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Sudden cardiac death(SCD)

MedGen UID:
38841
Concept ID:
C0085298
Pathologic Function
Synonyms: SCD; Sudden adult death syndrome
SNOMED CT: Sudden cardiac death (95281009)
 
HPO: HP:0001645
OMIM®: 115080

Definition

The heart suddenly and unexpectedly stops beating resulting in death within a short time period (generally within 1 h of symptom onset). [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Ebstein anomaly
MedGen UID:
4435
Concept ID:
C0013481
Congenital Abnormality
Ebstein anomaly is characterized by downward displacement of variable severity of the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The valve leaflets may be dysplastic, and a variable portion of the proximal part of the right ventricle is in continuity with the right atrium ('atrialized'), because of the abnormally positioned tricuspid valve. The severity of this defect includes a spectrum ranging from severe disturbance in fetal and neonatal life to virtually asymptomatic survival to adult life. Associated extracardiac anomalies in the setting of chromosomal or mendelian disorders occur in about 20% of patients with Ebstein anomaly. Nonsyndromic Ebstein anomaly can occur as a sporadic or a familial defect (summary by Digilio et al., 2011).
Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern
MedGen UID:
12162
Concept ID:
C0043202
Disease or Syndrome
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a condition characterized by abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that cause a disruption of the heart's normal rhythm (arrhythmia).\n\nThe heartbeat is controlled by electrical signals that move through the heart in a highly coordinated way. A specialized cluster of cells called the atrioventricular node conducts electrical impulses from the heart's upper chambers (the atria) to the lower chambers (the ventricles). Impulses move through the atrioventricular node during each heartbeat, stimulating the ventricles to contract slightly later than the atria.\n\nPeople with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome are born with an extra connection in the heart, called an accessory pathway, that allows electrical signals to bypass the atrioventricular node and move from the atria to the ventricles faster than usual. The accessory pathway may also transmit electrical impulses abnormally from the ventricles back to the atria. This extra connection can disrupt the coordinated movement of electrical signals through the heart, leading to an abnormally fast heartbeat (tachycardia) and other changes in heart rhythm. Resulting symptoms include dizziness, a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations), shortness of breath, and fainting (syncope). In rare cases, arrhythmias associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome can lead to cardiac arrest and sudden death. The most common arrhythmia associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is called paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.\n\nComplications of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome can occur at any age, although some individuals born with an accessory pathway in the heart never experience any health problems associated with the condition.\n\nWolff-Parkinson-White syndrome often occurs with other structural abnormalities of the heart or underlying heart disease. The most common heart defect associated with the condition is Ebstein anomaly, which affects the valve that allows blood to flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle (the tricuspid valve). Additionally, the heart rhythm problems associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome can be a component of several other genetic syndromes, including hypokalemic periodic paralysis (a condition that causes episodes of extreme muscle weakness), Pompe disease (a disorder characterized by the storage of excess glycogen), Danon disease (a condition that weakens the heart and skeletal muscles and causes intellectual disability), and tuberous sclerosis complex (a condition that results in the growth of noncancerous tumors in many parts of the body).
Cataract 46 juvenile-onset
MedGen UID:
113102
Concept ID:
C0220721
Disease or Syndrome
Juvenile-onset cataract-46 with or without arrhythmic cardiomyopathy (CTRCT46) is characterized by onset of cataract in the first decades of life, associated with variable onset of a severe form of arrhythmic cardiomyopathy, with mild impairment of left ventricular systolic function but severe ventricular arrhythmias resulting in sudden cardiac death. Affected individuals are descendants of the Hutterite founder population (Abdelfatah et al., 2019).
Familial ventricular tachycardia
MedGen UID:
83309
Concept ID:
C0340485
Disease or Syndrome
An instance of ventricular tachycardia that is caused by an inherited modification of the individual's genome.
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 2, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
98048
Concept ID:
C0410190
Disease or Syndrome
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is characterized by the clinical triad of: joint contractures that begin in early childhood; slowly progressive muscle weakness and wasting initially in a humero-peroneal distribution that later extends to the scapular and pelvic girdle muscles; and cardiac involvement that may manifest as palpitations, presyncope and syncope, poor exercise tolerance, and congestive heart failure along with variable cardiac rhythm disturbances. Age of onset, severity, and progression of muscle and cardiac involvement demonstrate both inter- and intrafamilial variability. Clinical variability ranges from early onset with severe presentation in childhood to late onset with slow progression in adulthood. In general, joint contractures appear during the first two decades, followed by muscle weakness and wasting. Cardiac involvement usually occurs after the second decade and respiratory function may be impaired in some individuals.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1A
MedGen UID:
258500
Concept ID:
C1449563
Disease or Syndrome
LMNA-related dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular enlargement and/or reduced systolic function preceded (sometimes by many years) by or accompanied by conduction system disease and/or arrhythmias. LMNA-related DCM usually presents in early to mid-adulthood with symptomatic conduction system disease or arrhythmias, or with symptomatic DCM including heart failure or embolus from a left ventricular mural thrombus. Sudden cardiac death can occur, and in some instances is the presenting manifestation; sudden cardiac death may occur with minimal or no systolic dysfunction.
