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Overgrowth

MedGen UID:
376550
Concept ID:
C1849265
Finding
Synonyms: General overgrowth; Generalised overgrowth; Generalized overgrowth
 
HPO: HP:0001548

Definition

Excessive postnatal growth which may comprise increased weight, increased length, and/or increased head circumference. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVOvergrowth

Conditions with this feature

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
MedGen UID:
2562
Concept ID:
C0004903
Disease or Syndrome
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a growth disorder variably characterized by neonatal hypoglycemia, macrosomia, macroglossia, hemihyperplasia, omphalocele, embryonal tumors (e.g., Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma, neuroblastoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma), visceromegaly, adrenocortical cytomegaly, renal abnormalities (e.g., medullary dysplasia, nephrocalcinosis, medullary sponge kidney, and nephromegaly), and ear creases/pits. BWS is considered a clinical spectrum, in which affected individuals may have many of these features or may have only one or two clinical features. Early death may occur from complications of prematurity, hypoglycemia, cardiomyopathy, macroglossia, or tumors. However, the previously reported mortality of 20% is likely an overestimate given better recognition of the disorder along with enhanced treatment options. Macroglossia and macrosomia are generally present at birth but may have postnatal onset. Growth rate slows around age seven to eight years. Hemihyperplasia may affect segmental regions of the body or selected organs and tissues.
Neurofibromatosis, type 1
MedGen UID:
18013
Concept ID:
C0027831
Neoplastic Process
Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a multisystem disorder characterized by multiple café au lait macules, intertriginous freckling, multiple cutaneous neurofibromas, and learning disability or behavior problems. About half of people with NF1 have plexiform neurofibromas, but most are internal and not suspected clinically. Plexiform neurofibromas can cause pain, neurologic deficits, and abnormalities of involved or adjacent structures. Less common but potentially more serious manifestations include optic nerve and other central nervous system gliomas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, scoliosis, tibial dysplasia, vasculopathy, and gastrointestinal, endocrine, or pulmonary disease.
Sotos syndrome
MedGen UID:
61232
Concept ID:
C0175695
Disease or Syndrome
Sotos syndrome is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance (broad and prominent forehead with a dolichocephalic head shape, sparse frontotemporal hair, downslanting palpebral fissures, malar flushing, long and narrow face, long chin); learning disability (early developmental delay, mild-to-severe intellectual impairment); and overgrowth (height and/or head circumference =2 SD above the mean). These three clinical features are considered the cardinal features of Sotos syndrome. Major features of Sotos syndrome include behavioral problems (most notably autistic spectrum disorder), advanced bone age, cardiac anomalies, cranial MRI/CT abnormalities, joint hyperlaxity with or without pes planus, maternal preeclampsia, neonatal complications, renal anomalies, scoliosis, and seizures.
Weaver syndrome
MedGen UID:
120511
Concept ID:
C0265210
Disease or Syndrome
EZH2-related overgrowth includes EZH2-related Weaver syndrome at one end of the spectrum and tall stature at the other. Although most individuals diagnosed with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant have been identified because of a clinical suspicion of Weaver syndrome, a minority have been identified through molecular genetic testing of family members of probands or individuals with overgrowth who did not have a clinical diagnosis of Weaver syndrome. Thus, the extent of the phenotypic spectrum associated with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant is not yet known. Weaver syndrome is characterized by tall stature, variable intellect (ranging from normal intellect to severe intellectual disability), characteristic facial appearance, and a range of associated clinical features including advanced bone age, poor coordination, soft doughy skin, camptodactyly of the fingers and/or toes, umbilical hernia, abnormal tone, and hoarse low cry in infancy. Brain MRI has identified abnormalities in a few individuals with EZH2-related overgrowth. Neuroblastoma occurs at a slightly increased frequency in individuals with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant but data are insufficient to determine absolute risk. There is currently no evidence that additional malignancies (including hematologic malignancies) occur with increased frequency.
Cutis laxa, autosomal recessive, type 1A
