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Abnormal cerebellum morphology

MedGen UID:
400925
Concept ID:
C1866129
Anatomical Abnormality
Synonyms: Abnormality of the cerebellum; Cerebellar abnormalities; Cerebellar abnormality; Cerebellar anomaly; Cerebellar signs
 
HPO: HP:0001317

Definition

Any structural abnormality of the cerebellum. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • Abnormal cerebellum morphology

Conditions with this feature

Troyer syndrome
MedGen UID:
97950
Concept ID:
C0393559
Disease or Syndrome
Troyer syndrome is characterized by progressive spastic paraparesis, dysarthria, pseudobulbar palsy, distal amyotrophy, short stature, and subtle skeletal abnormalities. Most affected children exhibit delays in walking and speech and difficulty in managing oral secretions, followed by increased lower-limb spasticity and slow deterioration in both gait and speech. Mild cerebellar signs are common. The most severely affected individuals have choreoathetosis. Emotional lability / difficulty in controlling emotions and affective disorders, such as inappropriate euphoria and/or crying, are frequently described. Life expectancy is normal.
Inherited Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
MedGen UID:
155837
Concept ID:
C0751254
Disease or Syndrome
Genetic prion disease generally manifests with cognitive difficulties, ataxia, and myoclonus (abrupt jerking movements of muscle groups and/or entire limbs). The order of appearance and/or predominance of these features and other associated neurologic and psychiatric findings vary. The three major phenotypes of genetic prion disease are genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (gCJD), fatal familial insomnia (FFI), and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome. Although these phenotypes display overlapping clinical and pathologic features, recognition of these phenotypes can be useful when providing affected individuals and their families with information about the expected clinical course. The age at onset typically ranges from 50 to 60 years. The disease course ranges from a few months in gCJD and FFI to a few (up to 4, and in rare cases up to 10) years in GSS syndrome.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 3
MedGen UID:
155549
Concept ID:
C0751383
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). The hallmark of CLN3 is the ultrastructural pattern of lipopigment with a 'fingerprint' profile, which can have 3 different appearances: pure within a lysosomal residual body; in conjunction with curvilinear or rectilinear profiles; and as a small component within large membrane-bound lysosomal vacuoles. The combination of fingerprint profiles within lysosomal vacuoles is a regular feature of blood lymphocytes from patients with CLN3 (Mole et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730).
X-linked intellectual disability-short stature-overweight syndrome
MedGen UID:
901885
Concept ID:
C0796218
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual developmental disorder-12 (XLID12) is characterized by borderline to severe intellectual disability with variable neurologic features, short stature, and elevated body mass index (BMI) (Kumar et al., 2015).
Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
163239
Concept ID:
C0796274
Disease or Syndrome
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and a variety of cranial nerve palsies, usually involving the motor components of the seventh and ninth to twelfth (more rarely the third, fifth, and sixth) cranial nerves. Spinal motor nerves and, less commonly, upper motor neurons are sometimes affected, giving a picture resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; 105400). The onset of the disease is usually in the second decade, but earlier and later onset have been reported. Hearing loss tends to precede the onset of neurologic signs, mostly progressive muscle weakness causing respiratory compromise. However, patients with very early onset may present with bulbar palsy and may not develop hearing loss until later. The symptoms, severity, and disease duration are variable (summary by Green et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome See also BVVLS2 (614707), caused by mutation in the SLC52A2 gene (607882) on chromosome 8q.
Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 4 (Kufs type)
MedGen UID:
320287
Concept ID:
C1834207
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-4 (CLN4) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of symptoms in adulthood. It belongs to a group of progressive neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of intracellular autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in the brain and other tissues. Several different forms have been described according to age of onset (see, e.g., CLN3, 204200). Individuals with the adult form, sometimes referred to as Kufs disease, develop psychiatric manifestations, seizures, cerebellar ataxia, and cognitive decline. Retinal degeneration is usually not present (summary by Benitez et al., 2011 and Velinov et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730).
Autosomal dominant sensory ataxia 1
MedGen UID:
332346
Concept ID:
C1837015
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant sensory ataxia-1 (SNAX1) is a peripheral neuropathy resulting from the degeneration of dorsal root ganglia that affects both central and peripheral neurites of sensory neurons. Affected individuals show adult onset of slowly progressive clumsiness, gait ataxia, walking difficulties, and distal sensory loss which may be associated with abnormal sensory nerve conduction values. Some patients have vestibular ocular dysfunction. Muscle weakness and atrophy are not observed, and brain imaging is normal (summary by Cortese et al., 2020).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 2
MedGen UID:
374177
Concept ID:
C1839264
Disease or Syndrome
PLP1 disorders of central nervous system myelin formation include a range of phenotypes from Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) to spastic paraplegia 2 (SPG2). PMD typically manifests in infancy or early childhood with nystagmus, hypotonia, and cognitive impairment; the findings progress to severe spasticity and ataxia. Life span is shortened. SPG2 manifests as spastic paraparesis with or without CNS involvement and usually normal life span. Intrafamilial variation of phenotypes can be observed, but the signs are usually fairly consistent within families. Heterozygous females may manifest mild-to-moderate signs of the disease.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 5A