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 1
MedGen UID:
351513
Concept ID:
C1631597
Disease or Syndrome
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by episodic syncope occurring during exercise or acute emotion. The underlying cause of these episodes is the onset of fast ventricular tachycardia (bidirectional or polymorphic). Spontaneous recovery may occur when these arrhythmias self-terminate. In other instances, ventricular tachycardia may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not readily available. The mean onset of symptoms (usually a syncopal episode) is between age seven and 12 years; onset as late as the fourth decade of life has been reported. If untreated, CPVT is highly lethal, as approximately 30% of affected individuals experience at least one cardiac arrest and up to 80% have one or more syncopal spells. Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1D
MedGen UID:
316943
Concept ID:
C1832243
Disease or Syndrome
Left ventricular noncompaction is a heart (cardiac) muscle disorder that occurs when the lower left chamber of the heart (left ventricle), which helps the heart pump blood, does not develop correctly. Instead of the muscle being smooth and firm, the cardiac muscle in the left ventricle is thick and appears spongy. The abnormal cardiac muscle is weak and has an impaired ability to pump blood because it either cannot completely contract or it cannot completely relax. For the heart to pump blood normally, cardiac muscle must contract and relax fully.\n\nSome individuals with left ventricular noncompaction experience no symptoms at all; others have heart problems that can include sudden cardiac death. Additional signs and symptoms include abnormal blood clots, irregular heart rhythm (arrhythmia), a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations), extreme fatigue during exercise (exercise intolerance), shortness of breath (dyspnea), fainting (syncope), swelling of the legs (lymphedema), and trouble laying down flat. Some affected individuals have features of other heart defects. Left ventricular noncompaction can be diagnosed at any age, from birth to late adulthood. Approximately two-thirds of individuals with left ventricular noncompaction develop heart failure.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1C
MedGen UID:
316944
Concept ID:
C1832244
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant subtype of dilated cardiomyopathy caused by mutation(s) in the LDB3 gene, encoding LIM domain-binding protein 3.
Naxos disease
MedGen UID:
321991
Concept ID:
C1832600
Disease or Syndrome
Naxos disease (NXD) is characterized by arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy associated with abnormalities of the skin, hair, and nails. The ectodermal features are evident from birth or early childhood, whereas the cardiac symptoms develop in young adulthood or later. Clinical variability of ectodermal features has been observed, with hair anomalies ranging from woolly hair to alopecia, and skin abnormalities ranging from mild focal palmoplantar keratoderma to generalized skin fragility or even lethal neonatal epidermolysis bullosa (Protonotarios et al., 1986; Cabral et al., 2010; Pigors et al., 2011; Erken et al., 2011; Sen-Chowdhry and McKenna, 2014). Another syndrome involving cardiomyopathy, woolly hair, and keratoderma (DCWHK; 605676) is caused by mutation in the desmoplakin gene (DSP; 125647). Also see 610476 for a similar disorder caused by homozygous mutation in the DSC2 gene (125645).
Timothy syndrome
MedGen UID:
331395
Concept ID:
C1832916
Disease or Syndrome
The first identified CACNA1C-related disorder, referred to as Timothy syndrome, consists of the combination of prolonged QT interval, autism, and cardiovascular malformation with syndactyly of the fingers and toes. Infrequent findings also include developmental and speech delay, seizures, and recurrent infections. With increased availability of molecular genetic testing, a wider spectrum of pathogenic variants and clinical findings associated with CACNA1C-related disorders has been recognized. Because CACNA1C is associated with calcium channel function, all individuals with a pathogenic variant in this gene are at risk for cardiac arrhythmia of a specific type. The clinical manifestations of a CACNA1C-related disorder include three phenotypes: Timothy syndrome with or without syndactyly. QT prolongation (QTc >480 ms) and arrhythmias in the absence of other syndromic features. Short QT syndrome (QTc <350 ms) or Brugada syndrome with short QT interval. These three phenotypes can be separated into two broad categories on the basis of the functional consequences of the pathogenic variants in CACNA1C: QT prolongation with or without a Timothy syndrome-associated phenotype associated with pathogenic variants inducing a gain of function at the cellular level (i.e., increased calcium current). Short QT interval with or without Brugada syndrome EKG pattern associated with pathogenic variants causing loss of function (i.e., reduced calcium current).
Sick sinus syndrome 2, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
320273
Concept ID:
C1834144
Disease or Syndrome
Sick sinus syndrome (also known as sinus node dysfunction) is a group of related heart conditions that can affect how the heart beats. "Sick sinus" refers to the sino-atrial (SA) node, which is an area of specialized cells in the heart that functions as a natural pacemaker. The SA node generates electrical impulses that start each heartbeat. These signals travel from the SA node to the rest of the heart, signaling the heart (cardiac) muscle to contract and pump blood. In people with sick sinus syndrome, the SA node does not function normally. In some cases, it does not produce the right signals to trigger a regular heartbeat. In others, abnormalities disrupt the electrical impulses and prevent them from reaching the rest of the heart.\n\nSick sinus syndrome occurs most commonly in older adults, although it can be diagnosed in people of any age. The condition increases the risk of several life-threatening problems involving the heart and blood vessels. These include a heart rhythm abnormality called atrial fibrillation, heart failure, cardiac arrest, and stroke.\n\nSick sinus syndrome tends to cause the heartbeat to be too slow (bradycardia), although occasionally the heartbeat is too fast (tachycardia). In some cases, the heartbeat rapidly switches from being too fast to being too slow, a condition known as tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome. Symptoms related to abnormal heartbeats can include dizziness, light-headedness, fainting (syncope), a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations), and confusion or memory problems. During exercise, many affected individuals experience chest pain, difficulty breathing, or excessive tiredness (fatigue). Once symptoms of sick sinus syndrome appear, they usually worsen with time. However, some people with the condition never experience any related health problems.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 10
MedGen UID:
331754
Concept ID:
C1834460
Disease or Syndrome
Any hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYL2 gene.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1S
MedGen UID:
371831
Concept ID:
C1834481
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYH7 gene.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 9
MedGen UID:
373205
Concept ID:
C1836906
Disease or Syndrome
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years).
