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Abnormal blistering of the skin

MedGen UID:
412159
Concept ID:
C2132198
Finding
Synonym: Blistering, generalized
 
HPO: HP:0008066

Definition

The presence of one or more bullae on the skin, defined as fluid-filled blisters more than 5 mm in diameter with thin walls. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Incontinentia pigmenti syndrome
MedGen UID:
7049
Concept ID:
C0021171
Disease or Syndrome
Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a disorder that affects the skin, hair, teeth, nails, eyes, and central nervous system; it occurs primarily in females and on occasion in males. Characteristic skin lesions evolve through four stages: I. Blistering (birth to age ~4 months). II. Wart-like rash (for several months). III. Swirling macular hyperpigmentation (age ~6 months into adulthood). IV. Linear hypopigmentation. Alopecia, hypodontia, abnormal tooth shape, and dystrophic nails are observed. Neovascularization of the retina, present in some individuals, predisposes to retinal detachment. Neurologic findings including seizures, intellectual disability, and developmental delays are occasionally seen.
Lipid proteinosis
MedGen UID:
6112
Concept ID:
C0023795
Disease or Syndrome
Lipoid proteinosis (LP) is characterized by deposition of hyaline-like material in various tissues resulting in a hoarse voice from early infancy, vesicles and hemorrhagic crusts in the mouth and on the face and extremities, verrucous and keratotic cutaneous lesions on extensor surfaces (especially the elbows), and moniliform blepharosis (multiple beaded papules along the eyelid margins and inner canthus). Extracutaneous manifestations may include epilepsy, neuropsychiatric disorders, spontaneous CNS hemorrhage, and asymptomatic multiple yellowish nodules throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Generally, the disease course is chronic and fluctuating. Males and females are affected equally. Affected individuals have a normal life span unless they experience laryngeal obstruction.
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 1A, generalized severe
MedGen UID:
38194
Concept ID:
C0079295
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa
MedGen UID:
36311
Concept ID:
C0079474
Disease or Syndrome
Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a genetic skin disorder affecting skin and nails that usually presents at birth. DEB is divided into two major types depending on inheritance pattern: recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) and dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DDEB). Each type is further divided into multiple clinical subtypes. Absence of a known family history of DEB does not preclude the diagnosis. Clinical findings in severe generalized RDEB include skin fragility manifest by blistering with minimal trauma that heals with milia and scarring. Blistering and erosions affecting the whole body may be present in the neonatal period. Oral involvement may lead to mouth blistering, fusion of the tongue to the floor of the mouth, and progressive diminution of the size of the oral cavity. Esophageal erosions can lead to webs and strictures that can cause severe dysphagia. Consequently, malnutrition and vitamin and mineral deficiency may lead to growth restriction in young children. Corneal erosions can lead to scarring and loss of vision. Blistering of the hands and feet followed by scarring fuses the digits into "mitten" hands and feet, with contractures and pseudosyndactyly. The lifetime risk of aggressive squamous cell carcinoma is higher than 90%. In contrast, the blistering in the less severe forms of RDEB may be localized to hands, feet, knees, and elbows with or without involvement of flexural areas and the trunk, and without the mutilating scarring seen in severe generalized RDEB. In DDEB, blistering is often mild and limited to hands, feet, knees, and elbows, but nonetheless heals with scarring. Dystrophic nails, especially toenails, are common and may be the only manifestation of DDEB.
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa gravis of Herlitz
MedGen UID:
36328
Concept ID:
C0079683
Disease or Syndrome
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes, manifest by blistering with little or no trauma. Blistering may be severe and granulation tissue can form on the skin around the oral and nasal cavities, fingers and toes, and internally around the upper airway. Blisters generally heal with no significant scarring. Broad classification of JEB includes JEB generalized severe and JEB generalized intermediate. In JEB generalized severe, blisters are present at birth or become apparent in the neonatal period. Congenital malformations of the urinary tract and bladder may also occur. In JEB generalized intermediate, the phenotype may be mild with blistering localized to hands, feet, knees, and elbows with or without renal or ureteral involvement. Some individuals never blister after the newborn period. Additional features shared by JEB and the other major forms of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) include congenital localized absence of skin (aplasia cutis congenita), milia, nail dystrophy, scarring alopecia, hypotrichosis, pseudosyndactyly, and other contractures.
Dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa with absence of skin
MedGen UID:
82797
Concept ID:
C0268371
Congenital Abnormality
Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a genetic skin disorder affecting skin and nails that usually presents at birth. DEB is divided into two major types depending on inheritance pattern: recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) and dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DDEB). Each type is further divided into multiple clinical subtypes. Absence of a known family history of DEB does not preclude the diagnosis. Clinical findings in severe generalized RDEB include skin fragility manifest by blistering with minimal trauma that heals with milia and scarring. Blistering and erosions affecting the whole body may be present in the neonatal period. Oral involvement may lead to mouth blistering, fusion of the tongue to the floor of the mouth, and progressive diminution of the size of the oral cavity. Esophageal erosions can lead to webs and strictures that can cause severe dysphagia. Consequently, malnutrition and vitamin and mineral deficiency may lead to growth restriction in young children. Corneal erosions can lead to scarring and loss of vision. Blistering of the hands and feet followed by scarring fuses the digits into "mitten" hands and feet, with contractures and pseudosyndactyly. The lifetime risk of aggressive squamous cell carcinoma is higher than 90%. In contrast, the blistering in the less severe forms of RDEB may be localized to hands, feet, knees, and elbows with or without involvement of flexural areas and the trunk, and without the mutilating scarring seen in severe generalized RDEB. In DDEB, blistering is often mild and limited to hands, feet, knees, and elbows, but nonetheless heals with scarring. Dystrophic nails, especially toenails, are common and may be the only manifestation of DDEB.
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa, non-Herlitz type
MedGen UID:
82798
Concept ID:
C0268374
Disease or Syndrome
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes, manifest by blistering with little or no trauma. Blistering may be severe and granulation tissue can form on the skin around the oral and nasal cavities, fingers and toes, and internally around the upper airway. Blisters generally heal with no significant scarring. Broad classification of JEB includes JEB generalized severe and JEB generalized intermediate. In JEB generalized severe, blisters are present at birth or become apparent in the neonatal period. Congenital malformations of the urinary tract and bladder may also occur. In JEB generalized intermediate, the phenotype may be mild with blistering localized to hands, feet, knees, and elbows with or without renal or ureteral involvement. Some individuals never blister after the newborn period. Additional features shared by JEB and the other major forms of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) include congenital localized absence of skin (aplasia cutis congenita), milia, nail dystrophy, scarring alopecia, hypotrichosis, pseudosyndactyly, and other contractures.
Porcupine man
MedGen UID:
98487
Concept ID:
C0432311
Congenital Abnormality
The Lambert type of ichthyosis hystrix (IHL) is characterized by normal skin at birth that develops striking spiny hyperkeratotic lesions within a few months. There is sparing of the face, palms, and soles, and affected individuals do not experience blistering. Marked improvement of lesions during the summer months has also been observed in some patients. Ultrastructurally, binuclear cells and tonofilament shells surrounding the nucleus in upper keratinocytes are observed (summary by Penrose and Stern, 1958; Wang et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2016). Another form of ichthyosis hystrix, the Curth-Macklin type (IHCM; 146590), includes severe palmoplantar keratoderma among its features and is caused by mutation in the KRT1 (139350) gene.
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex with mottled pigmentation
MedGen UID:
140934
Concept ID:
C0432316
Congenital Abnormality
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Generalized dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa
MedGen UID:
140935
Concept ID:
C0432322
Congenital Abnormality
Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a genetic skin disorder affecting skin and nails that usually presents at birth. DEB is divided into two major types depending on inheritance pattern: recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) and dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DDEB). Each type is further divided into multiple clinical subtypes. Absence of a known family history of DEB does not preclude the diagnosis. Clinical findings in severe generalized RDEB include skin fragility manifest by blistering with minimal trauma that heals with milia and scarring. Blistering and erosions affecting the whole body may be present in the neonatal period. Oral involvement may lead to mouth blistering, fusion of the tongue to the floor of the mouth, and progressive diminution of the size of the oral cavity. Esophageal erosions can lead to webs and strictures that can cause severe dysphagia. Consequently, malnutrition and vitamin and mineral deficiency may lead to growth restriction in young children. Corneal erosions can lead to scarring and loss of vision. Blistering of the hands and feet followed by scarring fuses the digits into "mitten" hands and feet, with contractures and pseudosyndactyly. The lifetime risk of aggressive squamous cell carcinoma is higher than 90%. In contrast, the blistering in the less severe forms of RDEB may be localized to hands, feet, knees, and elbows with or without involvement of flexural areas and the trunk, and without the mutilating scarring seen in severe generalized RDEB. In DDEB, blistering is often mild and limited to hands, feet, knees, and elbows, but nonetheless heals with scarring. Dystrophic nails, especially toenails, are common and may be the only manifestation of DDEB.