MedGen UID:
376521
Concept ID:
C1849115
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-5A (SPG5A) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with a wide phenotypic spectrum. Some patients have pure spastic paraplegia affecting only gait, whereas others may have a complicated phenotype with additional manifestations, including optic atrophy or cerebellar ataxia (summary by Arnoldi et al., 2012). The hereditary spastic paraplegias (SPG) are a group of clinically and genetically diverse disorders characterized by progressive, usually severe, lower extremity spasticity; see reviews of Fink et al. (1996) and Fink (1997). Inheritance is most often autosomal dominant (see 182600), but X-linked (see 303350) and autosomal recessive forms also occur. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Spastic Paraplegia Autosomal recessive forms of SPG include SPG7 (607259), caused by mutation in the paraplegin gene (602783) on chromosome 16q24; SPG9B (616586), caused by mutation in the ALDH18A1 gene (138250) on 10q24; SPG11 (604360), caused by mutation in the spatacsin gene (610844) on 15q21; SPG15 (270700), caused by mutation in the ZFYVE26 gene (612012) on 14q24; SPG18 (611225), caused by mutation in the ERLIN2 gene (611605) on 8p11; SPG20 (275900), caused by mutation in the spartin gene (607111) on 13q12; SPG21 (248900), caused by mutation in the maspardin gene (608181) on 15q21; SPG26 (609195), caused by mutation in the B4GALNT1 gene (601873) on 12q13; SPG28 (609340), caused by mutation in the DDHD1 gene (614603) on 14q22; SPG30 (610357), caused by mutation in the KIF1A gene (601255) on 2q37; SPG35 (612319), caused by mutation in the FA2H gene (611026) on 16q23; SPG39 (612020), caused by mutation in the PNPLA6 gene (603197) on 19p13; SPG43 (615043), caused by mutation in the C19ORF12 gene (614297) on 19q12; SPG44 (613206), caused by mutation in the GJC2 gene (608803) on 1q42; SPG45 (613162), caused by mutation in the NT5C2 gene (600417) on 10q24; SPG46 (614409), caused by mutation in the GBA2 gene (609471) on 9p13; SPG48 (613647), caused by mutation in the KIAA0415 gene (613653) on 7p22; SPG50 (612936), caused by mutation in the AP4M1 gene (602296) on 7q22; SPG51 (613744), caused by mutation in the AP4E1 gene (607244) on 15q21; SPG52 (614067), caused by mutation in the AP4S1 gene (607243) on 14q12; SPG53 (614898), caused by mutation in the VPS37A gene (609927) on 8p22; SPG54 (615033), caused by mutation in the DDHD2 gene (615003) on 8p11; SPG55 (615035), caused by mutation in the MTRFR gene on 12q24; SPG56 (615030), caused by mutation in the CYP2U1 gene (610670) on 4q25; SPG57 (615658), caused by mutation in the TFG gene (602498) on 3q12; SPG61 (615685), caused by mutation in the ARL6IP1 gene (607669) on 1p12; SPG62 (615681), caused by mutation in the ERLIN1 gene on 10q24; SPG63 (615686), caused by mutation in the AMPD2 gene (102771) on 1p13; SPG64 (615683), caused by mutation in the ENTPD1 gene (601752) on 10q24; SPG72 (615625), caused by mutation in the REEP2 gene (609347) on 5q31; SPG74 (616451), caused by mutation in the IBA57 gene (615316) on 1q42; SPG75 (616680), caused by mutation in the MAG gene (159460) on 19q13; SPG76 (616907), caused by mutation in the CAPN1 gene (114220) on 11q13; SPG77 (617046), caused by mutation in the FARS2 gene (611592) on 6p25; SPG78 (617225), caused by mutation in the ATP13A2 gene (610513) on 1p36; SPG79 (615491), caused by mutation in the UCHL1 gene (191342) on 4p13; SPG81 (618768), caused by mutation in the SELENOI gene (607915) on 2p23; SPG82 (618770), caused by mutation in the PCYT2 gene (602679) on 17q25; SPG83 (619027), caused by mutation in the HPDL gene (618994) on 1p34; SPG84 (619621), caused by mutation in the PI4KA gene (600286) on 22q11; SPG85 (619686), caused by mutation in the RNF170 gene (614649) on 8p11; SPG86 (619735), caused by mutation in the ABHD16A gene (142620) on 6p21; SPG87 (619966), caused by mutation in the TMEM63C gene (619953) on 14q24; SPG89 (620379), caused by mutation in the AMFR gene (603243) on 16q13; and SPG90B (620417), caused by mutation in the SPTSSA gene (613540) on 14q13. Additional autosomal recessive forms of SPG have been mapped to chromosomes 3q (SPG14; 605229), 13q14 (SPG24; 607584), 6q (SPG25; 608220), and 10q22 (SPG27; 609041). A disorder that was formerly designated SPG49 has been reclassified as hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy-9 with developmental delay (HSAN9; 615031).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 15
MedGen UID:
341387
Concept ID:
C1849128
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia 15 (SPG15), typically an early-onset complex hereditary spastic paraplegia, is characterized by progressive spasticity that begins in the lower extremities and is associated with several manifestations resulting from central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction. While onset of spasticity is typically in mid- to late childhood or adolescence (i.e., between ages 5 and 18 years), other manifestations, such as developmental delay or learning disability, may be present earlier, often preceding motor involvement. Individuals with adult onset have also been reported.
Giant axonal neuropathy 1
MedGen UID:
376775
Concept ID:
C1850386
Disease or Syndrome
GAN-related neurodegeneration comprises a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe (sometimes called classic giant axonal neuropathy) to milder pure early-onset peripheral motor and sensory neuropathies. The classic giant axonal neuropathy phenotype typically manifests as an infantile-onset neurodegenerative disorder, starting as a severe peripheral motor and sensory neuropathy and evolving into central nervous system impairment (intellectual disability, seizures, cerebellar signs, and pyramidal tract signs). Most affected individuals become wheelchair dependent in the second decade of life and eventually bedridden with severe polyneuropathy, ataxia, and dementia. Death usually occurs in the third decade. At the milder end of the spectrum are predominantly motor and sensory neuropathies (with little to no CNS involvement) that overlap with the axonal form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies.