MedGen UID:
78663
Concept ID:
C0268351
Disease or Syndrome
FBLN5-related cutis laxa is characterized by cutis laxa, early childhood-onset pulmonary emphysema, peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, and other evidence of a generalized connective disorder such as inguinal hernias and hollow viscus diverticula (e.g., intestine, bladder). Occasionally, supravalvar aortic stenosis is observed. Intrafamilial variability in age of onset is observed. Cardiorespiratory failure from complications of pulmonary emphysema (respiratory or cardiac insufficiency) is the most common cause of death.
Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica
MedGen UID:
96591
Concept ID:
C0432282
Disease or Syndrome
A rare bone development disorder characterized by localized, asymmetric osteochondral overgrowth affecting single or multiple epiphyses, most commonly the distal femur, proximal tibia, and talus. The lesions are typically restricted to one side of the epiphysis, with the medial side being affected twice as often as the lateral side. The condition is usually diagnosed in children, and three times more often in boys than in girls. Patients present with pain, limitation in range of motion, and deformity or swelling of the affected joint.
Costello syndrome
MedGen UID:
108454
Concept ID:
C0587248
Disease or Syndrome
While the majority of individuals with Costello syndrome share characteristic findings affecting multiple organ systems, the phenotypic spectrum is wide, ranging from a milder or attenuated phenotype to a severe phenotype with early lethal complications. Costello syndrome is typically characterized by failure to thrive in infancy as a result of severe postnatal feeding difficulties; short stature; developmental delay or intellectual disability; coarse facial features (full lips, large mouth, full nasal tip); curly or sparse, fine hair; loose, soft skin with deep palmar and plantar creases; papillomata of the face and perianal region; diffuse hypotonia and joint laxity with ulnar deviation of the wrists and fingers; tight Achilles tendons; and cardiac involvement including: cardiac hypertrophy (usually typical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), congenital heart defect (usually valvar pulmonic stenosis), and arrhythmia (usually supraventricular tachycardia, especially chaotic atrial rhythm/multifocal atrial tachycardia or ectopic atrial tachycardia). Relative or absolute macrocephaly is typical, and postnatal cerebellar overgrowth can result in the development of a Chiari I malformation with associated anomalies including hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. Individuals with Costello syndrome have an approximately 15% lifetime risk for malignant tumors including rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroblastoma in young children and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in adolescents and young adults.
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
162917
Concept ID:
C0796154
Disease or Syndrome
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1 (SGBS1) is characterized by pre- and postnatal macrosomia; distinctive craniofacial features (including macrocephaly, coarse facial features, macrostomia, macroglossia, and palatal abnormalities); and commonly, mild-to-severe intellectual disability with or without structural brain anomalies. Other variable findings include supernumerary nipples, diastasis recti / umbilical hernia, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, genitourinary defects, and gastrointestinal anomalies. Skeletal anomalies can include vertebral fusion, scoliosis, rib anomalies, and congenital hip dislocation. Hand anomalies can include large hands and postaxial polydactyly. Affected individuals are at increased risk for embryonal tumors including Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma, adrenal neuroblastoma, gonadoblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and medulloblastoma.
MOMO syndrome
MedGen UID:
371897
Concept ID:
C1834759
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare genetic overgrowth/obesity syndrome with characteristics of macrocephaly, obesity, mental (intellectual) disability and ocular abnormalities. Other frequent clinical signs include macrosomia, downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, broad nasal root, high and broad forehead and delay in bone maturation, in association with normal thyroid function and karyotype.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 8
MedGen UID:
375581
Concept ID:
C1845102
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-8 (DEE8) is an X-linked disorder characterized by seizure onset before 2 years of age and severe developmental delay. Some patients have hyperekplexia (summary by Shimojima et al., 2011). For general phenotypic descriptions and discussions of genetic heterogeneity of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and hyperekplexia, see DEE1 (308350) and HKPX1 (149400), respectively.