Naxos disease
MedGen UID:
321991
Concept ID:
C1832600
Disease or Syndrome
Naxos disease (NXD) is characterized by arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy associated with abnormalities of the skin, hair, and nails. The ectodermal features are evident from birth or early childhood, whereas the cardiac symptoms develop in young adulthood or later. Clinical variability of ectodermal features has been observed, with hair anomalies ranging from woolly hair to alopecia, and skin abnormalities ranging from mild focal palmoplantar keratoderma to generalized skin fragility or even lethal neonatal epidermolysis bullosa (Protonotarios et al., 1986; Cabral et al., 2010; Pigors et al., 2011; Erken et al., 2011; Sen-Chowdhry and McKenna, 2014). Another syndrome involving cardiomyopathy, woolly hair, and keratoderma (DCWHK; 605676) is caused by mutation in the desmoplakin gene (DSP; 125647). Also see 610476 for a similar disorder caused by homozygous mutation in the DSC2 gene (125645).
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex with migratory circinate erythema
MedGen UID:
324475
Concept ID:
C1836284
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Ichthyosis hystrix of Curth-Macklin
MedGen UID:
326700
Concept ID:
C1840296
Disease or Syndrome
The Curth-Macklin type of ichthyosis hystrix (IHCM) is clinically characterized by severe fissuring and mutilating palmoplantar keratoderma. Affected individuals also exhibit extensive dark spiky or verrucous hyperkeratotic plaques over the large joints and trunk, which in some patients may cover almost the entire body. Structural and ultrastructural hallmarks include compact orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis with perinuclear edema, binucleated cells, and formation of perinuclear filamentous shells composed of feathery entangled keratin intermediate filaments (summary by Richardson et al., 2006 and Fonseca et al., 2013). The Lambert type of ichthyosis hystrix (IHL; 146600), in which palms and soles are spared, is caused by mutation in the KRT10 (148080) gene.
Annular epidermolytic ichthyosis
MedGen UID:
334410
Concept ID:
C1843463
Disease or Syndrome
A rare clinical variant of epidermolytic ichthyosis, with manifestations of blistering phenotype at birth and the development from early infancy of annular polycyclic erythematous scales on the trunk and extremities. It has been reported in less than 10 families. The disease is caused by mutations in the KRT1 (12q11-q13) and KRT10 (17q21-q23) genes, encoding keratins 1 and 10 respectively. These mutations impair keratin filament formation and weaken the structural stability of the keratinocyte cytoskeleton. Transmission is autosomal dominant.
Epidermolysis bullosa with deficiency of galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase
MedGen UID:
342036
Concept ID:
C1851570
Disease or Syndrome
Transient bullous dermolysis of the newborn
MedGen UID:
343607
Concept ID:
C1851573
Disease or Syndrome
Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a genetic skin disorder affecting skin and nails that usually presents at birth. DEB is divided into two major types depending on inheritance pattern: recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) and dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DDEB). Each type is further divided into multiple clinical subtypes. Absence of a known family history of DEB does not preclude the diagnosis. Clinical findings in severe generalized RDEB include skin fragility manifest by blistering with minimal trauma that heals with milia and scarring. Blistering and erosions affecting the whole body may be present in the neonatal period. Oral involvement may lead to mouth blistering, fusion of the tongue to the floor of the mouth, and progressive diminution of the size of the oral cavity. Esophageal erosions can lead to webs and strictures that can cause severe dysphagia. Consequently, malnutrition and vitamin and mineral deficiency may lead to growth restriction in young children. Corneal erosions can lead to scarring and loss of vision. Blistering of the hands and feet followed by scarring fuses the digits into "mitten" hands and feet, with contractures and pseudosyndactyly. The lifetime risk of aggressive squamous cell carcinoma is higher than 90%. In contrast, the blistering in the less severe forms of RDEB may be localized to hands, feet, knees, and elbows with or without involvement of flexural areas and the trunk, and without the mutilating scarring seen in severe generalized RDEB. In DDEB, blistering is often mild and limited to hands, feet, knees, and elbows, but nonetheless heals with scarring. Dystrophic nails, especially toenails, are common and may be the only manifestation of DDEB.