Atherosclerosis-deafness-diabetes-epilepsy-nephropathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
349198
Concept ID:
C1859596
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, severe, circulatory system disease characterized by premature, diffuse, severe atherosclerosis (including the aorta and renal, coronary, and cerebral arteries), sensorineural deafness, diabetes mellitus, progressive neurological deterioration with cerebellar symptoms and photomyoclonic seizures, and progressive nephropathy. Partial deficiency of mitochondrial complexes III and IV in the kidney and fibroblasts (but not in muscle) may be associated. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1994.
Tremor-nystagmus-duodenal ulcer syndrome
MedGen UID:
349908
Concept ID:
C1860860
Disease or Syndrome
A rare hyperkinetic movement disorder with characteristics of mild to severe, progressive essential tremor, nystagmus (principally horizontal), duodenal ulceration and a narcolepsy-like sleep disturbance. Refractive errors and cerebellar signs such as gait ataxia and adiadochokinesia may be associated. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1976.
Hypomyelination and Congenital Cataract
MedGen UID:
501134
Concept ID:
C1864663
Congenital Abnormality
Hypomyelination and congenital cataract (HCC) is usually characterized by bilateral congenital cataracts and normal psychomotor or only mildly delayed development in the first year of life, followed by slowly progressive neurologic impairment manifest as ataxia, spasticity (brisk tendon reflexes and bilateral extensor plantar responses), and mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment. Dysarthria and truncal hypotonia are observed. Cerebellar signs (truncal titubation and intention tremor) and peripheral neuropathy (muscle weakness and wasting of the legs) are present in the majority of affected individuals. Seizures can occur. Cataracts may be absent in some individuals.
Cerebellar degeneration-related autoantigen-3
MedGen UID:
355548
Concept ID:
C1865782
Finding
Adult-onset autosomal dominant demyelinating leukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
356995
Concept ID:
C1868512
Disease or Syndrome
LMNB1-related autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is a slowly progressive disorder of central nervous system white matter characterized by onset of autonomic dysfunction in the fourth to fifth decade, followed by pyramidal and cerebellar abnormalities resulting in spasticity, ataxia, and tremor. Autonomic dysfunction can include bladder dysfunction, constipation, postural hypotension, erectile dysfunction, and (less often) impaired sweating. Pyramidal signs are often more prominent in the lower extremities (e.g., spastic weakness, hypertonia, clonus, brisk deep tendon reflexes, and bilateral Babinski signs). Cerebellar signs typically appear at the same time as the pyramidal signs and include gait ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, intention tremor, dysmetria, and nystagmus. Many individuals have sensory deficits starting in the lower limbs. Pseudobulbar palsy with dysarthria, dysphagia, and forced crying and laughing may appear in the seventh or eighth decade. Although cognitive function is usually preserved or only mildly impaired early in the disease course, dementia and psychiatric manifestations can occur as late manifestations. Affected individuals may survive for decades after onset.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 62
MedGen UID:
924879
Concept ID:
C4284588
Disease or Syndrome
A pure or complex form of hereditary spastic paraplegia with characteristics of onset in the first decade of life of spastic paraparesis (more prominent in lower than upper extremities) and unsteady gait, as well as increased deep tendon reflexes, amyotrophy, cerebellar ataxia and flexion contractures of the knees in some.
Joubert syndrome 32
MedGen UID:
1626697
Concept ID:
C4540342
Disease or Syndrome
Joubert syndrome-32 (JBTS32) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, and postaxial polydactyly. Brain imaging shows cerebellar abnormalities consistent with the molar tooth sign (MTS) (summary by De Mori et al., 2017). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Joubert syndrome, see JBTS1 (213300).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebellar atrophy and with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1648373
Concept ID:
C4748032
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebellar atrophy and with or without seizures (NEDCAS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intellectual disability associated with ataxia (summary by Engel et al., 2023).
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 21
MedGen UID:
1648383
Concept ID:
C4748792
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
1675829
Concept ID:
C5193045
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome-8 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired psychomotor development, poor overall growth with microcephaly, and early-onset progressive nephrotic syndrome associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on renal biopsy. Some patients may have seizures, and some may die in childhood (summary by Fujita et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Neurooculocardiogenitourinary syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684841
Concept ID:
C5231443
Disease or Syndrome
Neurooculocardiogenitourinary syndrome (NOCGUS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by poor growth and anomalies of the ocular, craniofacial, neurologic, cardiovascular, genitourinary, skeletal, and gastrointestinal systems. Lethality before 2 years of age has been observed (Reis et al., 2019).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Spahiu L, Behluli E, Grajçevci-Uka V, Liehr T, Temaj G
J Mother Child 2022 Mar 1;26(1):118-123. Epub 2023 Feb 22 doi: 10.34763/jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00034. PMID: 36803942Free PMC Article
Gana S, Serpieri V, Valente EM
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2022 Mar;190(1):72-88. Epub 2022 Mar 3 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31963. PMID: 35238134Free PMC Article
Tobin WO, Guo Y, Krecke KN, Parisi JE, Lucchinetti CF, Pittock SJ, Mandrekar J, Dubey D, Debruyne J, Keegan BM
Brain 2017 Sep 1;140(9):2415-2425. doi: 10.1093/brain/awx200. PMID: 29050399