Atrial fibrillation, familial, 3
MedGen UID:
373232
Concept ID:
C1837014
Disease or Syndrome
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of atrial fibrillation, see 608583.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 8
MedGen UID:
324806
Concept ID:
C1837471
Disease or Syndrome
Any hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYL3 gene.
Progressive familial heart block type II
MedGen UID:
333884
Concept ID:
C1841658
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive familial heart block type II (PFHB2) is an autosomal dominant disorder, similar to type I progressive familial heart block (PFHB1; see 113900). The pattern of PFHB2, however, tends to develop along the lines of a sinus bradycardia with a left posterior hemiblock, presenting clinically as syncopal episodes, Stokes-Adams seizures, or sudden death when complete heart block supervenes (Brink and Torrington, 1977).
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 8
MedGen UID:
336069
Concept ID:
C1843896
Disease or Syndrome
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years).
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1L
MedGen UID:
335735
Concept ID:
C1847667
Disease or Syndrome
Dilated cardiomyopathy, a disorder characterized by cardiac dilation and reduced systolic function, represents an outcome of a heterogeneous group of inherited and acquired disorders. For background and phenotypic information on dilated cardiomyopathy, see CMD1A (115200).
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1J
MedGen UID:
343105
Concept ID:
C1854368
Disease or Syndrome
Sensorineural deafness with dilated cardiomyopathy is an extremely rare autosomal dominant syndrome described in two families to date and characterized by moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss manifesting during childhood, and associated with late-onset dilated cardiomyopathy that generally progresses to heart failure.
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 5
MedGen UID:
347542
Concept ID:
C1857776
Disease or Syndrome
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type V (MGCA5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the onset of dilated or noncompaction cardiomyopathy in infancy or early childhood. Many patients die of cardiac failure. Other features include microcytic anemia, growth retardation, mild ataxia, mild muscle weakness, genital anomalies in males, and increased urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid. Some patients may have optic atrophy or delayed psychomotor development (summary by Davey et al., 2006 and Ojala et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, see MGCA type I (250950).
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 10
MedGen UID:
347543
Concept ID:
C1857777
Disease or Syndrome
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years).
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 6
MedGen UID:
346892
Concept ID:
C1858378
Disease or Syndrome
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years).
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 5
MedGen UID:
346805
Concept ID:
C1858379
Disease or Syndrome
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years).
Left ventricular noncompaction 1
MedGen UID:
349005
Concept ID:
C1858725
Disease or Syndrome
Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is characterized by numerous prominent trabeculations and deep intertrabecular recesses in hypertrophied and hypokinetic segments of the left ventricle (Sasse-Klaassen et al., 2004). The mechanistic basis is thought to be an intrauterine arrest of myocardial development with lack of compaction of the loose myocardial meshwork. LVNC may occur in isolation or in association with congenital heart disease. Distinctive morphologic features can be recognized on 2-dimensional echocardiography (Kurosaki et al., 1999). Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium is sometimes referred to as spongy myocardium. Stollberger et al. (2002) commented that the term 'isolated LVNC,' meaning LVNC without coexisting cardiac abnormalities, is misleading, because additional cardiac abnormalities are found in nearly all patients with LVNC. Genetic Heterogeneity of Left Ventricular Noncompaction A locus for autosomal dominant left ventricular noncompaction has been identified on chromosome 11p15 (LVNC2; 609470). LVNC3 (see 605906) is caused by mutation in the LDB3 gene (605906) on chromosome 10q23. LVNC4 (see 613424) is caused by mutation in the ACTC1 gene (102540) on chromosome 15q14. LVNC5 (see 613426) is caused by mutation in the MYH7 gene (160760) on chromosome 14q12. LVNC6 (see 601494) is caused by mutation in the TNNT2 gene (191045) on chromosome 1q32. LVNC7 (615092) is caused by mutation in the MIB1 gene (608677) on chromosome 18q11. LVNC8 (615373) is caused by mutation in the PRDM16 gene (605557) on chromosome 1p36. LVNC9 (see 611878) is caused by mutation in the TPM1 gene (191010) on chromosome 15q22. LVNC10 (615396) is caused by mutation in the MYBPC3 gene (600958) on chromosome 11p11. LVNC can also occur as part of an X-linked disorder, Barth syndrome (302060), caused by mutation in the TAZ gene (300394) on chromosome Xq28.
Long QT syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
349087
Concept ID:
C1859062
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Sengers syndrome
MedGen UID:
395228
Concept ID:
C1859317
Disease or Syndrome
Sengers syndrome is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder characterized by congenital cataracts, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, exercise intolerance, and lactic acidosis. Mental development is normal, but affected individuals may die early from cardiomyopathy (summary by Mayr et al., 2012). Skeletal muscle biopsies of 2 affected individuals showed severe mtDNA depletion (Calvo et al., 2012).