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy with wooly hair and keratoderma
MedGen UID:
340124
Concept ID:
C1854063
Disease or Syndrome
Dilated cardiomyopathy with woolly hair and keratoderma (DCWHK) is characterized by the presence of woolly or sparse hair from birth. Some patients exhibit fragile skin with blisters/erosions after minor mechanical trauma, with hyperkeratosis and epidermolytic keratoderma developing in early childhood. Cardiomyopathy may become apparent in the first decade of life, and early death due to heart failure has been reported, but patients may remain asymptomatic into the fourth decade of life. Some patients exhibit an arrhythmogenic form of cardiomyopathy, with sudden death in early adulthood (Carvajal-Huerta, 1998; Whittock et al., 2002; Alcalai et al., 2003; Uzumcu et al., 2006). Another syndrome involving cardiomyopathy, woolly hair, and keratoderma (Naxos disease; 601214) is caused by mutation in the plakoglobin gene (JUP; 173325). Also see 610476 for a similar disorder caused by homozygous mutation in the DSC2 gene (125645). Dilated cardiomyopathy with woolly hair, keratoderma, and tooth agenesis (DCWHKTA; 615821) is caused by heterozygous mutation in DSP. An isolated form of striated PPK (PPKS2; 612908) is also caused by heterozygous mutation in DSP. Reviews In a review of cardiocutaneous syndromes and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, Sen-Chowdhry and McKenna (2014) stated that although the cardiac component of Carvajal syndrome was originally considered dilated cardiomyopathy, many of its features resemble those of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (see 607450). In addition, they noted that different disease subtypes have been found to coexist within the same kindred, suggesting a role for modifier genes and/or environmental influences.
Epidermolysis bullosa with diaphragmatic hernia
MedGen UID:
346473
Concept ID:
C1856933
Congenital Abnormality
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex due to plakophilin deficiency
MedGen UID:
388032
Concept ID:
C1858302
Disease or Syndrome
Ectodermal dysplasia/skin fragility syndrome (EDSFS) is an autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by widespread skin fragility, alopecia, nail dystrophy, and focal keratoderma with painful fissures. Hypohidrosis and cheilitis are sometimes present (summary by Ersoy-Evans et al., 2006).
Lethal acantholytic epidermolysis bullosa
MedGen UID:
400622
Concept ID:
C1864826
Disease or Syndrome
Lethal acantholytic epidermolysis bullosa (EBLA) is an autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by extensive epidermal dislodgment, universal alopecia, and anonychia. Cardiac involvement may be present. Death occurs in the neonatal period (summary by Hobbs et al., 2010).
Pemphigus vulgaris, familial
MedGen UID:
358227
Concept ID:
C1868502
Disease or Syndrome
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare, blistering autoimmune disease that affects the skin and mucous membranes. Patients have circulating antibody to an intercellular cement substance, and deposition in vivo of this antibody is a hallmark of the disease. The antibody appears to be pathogenetic, since newborn infants of mothers with pemphigus may have blisters, and newborn mice injected with the antibody from patients have clinical pemphigus. The disease is reported to have a particularly high incidence among Jews (summary by Ahmed et al., 1990).
Epidermolysis bullosa, junctional 4, intermediate
MedGen UID:
382015
Concept ID:
C2608084
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 5C, with pyloric atresia
MedGen UID:
436922
Concept ID:
C2677349
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 5C with pyloric atresia (EBS5C) is an autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by severe skin blistering at birth and congenital pyloric atresia. Death usually occurs in infancy. In reports of 2 consensus meetings for EB, Fine et al. (2000, 2008) considered EBSPA to be a 'basal' form of simplex EB because the electron microscopy shows that skin cleavage occurs in the lower basal level of the keratinocyte, just above the hemidesmosome. There is often decreased integration of keratin filaments with hemidesmosomes. See also forms of junctional EB with pyloric atresia, JEB5B (226730) and JEB6 (619817), caused by mutation in the ITGB4 (147557) and ITGA6 (147556) genes, respectively. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the subtypes of EBS, see EBS1A (131760).