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Whitehead MT, Barkovich MJ, Sidpra J, Alves CA, Mirsky DM, Öztekin Ö, Bhattacharya D, Lucato LT, Sudhakar S, Taranath A, Andronikou S, Prabhu SP, Aldinger KA, Haldipur P, Millen KJ, Barkovich AJ, Boltshauser E, Dobyns WB, Mankad K
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2022 Oct;43(10):1488-1493. Epub 2022 Sep 22 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A7659. PMID: 36137655Free PMC Article
Gana S, Serpieri V, Valente EM
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2022 Mar;190(1):72-88. Epub 2022 Mar 3 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31963. PMID: 35238134Free PMC Article
McConnachie DJ, Stow JL, Mallett AJ
Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Mar;77(3):410-419. Epub 2020 Oct 9 doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2020.08.012. PMID: 33039432
Donovan AP, Basson MA
J Anat 2017 Jan;230(1):4-15. Epub 2016 Sep 12 doi: 10.1111/joa.12542. PMID: 27620360Free PMC Article
Bachmann-Gagescu R, Dempsey JC, Phelps IG, O'Roak BJ, Knutzen DM, Rue TC, Ishak GE, Isabella CR, Gorden N, Adkins J, Boyle EA, de Lacy N, O'Day D, Alswaid A, Ramadevi A R, Lingappa L, Lourenço C, Martorell L, Garcia-Cazorla À, Ozyürek H, Haliloğlu G, Tuysuz B, Topçu M; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Chance P, Parisi MA, Glass IA, Shendure J, Doherty D
J Med Genet 2015 Aug;52(8):514-22. Epub 2015 Jun 19 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103087. PMID: 26092869Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Spahiu L, Behluli E, Grajçevci-Uka V, Liehr T, Temaj G
J Mother Child 2022 Mar 1;26(1):118-123. Epub 2023 Feb 22 doi: 10.34763/jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00034. PMID: 36803942Free PMC Article
Moosavi A, Kanekar S
Clin Perinatol 2022 Sep;49(3):603-621. Epub 2022 Aug 20 doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2022.04.003. PMID: 36113925
Fouda MA, Kim TY, Cohen AR
World Neurosurg 2022 Mar;159:48-53. Epub 2021 Dec 22 doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2021.12.062. PMID: 34954057
Donovan AP, Basson MA
J Anat 2017 Jan;230(1):4-15. Epub 2016 Sep 12 doi: 10.1111/joa.12542. PMID: 27620360Free PMC Article
Bachmann-Gagescu R, Dempsey JC, Phelps IG, O'Roak BJ, Knutzen DM, Rue TC, Ishak GE, Isabella CR, Gorden N, Adkins J, Boyle EA, de Lacy N, O'Day D, Alswaid A, Ramadevi A R, Lingappa L, Lourenço C, Martorell L, Garcia-Cazorla À, Ozyürek H, Haliloğlu G, Tuysuz B, Topçu M; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Chance P, Parisi MA, Glass IA, Shendure J, Doherty D
J Med Genet 2015 Aug;52(8):514-22. Epub 2015 Jun 19 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103087. PMID: 26092869Free PMC Article