Cardiomyopathy, familial restrictive, 1
MedGen UID:
396236
Concept ID:
C1861861
Disease or Syndrome
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a myocardial disease characterized by impaired ventricular filling and reduced diastolic volume in the presence of normal systolic function and normal or near-normal myocardial thickness. The disease is characterized by symptoms of progressive left- and right-sided heart failure. The overall prognosis is poor, especially when onset is in childhood, and patients often require cardiac transplantation (Mogensen et al., 2003). Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Restrictive Cardiomyopathy Other forms of familial restrictive cardiomyopathy include RCM2 (609578), mapped to chromosome 10q23; RCM3 (612422), caused by mutation in the TNNT2 gene (191045) on chromosome 1q32; RCM4 (see 615248), caused by mutation in the MYPN gene (608517) on chromosome 10q21; RCM5 (see 617047), caused by mutation in the FLNC gene (102565) on chromosome 7q32; and RCM6 (619433), caused by mutation in the KIF20A gene (605664) on chromosome 5q31.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 4
MedGen UID:
350526
Concept ID:
C1861862
Disease or Syndrome
Nonfamilial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy tends to be milder. This form typically begins later in life than familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and affected individuals have a lower risk of serious cardiac events and sudden death than people with the familial form.\n\nWhile most people with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are symptom-free or have only mild symptoms, this condition can have serious consequences. It can cause abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) that may be life threatening. People with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have an increased risk of sudden death, even if they have no other symptoms of the condition. A small number of affected individuals develop potentially fatal heart failure, which may require heart transplantation.\n\nThe symptoms of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are variable, even within the same family. Many affected individuals have no symptoms. Other people with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may experience chest pain; shortness of breath, especially with physical exertion; a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations); lightheadedness; dizziness; and fainting.\n\nIn familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac thickening usually occurs in the interventricular septum, which is the muscular wall that separates the lower left chamber of the heart (the left ventricle) from the lower right chamber (the right ventricle). In some people, thickening of the interventricular septum impedes the flow of oxygen-rich blood from the heart, which may lead to an abnormal heart sound during a heartbeat (heart murmur) and other signs and symptoms of the condition. Other affected individuals do not have physical obstruction of blood flow, but the pumping of blood is less efficient, which can also lead to symptoms of the condition. Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy often begins in adolescence or young adulthood, although it can develop at any time throughout life.\n\nHypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a heart condition characterized by thickening (hypertrophy) of the heart (cardiac) muscle. When multiple members of a family have the condition, it is known as familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy also occurs in people with no family history; these cases are considered nonfamilial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. 
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 3
MedGen UID:
349382
Concept ID:
C1861863
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-3 (CMH3) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased myocardial mass with myocyte and myofibrillar disarray (Thierfelder et al., 1994). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, see CMH1 (192600).
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
349530
Concept ID:
C1862511
Disease or Syndrome
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years).
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 11
MedGen UID:
351237
Concept ID:
C1864850
Disease or Syndrome
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years).
Short QT syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
355890
Concept ID:
C1865019
Disease or Syndrome
Short QT syndrome is a cardiac channelopathy associated with a predisposition to atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Patients have a structurally normal heart, but electrocardiography (ECG) exhibits abbreviated QTc (Bazett's corrected QT) intervals of less than 360 ms (summary by Moreno et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short QT syndrome, see SQT1 (609620).
Short QT syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
355891
Concept ID:
C1865020
Disease or Syndrome
Short QT syndrome (SQT) is a cardiac channelopathy associated with a predisposition to atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Patients have a structurally normal heart, but electrocardiography (ECG) exhibits abbreviated QTc (Bazett's corrected QT) intervals of less than 360 ms (summary by Moreno et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Short QT Syndrome Short QT syndrome-2 (SQT2; 609621) is caused by mutation in the KCNQ1 gene (607542). SQT3 (609622) is caused by mutation in the KCNJ2 gene (600681). SQT7 (620231) is caused by mutation in the SLC4A3 gene (106195).
Long QT syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
358092
Concept ID:
C1867904
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Progressive familial heart block, type 1A
MedGen UID:
406301
Concept ID:
C1879286
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive familial heart block type I (PFHBI, PFHB1) is an autosomal dominant cardiac bundle branch disorder that may progress to complete heart block (Brink and Torrington, 1977; van der Merwe et al., 1986; van der Merwe et al., 1988). It is defined on electrocardiogram by evidence of bundle branch disease, i.e., right bundle branch block, left anterior or posterior hemiblock, or complete heart block, with broad QRS complexes. Progression has been shown from a normal electrocardiogram to right bundle branch block and from the latter to complete heart block. These electrocardiographic features differentiate PFHB type I from progressive familial heart block type II (PFHBII, PFHB2; 140400), in which the onset of complete heart block is associated with narrow complexes. Electrocardiographically the changes represent, respectively, bundle branch disease (PFHB1) and atrioventricular nodal disease with an atrioventricular block and an idionodal escape rhythm (PFHB2). PFHBI is manifested symptomatically when complete heart block supervenes, either with dyspnea, syncopal episodes, or sudden death. Treatment, which is best managed by regular electrocardiographic follow-up, is by the timely implantation of a pacemaker (Brink et al., 1995). Genetic Heterogeneity of Progressive Familial Heart Block Type I Progressive familial heart block type IB (PFHB1B; 604559) is caused by mutation in the TRPM4 gene (606936) on chromosome 19q13.32.