Macrocephaly-autism syndrome
MedGen UID:
381416
Concept ID:
C1854416
Disease or Syndrome
Macrocephaly/autism syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased head circumference, abnormal facial features, and delayed psychomotor development resulting in autistic behavior or mental retardation (Herman et al., 2007). Some patients may have a primary immunodeficiency disorder with recurrent infections associated with variably abnormal T- and B-cell function (Tsujita et al., 2016).
Lethal Kniest-like syndrome
MedGen UID:
347372
Concept ID:
C1857100
Disease or Syndrome
Silverman-Handmaker dyssegmental dysplasia (DDSH) is a lethal autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia with anisospondyly and micromelia. Individuals with DDSH also have a flat face, micrognathia, cleft palate and reduced joint mobility, and frequently have an encephalocele. The endochondral growth plate is short, the calcospherites (spherical calcium-phosphorus crystals produced by hypertrophic chondrocytes) are unfused, and there is mucoid degeneration of the resting cartilage (summary by Arikawa-Hirasawa et al., 2001).
Megalencephaly-capillary malformation-polymicrogyria syndrome
MedGen UID:
355421
Concept ID:
C1865285
Disease or Syndrome
PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) encompasses a range of clinical findings in which the core features are congenital or early-childhood onset of segmental/focal overgrowth with or without cellular dysplasia. Prior to the identification of PIK3CA as the causative gene, PROS was separated into distinct clinical syndromes based on the tissues and/or organs involved (e.g., MCAP [megalencephaly-capillary malformation] syndrome and CLOVES [congenital lipomatous asymmetric overgrowth of the trunk, lymphatic, capillary, venous, and combined-type vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, skeletal and spinal anomalies] syndrome). The predominant areas of overgrowth include the brain, limbs (including fingers and toes), trunk (including abdomen and chest), and face, all usually in an asymmetric distribution. Generalized brain overgrowth may be accompanied by secondary overgrowth of specific brain structures resulting in ventriculomegaly, a markedly thick corpus callosum, and cerebellar tonsillar ectopia with crowding of the posterior fossa. Vascular malformations may include capillary, venous, and less frequently, arterial or mixed (capillary-lymphatic-venous or arteriovenous) malformations. Lymphatic malformations may be in various locations (internal and/or external) and can cause various clinical issues, including swelling, pain, and occasionally localized bleeding secondary to trauma. Lipomatous overgrowth may occur ipsilateral or contralateral to a vascular malformation, if present. The degree of intellectual disability appears to be mostly related to the presence and severity of seizures, cortical dysplasia (e.g., polymicrogyria), and hydrocephalus. Many children have feeding difficulties that are often multifactorial in nature. Endocrine issues affect a small number of individuals and most commonly include hypoglycemia (largely hypoinsulinemic hypoketotic hypoglycemia), hypothyroidism, and growth hormone deficiency.
CLOVES syndrome
MedGen UID:
442876
Concept ID:
C2752042
Disease or Syndrome
PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) encompasses a range of clinical findings in which the core features are congenital or early-childhood onset of segmental/focal overgrowth with or without cellular dysplasia. Prior to the identification of PIK3CA as the causative gene, PROS was separated into distinct clinical syndromes based on the tissues and/or organs involved (e.g., MCAP [megalencephaly-capillary malformation] syndrome and CLOVES [congenital lipomatous asymmetric overgrowth of the trunk, lymphatic, capillary, venous, and combined-type vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, skeletal and spinal anomalies] syndrome). The predominant areas of overgrowth include the brain, limbs (including fingers and toes), trunk (including abdomen and chest), and face, all usually in an asymmetric distribution. Generalized brain overgrowth may be accompanied by secondary overgrowth of specific brain structures resulting in ventriculomegaly, a markedly thick corpus callosum, and cerebellar tonsillar ectopia with crowding of the posterior fossa. Vascular malformations may include capillary, venous, and less frequently, arterial or mixed (capillary-lymphatic-venous or arteriovenous) malformations. Lymphatic malformations may be in various locations (internal and/or external) and can cause various clinical issues, including swelling, pain, and occasionally localized bleeding secondary to trauma. Lipomatous overgrowth may occur ipsilateral or contralateral to a vascular malformation, if present. The degree of intellectual disability appears to be mostly related to the presence and severity of seizures, cortical dysplasia (e.g., polymicrogyria), and hydrocephalus. Many children have feeding difficulties that are often multifactorial in nature. Endocrine issues affect a small number of individuals and most commonly include hypoglycemia (largely hypoinsulinemic hypoketotic hypoglycemia), hypothyroidism, and growth hormone deficiency.