Therapy

McLoughlin HS, Gundry K, Rainwater O, Schuster KH, Wellik IG, Zalon AJ, Benneyworth MA, Eberly LE, Öz G
Ann Neurol 2023 Oct;94(4):658-671. Epub 2023 Aug 2 doi: 10.1002/ana.26713. PMID: 37243335Free PMC Article
Su W, Zhao L, Bao S, Qin R, Cao J, Tian J, Han Y, Zhang T, Chen C, Shi Q, Guo Q, Shao F, Tian L
Thyroid 2023 Jul;33(7):791-803. Epub 2023 Jun 22 doi: 10.1089/thy.2022.0476. PMID: 37130043
Tobin WO, Guo Y, Krecke KN, Parisi JE, Lucchinetti CF, Pittock SJ, Mandrekar J, Dubey D, Debruyne J, Keegan BM
Brain 2017 Sep 1;140(9):2415-2425. doi: 10.1093/brain/awx200. PMID: 29050399
Jo S, Yarishkin O, Hwang YJ, Chun YE, Park M, Woo DH, Bae JY, Kim T, Lee J, Chun H, Park HJ, Lee DY, Hong J, Kim HY, Oh SJ, Park SJ, Lee H, Yoon BE, Kim Y, Jeong Y, Shim I, Bae YC, Cho J, Kowall NW, Ryu H, Hwang E, Kim D, Lee CJ
Nat Med 2014 Aug;20(8):886-96. Epub 2014 Jun 29 doi: 10.1038/nm.3639. PMID: 24973918Free PMC Article
Brambilla P, Hardan A, di Nemi SU, Perez J, Soares JC, Barale F
Brain Res Bull 2003 Oct 15;61(6):557-69. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2003.06.001. PMID: 14519452