Cardiac arrhythmia, ankyrin-B-related
MedGen UID:
370181
Concept ID:
C1970119
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Coronary artery disease, autosomal dominant 2
MedGen UID:
370259
Concept ID:
C1970440
Disease or Syndrome
Any coronary artery disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the LRP6 gene.
Brugada syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
382031
Concept ID:
C2673193
Disease or Syndrome
Brugada syndrome is characterized by cardiac conduction abnormalities (ST segment abnormalities in leads V1-V3 on EKG and a high risk for ventricular arrhythmias) that can result in sudden death. Brugada syndrome presents primarily during adulthood, although age at diagnosis may range from infancy to late adulthood. The mean age of sudden death is approximately 40 years. Clinical presentations may also include sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS; death of a child during the first year of life without an identifiable cause) and sudden unexpected nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS), a typical presentation in individuals from Southeast Asia. Other conduction defects can include first-degree AV block, intraventricular conduction delay, right bundle branch block, and sick sinus syndrome.
Early-onset myopathy with fatal cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
435983
Concept ID:
C2673677
Disease or Syndrome
Salih myopathy is characterized by muscle weakness (manifest during the neonatal period or in early infancy) and delayed motor development; children acquire independent walking between ages 20 months and four years. In the first decade of life, global motor performance is stable or tends to improve. Moderate joint and neck contractures and spinal rigidity may manifest in the first decade but become more obvious in the second decade. Scoliosis develops after age 11 years. Cardiac dysfunction manifests between ages five and 16 years, progresses rapidly, and leads to death between ages eight and 20 years, usually from heart rhythm disturbances.
Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
394108
Concept ID:
C2676723
Disease or Syndrome
Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (JLNS) is characterized by congenital profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and long QTc, usually >500 msec. Prolongation of the QTc interval is associated with tachyarrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia, episodes of torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation, which may culminate in syncope or sudden death. Iron-deficient anemia and elevated levels of gastrin are also frequent features of JLNS. The classic presentation of JLNS is a deaf child who experiences syncopal episodes during periods of stress, exercise, or fright. Fifty percent of individuals with JLNS had cardiac events before age three years. More than half of untreated children with JLNS die before age 15 years.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 12
MedGen UID:
393755
Concept ID:
C2677491
Disease or Syndrome
Any hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CSRP3 gene.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1Z
MedGen UID:
395631
Concept ID:
C2678475
Disease or Syndrome
Dilated cardiomyopathy-1Z (CMD1Z) is characterized by severe reduction in cardiac function, with onset in infancy or early childhood in some patients but diagnosis as late as the fifth decade in others. Patients exhibit biventricular systolic dysfunction, with severely reduced left ventricular ejection fractions. Most affected individuals require transplantation for survival (Mogensen et al., 2004; Kaski et al., 2007; Pinto et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of dilated cardiomyopathy, see CMD1A (115200).
Brugada syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
395633
Concept ID:
C2678478
Disease or Syndrome
Brugada syndrome is characterized by cardiac conduction abnormalities (ST segment abnormalities in leads V1-V3 on EKG and a high risk for ventricular arrhythmias) that can result in sudden death. Brugada syndrome presents primarily during adulthood, although age at diagnosis may range from infancy to late adulthood. The mean age of sudden death is approximately 40 years. Clinical presentations may also include sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS; death of a child during the first year of life without an identifiable cause) and sudden unexpected nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS), a typical presentation in individuals from Southeast Asia. Other conduction defects can include first-degree AV block, intraventricular conduction delay, right bundle branch block, and sick sinus syndrome.
Long QT syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
394836
Concept ID:
C2678484
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1DD
MedGen UID:
416441
Concept ID:
C2750995
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant subtype of dilated cardiomyopathy caused by mutation(s) in the RBM20 gene, encoding RNA-binding protein 20.
Ventricular fibrillation, paroxysmal familial, 2
MedGen UID:
442823
Concept ID:
C2751829
Disease or Syndrome
Any ventricular fibrillation in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the DPP6 gene.
PGM1-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
414536
Concept ID:
C2752015
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type It (CDG1T) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations and severity. The most common features include cleft lip and bifid uvula, apparent at birth, followed by hepatopathy, intermittent hypoglycemia, short stature, and exercise intolerance, often accompanied by increased serum creatine kinase. Less common features include rhabdomyolysis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (summary by Tegtmeyer et al., 2014). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Long QT syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
462293
Concept ID:
C3150943
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Long QT syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
462303
Concept ID:
C3150953
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 16
MedGen UID:
462554
Concept ID:
C3151204
Disease or Syndrome
Any hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYOZ2 gene.
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 4
MedGen UID:
766961
Concept ID:
C3554047
Disease or Syndrome
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by episodic syncope occurring during exercise or acute emotion. The underlying cause of these episodes is the onset of fast ventricular tachycardia (bidirectional or polymorphic). Spontaneous recovery may occur when these arrhythmias self-terminate. In other instances, ventricular tachycardia may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not readily available. The mean onset of symptoms (usually a syncopal episode) is between age seven and 12 years; onset as late as the fourth decade of life has been reported. If untreated, CPVT is highly lethal, as approximately 30% of affected individuals experience at least one cardiac arrest and up to 80% have one or more syncopal spells. Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease.