Amelogenesis imperfecta type 1G
MedGen UID:
419162
Concept ID:
C2931783
Disease or Syndrome
Amelogenesis imperfecta and gingival fibromatosis syndrome is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by mild gingival fibromatosis and dental anomalies, including hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta, intrapulpal calcifications, delay of tooth eruption, hypodontia/oligodontia, pericoronal radiolucencies, and unerupted teeth (Martelli-Junior et al., 2008).
Chromosome 19p13.13 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462244
Concept ID:
C3150894
Disease or Syndrome
19p13.13 deletion syndrome is a condition that results from a chromosomal change in which a small piece of chromosome 19 is deleted in each cell. The deletion occurs on the short (p) arm of the chromosome at a position designated p13.13.\n\nFeatures commonly associated with this chromosomal change include an unusually large head size (macrocephaly), tall stature, and intellectual disability that is usually moderate in severity. Many affected individuals have significantly delayed development, including speech, and children may speak few or no words. Weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and problems with coordinating muscle movement (ataxia) contribute to delays in gross motor skills (such as sitting and walking) and fine motor skills (such as holding a pencil).\n\nOther signs and symptoms that can occur with 19p13.13 deletion syndrome include seizures, abnormalities of brain structure, and mild differences in facial features (such as a prominent forehead). Many affected individuals have problems with feeding and digestion, including constipation, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Eye problems that can impair vision are also common. These include eyes that do not point in the same direction (strabismus) and underdevelopment of the optic nerves, which carry visual information from the eyes to the brain.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of 19p13.13 deletion syndrome vary among affected individuals. In part, this variation occurs because the size of the deletion, and the number of genes it affects, varies from person to person.
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
477139
Concept ID:
C3275508
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome-2 (MCAHS2) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, neonatal hypotonia, early-onset myoclonic seizures, and variable congenital anomalies involving the central nervous, cardiac, and urinary systems. Some affected individuals die in infancy (summary by Johnston et al., 2012). The phenotype shows clinical variability with regard to severity and extraneurologic features. However, most patients present in infancy with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with developmental arrest and subsequent severe neurologic disability; these features are consistent with a form of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) (summary by Belet et al., 2014, Kato et al., 2014). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of nomenclature and genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Cutis laxa, autosomal recessive, type 1B
MedGen UID:
482428
Concept ID:
C3280798
Disease or Syndrome
EFEMP2-related cutis laxa, or autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 1B (ARCL1B), is characterized by cutis laxa and systemic involvement, most commonly arterial tortuosity, aneurysms, and stenosis; retrognathia; joint laxity; and arachnodactyly. Severity ranges from perinatal lethality as a result of cardiopulmonary failure to manifestations limited to the vascular and craniofacial systems.
Malan overgrowth syndrome
MedGen UID:
766574
Concept ID:
C3553660
Disease or Syndrome
Malan syndrome (MALNS) is clinically characterized by overgrowth, advanced bone age, macrocephaly, and dysmorphic facial features. Patients develop marfanoid habitus, with long and slender body, very low body mass, long narrow face, and arachnodactyly, with age. Impaired intellectual development and behavior anomalies are present (summary by Martinez et al., 2015).
Rienhoff syndrome
MedGen UID:
816342
Concept ID:
C3810012
Disease or Syndrome
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant.
X-linked acrogigantism due to Xq26 microduplication
