauer P, Bouman A, Hoefsloot LH, van Ham TJ, Issa M, Zaki MS, Gleeson JG, Willemsen R, Kaya N, Arold ST, Maroofian R, Sanderson LE, Barakat TS
Acta Neuropathol 2023 Aug;146(2):353-368. Epub 2023 Apr 29 doi: 10.1007/s00401-023-02579-9. PMID: 37119330Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Dulski J, Strongosky AJ, Al-Shaikh RH, Wszolek ZK
Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener 2023 May;24(3-4):347-350. Epub 2023 Jan 5 doi: 10.1080/21678421.2022.2164204. PMID: 36604770
Bellad A, Girimaji SC, Muthusamy B
Neurol Sci 2021 Dec;42(12):5311-5319. Epub 2021 Apr 21 doi: 10.1007/s10072-021-05262-7. PMID: 33884525
Mari F, Berti B, Romano A, Baldacci J, Rizzi R, Grazia Alessandrì M, Tessa A, Procopio E, Rubegni A, Lourenḉo CM, Simonati A, Guerrini R, Santorelli FM
Neurogenetics 2018 May;19(2):123-130. Epub 2018 Feb 8 doi: 10.1007/s10048-018-0538-8. PMID: 29423566
Criscuolo C, Carbone R, Lieto M, Peluso S, Guacci A, Filla A, Quarantelli M, Lanzillo R, Morra VB, De Michele G
Acta Neurol Scand 2016 Jun;133(6):410-4. Epub 2015 Sep 15 doi: 10.1111/ane.12476. PMID: 26370385
Siam A, Brancale A, Simons C
J Mol Model 2012 Feb;18(2):441-53. Epub 2011 May 4 doi: 10.1007/s00894-011-1084-6. PMID: 21541746

Clinical prediction guides

Deng R, Medico-Salsench E, Nikoncuk A, Ramakrishnan R, Lanko K, Kühn NA, van der Linde HC, Lor-Zade S, Albuainain F, Shi Y, Yousefi S, Capo I, van den Herik EM, van Slegtenhorst M, van Minkelen R, Geeven G, Mulder MT, Ruijter GJG, Lütjohann D, Jacobs EH, Houlden H, Pagnamenta AT, Metcalfe K, Jackson A, Banka S, De Simone L, Schwaede A, Kuntz N, Palculict TB, Abbas S, Umair M, AlMuhaizea M, Colak D, AlQudairy H, Alsagob M, Pereira C, Trunzo R, Karageorgou V, Bertoli-Avella AM, Bauer P, Bouman A, Hoefsloot LH, van Ham TJ, Issa M, Zaki MS, Gleeson JG, Willemsen R, Kaya N, Arold ST, Maroofian R, Sanderson LE, Barakat TS
Acta Neuropathol 2023 Aug;146(2):353-368. Epub 2023 Apr 29 doi: 10.1007/s00401-023-02579-9. PMID: 37119330Free PMC Article
Bellad A, Girimaji SC, Muthusamy B
Neurol Sci 2021 Dec;42(12):5311-5319. Epub 2021 Apr 21 doi: 10.1007/s10072-021-05262-7. PMID: 33884525
Nam DE, Yoo DH, Choi SS, Choi BO, Chung KW
Genes Genomics 2018 Jan;40(1):77-84. Epub 2017 Oct 10 doi: 10.1007/s13258-017-0612-x. PMID: 29892902
Miura S, Morikawa T, Fujioka R, Kosaka K, Yamada K, Hattori G, Motomura M, Taniwaki T, Shibata H
Eur J Med Genet 2016 Aug;59(8):413-6. Epub 2016 May 20 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2016.05.010. PMID: 27216551
Siam A, Brancale A, Simons C
J Mol Model 2012 Feb;18(2):441-53. Epub 2011 May 4 doi: 10.1007/s00894-011-1084-6. PMID: 21541746

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