Very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
MedGen UID:
854382
Concept ID:
C3887523
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (VLCAD), which catalyzes the initial step of mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids with a chain length of 14 to 20 carbons, is associated with three phenotypes. The severe early-onset cardiac and multiorgan failure form typically presents in the first months of life with hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy, pericardial effusion, and arrhythmias, as well as hypotonia, hepatomegaly, and intermittent hypoglycemia. The hepatic or hypoketotic hypoglycemic form typically presents during early childhood with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and hepatomegaly, but without cardiomyopathy. The later-onset episodic myopathic form presents with intermittent rhabdomyolysis provoked by exercise, muscle cramps and/or pain, and/or exercise intolerance. Hypoglycemia typically is not present at the time of symptoms.
Atrial fibrillation, familial, 15
MedGen UID:
862706
Concept ID:
C4014269
Disease or Syndrome
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a supraventricular tachyarrhythmia characterized by uncoordinated atrial activation with consequent deterioration of atrial mechanical function. It is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, and its prevalence increases as the population ages. An estimated 70,000 strokes each year are caused by atrial fibrillation (summary by Oberti et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of atrial fibrillation, see 608583.
Sudden cardiac failure, infantile
MedGen UID:
934631
Concept ID:
C4310664
Disease or Syndrome
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 26
MedGen UID:
934716
Concept ID:
C4310749
Disease or Syndrome
Familial cardiomyopathy caused by mutation in the FLNC gene has been described as hypertrophic, restrictive, dilated, or arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Affected individuals, especially those with dilated cardiomyopathy, are at risk for arrhythmias and sudden death. Arrhythmias without cardiomyopathy, and left ventricular noncompaction, have also been reported (Ortiz-Genga et al., 2016; Verdonschot et al., 2020).
Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1646925
Concept ID:
C4551509
Disease or Syndrome
Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (JLNS) is characterized by congenital profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and long QTc, usually >500 msec. Prolongation of the QTc interval is associated with tachyarrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia, episodes of torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation, which may culminate in syncope or sudden death. Iron-deficient anemia and elevated levels of gastrin are also frequent features of JLNS. The classic presentation of JLNS is a deaf child who experiences syncopal episodes during periods of stress, exercise, or fright. Fifty percent of individuals with JLNS had cardiac events before age three years. More than half of untreated children with JLNS die before age 15 years.
Long QT syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1641146
Concept ID:
C4551647
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Brugada syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1646402
Concept ID:
C4551804
Disease or Syndrome
Brugada syndrome is characterized by cardiac conduction abnormalities (ST segment abnormalities in leads V1-V3 on EKG and a high risk for ventricular arrhythmias) that can result in sudden death. Brugada syndrome presents primarily during adulthood, although age at diagnosis may range from infancy to late adulthood. The mean age of sudden death is approximately 40 years. Clinical presentations may also include sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS; death of a child during the first year of life without an identifiable cause) and sudden unexpected nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS), a typical presentation in individuals from Southeast Asia. Other conduction defects can include first-degree AV block, intraventricular conduction delay, right bundle branch block, and sick sinus syndrome.
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 1, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1720295
Concept ID:
C5243475
Disease or Syndrome
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern and caused by mutations in the EMD gene, encoding emerin.
Ventricular arrhythmias due to cardiac ryanodine receptor calcium release deficiency syndrome
MedGen UID:
1781114
Concept ID:
C5542154
Disease or Syndrome
Ventricular arrhythmias due to cardiac ryanodine receptor calcium release deficiency syndrome (VACRDS) is characterized by syncope, cardiac arrest, and/or sudden unexpected death. Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation have been documented in these patients. Symptoms generally occur with physical activity or emotional stress, but unlike typical catecholaminergic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), arrhythmias are not reproducible on exercise stress testing or adrenaline challenge (Sun et al., 2021). Mutation in the RYR2 gene also causes catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia-1 (CPVT1; 604772).
Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic, 28
MedGen UID:
1779612
Concept ID:
C5543616
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-28 (CMH28) is characterized by asymmetric septal hypertrophy, atrial fibrillation and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and risk of sudden death. Dyspnea is the most common symptom, but more than half of affected individuals are asymptomatic. Hypertrabeculation of the left ventricle with noncompaction has been observed in some patients (Ochoa et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, see CMH1 (192600).
Sick sinus syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1794159
Concept ID:
C5561949
Disease or Syndrome
Sick sinus syndrome-4 (SSS4) is characterized by early and progressive sinus node and atrioventricular conduction dysfunction. Patients show bradycardia and chronotropic incompetence, and may experience syncope. Atrioventricular conduction block ranges from mild to severe, and some patients also have intermittent atrial fibrillation. Many require implantation of a pacemaker, but sudden cardiac death has not been reported (Stallmeyer et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of sick sinus syndrome, see SSS1 (608567).