MedGen UID:
856021
Concept ID:
C3891556
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked acrogigantism is the occurrence of pituitary gigantism in an individual heterozygous or hemizygous for a germline or somatic duplication of GPR101. X-linked acrogigantism is characterized by acceleration of linear growth in early childhood – in most cases during the first two years of life – due to growth hormone (GH) excess. Most individuals with X-linked acrogigantism present with associated hyperprolactinemia due to a mixed GH- and prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma with or without associated hyperplasia; less commonly they develop diffuse hyperplasia of the GH- and prolactin-secreting pituitary cells without a pituitary adenoma. Most affected individuals are females. Growth acceleration is the main presenting feature; other frequently observed clinical features include enlargement of hands and feet, coarsening of the facial features, and increased appetite. Neurologic signs or symptoms are rarely present. Untreated X-linked acrogigantism can lead to markedly increased stature, with obvious severe physical and psychological sequelae.
Megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
861164
Concept ID:
C4012727
Disease or Syndrome
MPPH (megalencephaly-postaxial polydactyly-polymicrogyria-hydrocephalus) syndrome is a developmental brain disorder characterized by megalencephaly (brain overgrowth) with the cortical malformation bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria (BPP). At birth the occipital frontal circumference (OFC) ranges from normal to 6 standard deviations (SD) above the mean for age, sex, and gestational age; in older individuals the range is from 3 to 10 SD above the mean. A variable degree of ventriculomegaly is seen in almost all children with MPPH syndrome; nearly 50% of individuals have frank hydrocephalus. Neurologic problems associated with BPP include oromotor dysfunction (100%), epilepsy (50%), and mild-to-severe intellectual disability (100%). Postaxial hexadactyly occurs in 50% of individuals with MPPH syndrome.
Tatton-Brown-Rahman overgrowth syndrome
MedGen UID:
862982
Concept ID:
C4014545
Disease or Syndrome
Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS) is an overgrowth / intellectual disability syndrome characterized by length/height and/or head circumference =2 SD above the mean for age and sex, obesity / increased weight, intellectual disability that ranges from mild to severe, joint hypermobility, hypotonia, behavioral/psychiatric issues, kyphoscoliosis, and seizures. Individuals with TBRS have subtle dysmorphic features, including a round face with coarse features, thick horizontal low-set eyebrows, narrow (as measured vertically) palpebral fissures, and prominent upper central incisors. The facial gestalt is most easily recognizable in the teenage years. TBRS may be associated with an increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. There are less clear associations with aortic root dilatation and increased risk of other hematologic and solid tumors.
Luscan-Lumish syndrome
MedGen UID:
898669
Concept ID:
C4085873
Disease or Syndrome
Luscan-Lumish syndrome (LLS) is characterized by macrocephaly, intellectual disability, speech delay, low sociability, and behavioral problems. More variable features include postnatal overgrowth, obesity, advanced carpal ossification, developmental delay, and seizures (Luscan et al., 2014; Lumish et al., 2015)
Skeletal overgrowth-craniofacial dysmorphism-hyperelastic skin-white matter lesions syndrome
MedGen UID:
896409
Concept ID:
C4225270
Disease or Syndrome
Kosaki overgrowth syndrome (KOGS) is characterized by a facial gestalt involving prominent forehead, proptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures, broad nasal bridge, thin upper lip, and pointed chin. Affected individuals are tall, with an elongated lower segment, and have large hands and feet. Skin is hyperelastic and fragile. Patients exhibit progressive dilatory and vascular changes in basilar/vertebral and coronary arteries starting in the teenage years (Takenouchi et al., 2015; Takenouchi et al., 2021).
Tall stature-intellectual disability-renal anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
934682
Concept ID:
C4310715
Disease or Syndrome
Thauvin-Robinet-Faivre syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized overgrowth, mainly of height, and mildly delayed psychomotor development with mild or severe learning difficulties. More variable features may include congenital heart defects, kidney abnormalities, and skeletal defects. Patients may have an increased risk for Wilms tumor (summary by Akawi et al., 2016).
Cohen-Gibson syndrome
MedGen UID:
1386939
Concept ID:
C4479654
Disease or Syndrome