Prognosis

Gana S, Serpieri V, Valente EM
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2022 Mar;190(1):72-88. Epub 2022 Mar 3 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31963. PMID: 35238134Free PMC Article
Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM), Monteagudo A
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Dec;223(6):B38-B41. Epub 2020 Nov 7 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2020.08.184. PMID: 33168220
Bertini E, Zanni G, Boltshauser E
Handb Clin Neurol 2018;155:91-103. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64189-2.00006-8. PMID: 29891079
Poretti A, Boltshauser E, Huisman TA
Neuroimaging Clin N Am 2016 Aug;26(3):341-57. doi: 10.1016/j.nic.2016.03.005. PMID: 27423798
Stoodley CJ
Cerebellum 2016 Feb;15(1):34-37. doi: 10.1007/s12311-015-0715-3. PMID: 26298473Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Di Donato N, Guerrini R, Billington CJ, Barkovich AJ, Dinkel P, Freri E, Heide M, Gershon ES, Gertler TS, Hopkin RJ, Jacob S, Keedy SK, Kooshavar D, Lockhart PJ, Lohmann DR, Mahmoud IG, Parrini E, Schrock E, Severi G, Timms AE, Webster RI, Willis MJH, Zaki MS, Gleeson JG, Leventer RJ, Dobyns WB
Brain 2022 Sep 14;145(9):3274-3287. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac164. PMID: 35769015Free PMC Article
Bostan AC, Strick PL
Nat Rev Neurosci 2018 Jun;19(6):338-350. doi: 10.1038/s41583-018-0002-7. PMID: 29643480Free PMC Article
Donovan AP, Basson MA
J Anat 2017 Jan;230(1):4-15. Epub 2016 Sep 12 doi: 10.1111/joa.12542. PMID: 27620360Free PMC Article
Stoodley CJ
Cerebellum 2016 Feb;15(1):34-37. doi: 10.1007/s12311-015-0715-3. PMID: 26298473Free PMC Article
Bachmann-Gagescu R, Dempsey JC, Phelps IG, O'Roak BJ, Knutzen DM, Rue TC, Ishak GE, Isabella CR, Gorden N, Adkins J, Boyle EA, de Lacy N, O'Day D, Alswaid A, Ramadevi A R, Lingappa L, Lourenço C, Martorell L, Garcia-Cazorla À, Ozyürek H, Haliloğlu G, Tuysuz B, Topçu M; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Chance P, Parisi MA, Glass IA, Shendure J, Doherty D
J Med Genet 2015 Aug;52(8):514-22. Epub 2015 Jun 19 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103087. PMID: 26092869Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Goyal A, Fernandes-Torres J, Flemming KD, Williams LN, Daniels DJ
Childs Nerv Syst 2023 Jun;39(6):1545-1554. Epub 2023 Mar 14 doi: 10.1007/s00381-023-05903-6. PMID: 36917267
Haghshomar M, Shobeiri P, Seyedi SA, Abbasi-Feijani F, Poopak A, Sotoudeh H, Kamali A, Aarabi MH
Cerebellum 2022 Aug;21(4):545-571. Epub 2022 Jan 10 doi: 10.1007/s12311-021-01355-3. PMID: 35001330
Noordermeer SD, Luman M, Oosterlaan J
Neuropsychol Rev 2016 Mar;26(1):44-72. Epub 2016 Feb 5 doi: 10.1007/s11065-015-9315-8. PMID: 26846227Free PMC Article
Roda Â, Chendo I, Kunz M
Trends Psychiatry Psychother 2015 Jan-Mar;37(1):3-11. Epub 2014 Dec 9 doi: 10.1590/2237-6089-2014-0002. PMID: 25860561
Baldaçara L, Borgio JG, Lacerda AL, Jackowski AP
Braz J Psychiatry 2008 Sep;30(3):281-9. doi: 10.1590/s1516-44462008000300016. PMID: 18833430

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