Short QT syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
1824077
Concept ID:
C5774304
Disease or Syndrome
Short QT syndrome-7 (SQT7) is characterized by a corrected QT interval of 370 ms or less and a J-point to T-peak less than 140 ms. Affected individuals may experience cardiac arrest and/or ventricular fibrillation at rest, and sudden death may occur. Affected children and most females are asymptomatic (Thorsen et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short QT syndrome, see SQT1 (609620).
Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic, 29, with polyglucosan bodies
MedGen UID:
1824081
Concept ID:
C5774308
Disease or Syndrome
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-29 (CMH29) is characterized by recurrent syncope, dyspnea on exertion, and palpitations. The clinical phenotype is associated with a poor prognosis due to lethal arrhythmias and cardiac failure. Cardiac muscle biopsies show intermyofibrillar accumulation of glycogen and polyglucosan bodies within cardiomyocytes, and skeletal muscle accumulation of glycogen has also been observed (Hedberg-Oldfors et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, see CMH1 (192600).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Sabbag A, Essayagh B, Barrera JDR, Basso C, Berni A, Cosyns B, Deharo JC, Deneke T, Di Biase L, Enriquez-Sarano M, Donal E, Imai K, Lim HS, Marsan NA, Turagam MK, Peichl P, Po SS, Haugaa KH, Shah D, de Riva Silva M, Bertrand P, Saba M, Dweck M, Townsend SN, Ngarmukos T, Fenelon G, Santangeli P, Sade LE, Corrado D, Lambiase P, Sanders P, Delacrétaz E, Jahangir A, Kaufman ES, Saggu DK, Pierard L, Delgado V, Lancellotti P
Europace 2022 Dec 9;24(12):1981-2003. doi: 10.1093/europace/euac125. PMID: 35951656
Erickson CC, Salerno JC, Berger S, Campbell R, Cannon B, Christiansen J, Moffatt K, Pflaumer A, Snyder CS, Srinivasan C, Valdes SO, Vetter VL, Zimmerman F; SECTION ON CARDIOLOGY AND CARDIAC SURGERY, PEDIATRIC AND CONGENITAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY SOCIETY (PACES) TASK FORCE ON PREVENTION OF SUDDEN DEATH IN THE YOUNG
Pediatrics 2021 Jul;148(1) Epub 2021 Jun 21 doi: 10.1542/peds.2021-052044. PMID: 34155130
Markatis E, Afthinos A, Antonakis E, Papanikolaou IC
Rev Cardiovasc Med 2020 Sep 30;21(3):321-338. doi: 10.31083/j.rcm.2020.03.102. PMID: 33070538

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Finocchiaro G, Westaby J, Sheppard MN, Papadakis M, Sharma S
J Am Coll Cardiol 2024 Jan 16;83(2):350-370. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2023.10.032. PMID: 38199713
Harmon KG
Clin Sports Med 2022 Jul;41(3):369-388. doi: 10.1016/j.csm.2022.02.002. PMID: 35710267
Kumar A, Avishay DM, Jones CR, Shaikh JD, Kaur R, Aljadah M, Kichloo A, Shiwalkar N, Keshavamurthy S
Rev Cardiovasc Med 2021 Mar 30;22(1):147-158. doi: 10.31083/j.rcm.2021.01.207. PMID: 33792256
Wong CX, Brown A, Lau DH, Chugh SS, Albert CM, Kalman JM, Sanders P
Heart Lung Circ 2019 Jan;28(1):6-14. Epub 2018 Sep 24 doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2018.08.026. PMID: 30482683
Emery MS, Kovacs RJ
JACC Heart Fail 2018 Jan;6(1):30-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jchf.2017.07.014. PMID: 29284578

Diagnosis

Finocchiaro G, Westaby J, Sheppard MN, Papadakis M, Sharma S
J Am Coll Cardiol 2024 Jan 16;83(2):350-370. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2023.10.032. PMID: 38199713
Galić E, Bešlić P, Kilić P, Planinić Z, Pašalić A, Galić I, Ćubela VV, Pekić P
Acta Clin Croat 2021 Dec;60(4):739-748. doi: 10.20471/acc.2021.60.04.22. PMID: 35734489Free PMC Article
Brugada J, Campuzano O, Arbelo E, Sarquella-Brugada G, Brugada R
J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 Aug 28;72(9):1046-1059. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.06.037. PMID: 30139433
Gourraud JB, Barc J, Thollet A, Le Marec H, Probst V
Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2017 Mar;110(3):188-195. Epub 2017 Jan 27 doi: 10.1016/j.acvd.2016.09.009. PMID: 28139454
Bagnall RD, Weintraub RG, Ingles J, Duflou J, Yeates L, Lam L, Davis AM, Thompson T, Connell V, Wallace J, Naylor C, Crawford J, Love DR, Hallam L, White J, Lawrence C, Lynch M, Morgan N, James P, du Sart D, Puranik R, Langlois N, Vohra J, Winship I, Atherton J, McGaughran J, Skinner JR, Semsarian C
N Engl J Med 2016 Jun 23;374(25):2441-52. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1510687. PMID: 27332903

Therapy

Irfan H