EED-related overgrowth is characterized by fetal or early childhood overgrowth (tall stature, macrocephaly, large hands and feet, and advanced bone age) and intellectual disability that ranges from mild to severe. To date, EED-related overgrowth has been reported in eight individuals.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 53
MedGen UID:
1623344
Concept ID:
C4540481
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Sclerosteosis 1
MedGen UID:
1642815
Concept ID:
C4551483
Disease or Syndrome
SOST-related sclerosing bone dysplasias include sclerosteosis and van Buchem disease, both disorders of progressive bone overgrowth due to increased bone formation. The major clinical features of sclerosteosis are progressive skeletal overgrowth, most pronounced in the skull and mandible, and variable syndactyly, usually of the second (index) and third (middle) fingers. Affected individuals appear normal at birth except for syndactyly. Facial distortion due to bossing of the forehead and mandibular overgrowth is seen in nearly all individuals and becomes apparent in early childhood with progression into adulthood. Hyperostosis of the skull results in narrowing of the foramina, causing entrapment of the seventh cranial nerve (leading to facial palsy) with other, less common nerve entrapment syndromes including visual loss (2nd cranial nerve), neuralgia or anosmia (5th cranial nerve), and sensory hearing loss (8th cranial nerve). In sclerosteosis, hyperostosis of the calvarium reduces intracranial volume, increasing the risk for potentially lethal elevation of intracranial pressure. Survival of individuals with sclerosteosis into old age is unusual, but not unprecedented. The manifestations of van Buchem disease are generally milder than sclerosteosis and syndactyly is absent; life span appears to be normal.
Linear nevus sebaceous syndrome
MedGen UID:
1646345
Concept ID:
C4552097
Disease or Syndrome
Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome, also known as linear sebaceous nevus syndrome, is characterized by sebaceous nevi, often on the face, associated with variable ipsilateral abnormalities of the central nervous system, ocular anomalies, and skeletal defects (summary by Happle, 1991 and Ernst et al., 2007). The linear sebaceous nevi follow the lines of Blaschko (Hornstein and Knickenberg, 1974; Bouwes Bavinck and van de Kamp, 1985). All cases are sporadic. The syndrome is believed to be caused by an autosomal dominant lethal mutation that survives by somatic mosaicism (Gorlin et al., 2001).
Global developmental delay - lung cysts - overgrowth - Wilms tumor syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648360
Concept ID:
C4748924
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic overgrowth syndrome characterised by global developmental delay, macrosomia with subsequent somatic overgrowth, bilateral cystic lung lesions, congenital nephromegaly and bilateral Wilms tumour. Craniofacial dysmorphism includes macrocephaly, frontal bossing, large anterior fontanelle, mild hypertelorism, ear pit, flat nasal bridge, anteverted nares and mild micrognathia. Additional features may include brain and skeletal anomalies, enlarged protuberant abdomen, fat pads on dorsum of feet and toes, and rugated soles with skin folds, as well as umbilical/inguinal hernia and autistic behaviour.
Imagawa-Matsumoto syndrome
MedGen UID:
1711007
Concept ID:
C5394073
Disease or Syndrome
Imagawa-Matsumoto syndrome (IMMAS) is characterized by variable pre- and postnatal overgrowth; dysmorphic features including postnatal macrocephaly, prominent forehead, round face, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, and low and broad nasal bridge; and variable musculoskeletal abnormalities. Developmental delay and impaired intellectual development are common, whereas abnormalities of cerebral imaging are uncommon but may be significant. Some patients exhibit genitourinary abnormalities, and respiratory issues have been reported (Cyrus et al., 2019).
Chromosome 17q11.2 deletion syndrome, 1.4Mb
MedGen UID:
1726802
Concept ID:
C5401456
Disease or Syndrome
Approximately 5 to 20% of all patients with neurofibromatosis type I (162200) carry a heterozygous deletion of approximately 1.4 Mb involving the NF1 gene and contiguous genes lying in its flanking regions (Riva et al., 2000; Jenne et al., 2001), which is caused by nonallelic homologous recombination of NF1 repeats A and C (Dorschner et al., 2000). The 'NF1 microdeletion syndrome' is often characterized by a more severe phenotype than that observed in the majority of NF1 patients. In particular, patients with NF1 microdeletion often show variable facial dysmorphism, mental retardation, developmental delay, an excessive number of early-onset neurofibromas (Venturin et al., 2004), and an increased risk for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (De Raedt et al., 2003).
Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1811435
Concept ID:
C5676906
Disease or Syndrome
Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome-2 (BRYLIB2) is a highly variable phenotype characterized predominantly by moderate to severe global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and delayed motor milestones. Most patients have hypotonia, although some have peripheral hypertonia. Common features include variable dysmorphic facial features, oculomotor abnormalities, feeding problems, and nonspecific brain imaging abnormalities. Additional features may include hearing loss, seizures, short stature, and mild skeletal defects (summary by Bryant et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome, see BRYLIB1 (619720).
Rabin-Pappas syndrome
MedGen UID:
1824042
Concept ID:
C5774269
Disease or Syndrome
Rabin-Pappas syndrome (RAPAS) is a multisystemic disorder characterized by severely impaired global development apparent from infancy, feeding difficulties with failure to thrive, small head circumference, and dysmorphic facial features. Affected individuals have impaired intellectual development and hypotonia; they do not achieve walking or meaningful speech. Other neurologic findings may include seizures, hearing loss, ophthalmologic defects, and brain imaging abnormalities. There is variable involvement of other organ systems, including skeletal, genitourinary, cardiac, and possibly endocrine (Rabin et al., 2020).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 70
MedGen UID:
1824044
Concept ID:
C5774271
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-70 (MRD70) is characterized by mild global developmental delay, moderately impaired intellectual disability with speech difficulties, and behavioral abnormalities. More variable findings may include hypotonia and dysmorphic features (Rabin et al., 2020)
Obesity and hypopigmentation
MedGen UID:
1824062
Concept ID:
C5774289
Disease or Syndrome
Obesity and hypopigmentation (OBHP) is characterized by early-onset severe obesity and hypopigmentation of the skin. Some affected individuals have red hair, and some experience increased appetite and exhibit reduced energy expenditure (Kempf et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, spasticity, and complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1840932
Concept ID:
C5830296
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, spasticity, and partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum (NEDSSCC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by axial hypotonia and global developmental delay apparent from the first days or months of life. Affected individuals often have feeding difficulties and develop early-onset seizures that tend to be well-controlled. Other features include peripheral spasticity with hyperreflexia, variable dysmorphic features, impaired intellectual development, behavioral abnormalities, and hypoplasia or absence of the corpus callosum on brain imaging (Faqeih et al., 2023).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Pimentel M, Saad RJ, Long MD, Rao SSC
Am J Gastroenterol 2020 Feb;115(2):165-178. doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000000501. PMID: 32023228
Rao SSC, Bhagatwala J
Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2019 Oct;10(10):e00078. doi: 10.14309/ctg.0000000000000078. PMID: 31584459Free PMC Article
Brioude F, Kalish JM, Mussa A, Foster AC, Bliek J, Ferrero GB, Boonen SE, Cole T, Baker R, Bertoletti M, Cocchi G, Coze C, De Pellegrin M, Hussain K, Ibrahim A, Kilby MD, Krajewska-Walasek M, Kratz CP, Ladusans EJ, Lapunzina P, Le Bouc Y, Maas SM, Macdonald F, Õunap K, Peruzzi L, Rossignol S, Russo S, Shipster C, Skórka A, Tatton-Brown K, Tenorio J, Tortora C, Grønskov K, Netchine I, Hennekam RC, Prawitt D, Tümer Z, Eggermann T, Mackay DJG, Riccio A, Maher ER
Nat Rev Endocrinol 2018 Apr;14(4):229-249. Epub 2018 Jan 29 doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2017.166. PMID: 29377879Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Zafar H, Jimenez B, Schneider A
Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2023 Nov 1;39(6):522-528. Epub 2023 Sep 18 doi: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000971. PMID: 37751393
Bushyhead D, Quigley EM
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2021 Jun;50(2):463-474. Epub 2021 Apr 23 doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2021.02.008. PMID: 34024452
Yehia L, Keel E, Eng C
Annu Rev Med 2020 Jan 27;71:103-116. Epub 2019 Aug 21 doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-052218-125823. PMID: 31433956
Quigley EMM
Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2019 Jan 15;21(1):3. doi: 10.1007/s11894-019-0671-z. PMID: 30645678
Erdogan A, Rao SS
Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2015 Apr;17(4):16. doi: 10.1007/s11894-015-0436-2. PMID: 25786900