Curr Probl Cardiol 2024 Jan;49(1 Pt A):102060. Epub 2023 Aug 26 doi: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2023.102060. PMID: 37640171
Sanchez-Lozada LG, Rodriguez-Iturbe B, Kelley EE, Nakagawa T, Madero M, Feig DI, Borghi C, Piani F, Cara-Fuentes G, Bjornstad P, Lanaspa MA, Johnson RJ
Am J Hypertens 2020 Jul 18;33(7):583-594. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpaa044. PMID: 32179896Free PMC Article
Santos Mateo JJ, Sabater Molina M, Gimeno Blanes JR
Med Clin (Barc) 2018 Jun 8;150(11):434-442. Epub 2017 Nov 14 doi: 10.1016/j.medcli.2017.09.013. PMID: 29150126
Vandael E, Vandenberk B, Vandenberghe J, Willems R, Foulon V
Int J Clin Pharm 2017 Feb;39(1):16-25. Epub 2016 Dec 23 doi: 10.1007/s11096-016-0414-2. PMID: 28012118
CONSENSUS Trial Study Group
N Engl J Med 1987 Jun 4;316(23):1429-35. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198706043162301. PMID: 2883575

Prognosis

Emery MS, Kovacs RJ
JACC Heart Fail 2018 Jan;6(1):30-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jchf.2017.07.014. PMID: 29284578
Køber L, Thune JJ, Nielsen JC, Haarbo J, Videbæk L, Korup E, Jensen G, Hildebrandt P, Steffensen FH, Bruun NE, Eiskjær H, Brandes A, Thøgersen AM, Gustafsson F, Egstrup K, Videbæk R, Hassager C, Svendsen JH, Høfsten DE, Torp-Pedersen C, Pehrson S; DANISH Investigators
N Engl J Med 2016 Sep 29;375(13):1221-30. Epub 2016 Aug 27 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1608029. PMID: 27571011
Bagnall RD, Weintraub RG, Ingles J, Duflou J, Yeates L, Lam L, Davis AM, Thompson T, Connell V, Wallace J, Naylor C, Crawford J, Love DR, Hallam L, White J, Lawrence C, Lynch M, Morgan N, James P, du Sart D, Puranik R, Langlois N, Vohra J, Winship I, Atherton J, McGaughran J, Skinner JR, Semsarian C
N Engl J Med 2016 Jun 23;374(25):2441-52. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1510687. PMID: 27332903
Laukkanen T, Khan H, Zaccardi F, Laukkanen JA
JAMA Intern Med 2015 Apr;175(4):542-8. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.8187. PMID: 25705824
Shah AD, Langenberg C, Rapsomaniki E, Denaxas S, Pujades-Rodriguez M, Gale CP, Deanfield J, Smeeth L, Timmis A, Hemingway H
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2015 Feb;3(2):105-13. Epub 2014 Nov 11 doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70219-0. PMID: 25466521Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Li Y, Xu Y, Li W, Guo J, Wan K, Wang J, Xu Z, Han Y, Sun J, Chen Y
Radiology 2023 May;307(3):e222552. Epub 2023 Mar 14 doi: 10.1148/radiol.222552. PMID: 36916890
Ommen SR, Mital S, Burke MA, Day SM, Deswal A, Elliott P, Evanovich LL, Hung J, Joglar JA, Kantor P, Kimmelstiel C, Kittleson M, Link MS, Maron MS, Martinez MW, Miyake CY, Schaff HV, Semsarian C, Sorajja P
Circulation 2020 Dec 22;142(25):e533-e557. Epub 2020 Nov 20 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000938. PMID: 33215938
Corrado D, Basso C, Judge DP
Circ Res 2017 Sep 15;121(7):784-802. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.117.309345. PMID: 28912183
Marian AJ, Braunwald E
Circ Res 2017 Sep 15;121(7):749-770. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.117.311059. PMID: 28912181Free PMC Article
Gourraud JB, Barc J, Thollet A, Le Marec H, Probst V
Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2017 Mar;110(3):188-195. Epub 2017 Jan 27 doi: 10.1016/j.acvd.2016.09.009. PMID: 28139454

Recent systematic reviews

Salari N, Morddarvanjoghi F, Abdolmaleki A, Rasoulpoor S, Khaleghi AA, Hezarkhani LA, Shohaimi S, Mohammadi M
BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2023 Apr 22;23(1):206. doi: 10.1186/s12872-023-03231-w. PMID: 37087452Free PMC Article
Tromp J, Ouwerkerk W, van Veldhuisen DJ, Hillege HL, Richards AM, van der Meer P, Anand IS, Lam CSP, Voors AA
JACC Heart Fail 2022 Feb;10(2):73-84. Epub 2021 Dec 8 doi: 10.1016/j.jchf.2021.09.004. PMID: 34895860
D'Ascenzi F, Valentini F, Pistoresi S, Frascaro F, Piu P, Cavigli L, Valente S, Focardi M, Cameli M, Bonifazi M, Metra M, Mondillo S
Trends Cardiovasc Med 2022 Jul;32(5):299-308. Epub 2021 Jun 22 doi: 10.1016/j.tcm.2021.06.001. PMID: 34166791
Galić E, Bešlić P, Kilić P, Planinić Z, Pašalić A, Galić I, Ćubela VV, Pekić P
Acta Clin Croat 2021 Dec;60(4):739-748. doi: 10.20471/acc.2021.60.04.22. PMID: 35734489Free PMC Article
Vandael E, Vandenberk B, Vandenberghe J, Willems R, Foulon V
Int J Clin Pharm 2017 Feb;39(1):16-25. Epub 2016 Dec 23 doi: 10.1007/s11096-016-0414-2. PMID: 28012118

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