Diagnosis

Zafar H, Jimenez B, Schneider A
Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2023 Nov 1;39(6):522-528. Epub 2023 Sep 18 doi: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000971. PMID: 37751393
Bushyhead D, Quigley EMM
Gastroenterology 2022 Sep;163(3):593-607. Epub 2022 Apr 7 doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2022.04.002. PMID: 35398346
Bushyhead D, Quigley EM
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2021 Jun;50(2):463-474. Epub 2021 Apr 23 doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2021.02.008. PMID: 34024452
Pimentel M, Saad RJ, Long MD, Rao SSC
Am J Gastroenterol 2020 Feb;115(2):165-178. doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000000501. PMID: 32023228
Yehia L, Keel E, Eng C
Annu Rev Med 2020 Jan 27;71:103-116. Epub 2019 Aug 21 doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-052218-125823. PMID: 31433956

Therapy

Zafar H, Jimenez B, Schneider A
Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2023 Nov 1;39(6):522-528. Epub 2023 Sep 18 doi: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000971. PMID: 37751393
Bushyhead D, Quigley EM
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2021 Jun;50(2):463-474. Epub 2021 Apr 23 doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2021.02.008. PMID: 34024452
Pimentel M, Saad RJ, Long MD, Rao SSC
Am J Gastroenterol 2020 Feb;115(2):165-178. doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000000501. PMID: 32023228
Rao SSC, Bhagatwala J
Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2019 Oct;10(10):e00078. doi: 10.14309/ctg.0000000000000078. PMID: 31584459Free PMC Article
Judge DP, Dietz HC
Lancet 2005 Dec 3;366(9501):1965-76. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67789-6. PMID: 16325700Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Khaw RA, Nevins EJ, Phillips AW
J Gastrointest Surg 2022 Aug;26(8):1781-1790. Epub 2022 Apr 28 doi: 10.1007/s11605-022-05323-y. PMID: 35484473
Yehia L, Keel E, Eng C
Annu Rev Med 2020 Jan 27;71:103-116. Epub 2019 Aug 21 doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-052218-125823. PMID: 31433956
Signoretti M, Roggiolani R, Stornello C, Delle Fave G, Capurso G
Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 2017 Dec;63(4):399-410. Epub 2017 Feb 24 doi: 10.23736/S1121-421X.17.02387-X. PMID: 28240004
Phillips ME
Pancreatology 2015 Sep-Oct;15(5):449-455. Epub 2015 Jun 23 doi: 10.1016/j.pan.2015.06.003. PMID: 26145836
Semkova K, Gergovska M, Kazandjieva J, Tsankov N
Clin Dermatol 2015 Jul-Aug;33(4):483-91. Epub 2015 Apr 8 doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2015.04.013. PMID: 26051066

Clinical prediction guides

Baumgartner M, Lang M, Holley H, Crepaz D, Hausmann B, Pjevac P, Moser D, Haller F, Hof F, Beer A, Orgler E, Frick A, Khare V, Evstatiev R, Strohmaier S, Primas C, Dolak W, Köcher T, Klavins K, Rath T, Neurath MF, Berry D, Makristathis A, Muttenthaler M, Gasche C
Gastroenterology 2021 Oct;161(4):1245-1256.e20. Epub 2021 Jun 17 doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2021.06.024. PMID: 34146566Free PMC Article
Downes TJ, Cheruvu MS, Karunaratne TB, De Giorgio R, Farmer AD
J Clin Gastroenterol 2018 Jul;52(6):477-489. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001047. PMID: 29877952
Deng Y, Misselwitz B, Dai N, Fox M
Nutrients 2015 Sep 18;7(9):8020-35. doi: 10.3390/nu7095380. PMID: 26393648Free PMC Article
Erdogan A, Rao SS
Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2015 Apr;17(4):16. doi: 10.1007/s11894-015-0436-2. PMID: 25786900
Silberberg N, Goldstein M, Smidt A
Quintessence Int 2009 Nov-Dec;40(10):809-18. PMID: 19898712

Recent systematic reviews

Sroka N, Rydzewska-Rosołowska A, Kakareko K, Rosołowski M, Głowińska I, Hryszko T
Nutrients 2022 Dec 24;15(1) doi: 10.3390/nu15010090. PMID: 36615748Free PMC Article
Yu CY, Huang TW, Tam KW
Int J Surg 2022 Nov;107:106969. Epub 2022 Oct 31 doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2022.106969. PMID: 36328344
Wang J, Zhang L, Hou X
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Dec;15(12):1385-1399. Epub 2021 Nov 26 doi: 10.1080/17474124.2021.2005579. PMID: 34767484
Nickles MA, Hasan A, Shakhbazova A, Wright S, Chambers CJ, Sivamani RK
J Altern Complement Med 2021 Feb;27(2):108-119. Epub 2020 Oct 19 doi: 10.1089/acm.2020.0275. PMID: 33074705
Zhong C, Qu C, Wang B, Liang S, Zeng B
J Clin Gastroenterol 2017 Apr;51(4):300-311. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000814. PMID: 28267052

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