Hereditary hypotrichosis with recurrent skin vesicles
MedGen UID:
442697
Concept ID:
C2751292
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis and recurrent skin vesicles (HYPTSV) is characterized by sparse to absent scalp hair, eyebrows, eyelashes, and body hair, as well as recurrent vesicles of scalp and skin. Some patients also exhibit trauma-induced blistering, and anomalies of dental enamel and of nails may be observed (Ayub et al., 2009; Onoufriadis et al., 2020).
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 5B, with muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
418981
Concept ID:
C2931072
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 4, localized or generalized intermediate, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
767281
Concept ID:
C3554367
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 1D, generalized, intermediate or severe, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
811576
Concept ID:
C3715082
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 3, localized or generalized intermediate, with BP230 deficiency
MedGen UID:
815800
Concept ID:
C3809470
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex, Dowling-Meara type, with severe palmoplantar keratoderma
MedGen UID:
864672
Concept ID:
C4016235
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex with nail dystrophy
MedGen UID:
906476
Concept ID:
C4225309
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive generalized intermediate epidermolysis bullosa simplex 5D (EBS5D) is characterized by generalized skin blistering that heals with scarring and hyperpigmentation. Nail dystrophy is severe. Mucous membranes, heart, and muscle are spared (Gostynska et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the subtypes of EBS, see EBS1A (131760).
Peeling skin-leukonuchia-acral punctate keratoses-cheilitis-knuckle pads syndrome
MedGen UID:
902464
Concept ID:
C4225381
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic skin disease characterized by generalized skin peeling, leukonychia, acral punctate keratoses coalescing into focal keratoderma on the weight-bearing areas, angular cheilitis and knuckle pads with multiple hyperkeratotic micropapules. The skin appears dry and scaly with superficial exfoliation and underlying erythema. Histopathologic examination of affected skin areas shows hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and intraepidermal clefting with irregular acantholysis. Additional systemic abnormalities are absent.
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 6, generalized, with scarring and hair loss
MedGen UID:
934598
Concept ID:
C4310631
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Pidermolysis bullosa, junctional 7, with interstitial lung disease and nephrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
1388385
Concept ID:
C4518785
Disease or Syndrome
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa-7 with interstitial lung disease and nephrotic syndrome (JEB7), also known as ILNEB, is an autosomal recessive multiorgan disorder that includes congenital interstitial lung disease, nephrotic syndrome, and epidermolysis bullosa. The respiratory and renal features predominate, and lung involvement accounts for the lethal course of the disease (summary by Has et al., 2012).
NAD(P)HX dehydratase deficiency
MedGen UID:
1681210
Concept ID:
C5193026
Disease or Syndrome
Early-onset progressive encephalopathy with brain edema and/or leukoencephalopathy-2 (PEBEL2) is an autosomal recessive severe neurometabolic disorder characterized by rapidly progressive neurologic deterioration that is usually associated with a febrile illness. Affected infants tend to show normal early development followed by acute psychomotor regression with ataxia, hypotonia, and sometimes seizures, resulting in death in the first years of life. Brain imaging shows multiple abnormalities, including brain edema and signal abnormalities in the cortical and subcortical regions (summary by Van Bergen et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PEBEL, see PEBEL1 (617186).
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
1684764
Concept ID:
C5231433
Disease or Syndrome
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is characterized by a rash that progresses to poikiloderma; sparse hair, eyelashes, and/or eyebrows; small size; skeletal and dental abnormalities; juvenile cataracts; and an increased risk for cancer, especially osteosarcoma. A variety of benign and malignant hematologic abnormalities have been reported in affected individuals. The rash of RTS typically develops between ages three and six months (occasionally as late as age two years) as erythema, swelling, and blistering on the face, subsequently spreading to the buttocks and extremities. The rash evolves over months to years into the chronic pattern of reticulated hypo- and hyperpigmentation, telangiectasias, and punctate atrophy (collectively known as poikiloderma) that persist throughout life. Hyperkeratotic lesions occur in approximately one third of individuals. Skeletal abnormalities can include radial ray defects, ulnar defects, absent or hypoplastic patella, and osteopenia.
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex, Koebner type
MedGen UID:
1794134
Concept ID:
C5561924
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 2d, generalized, intermediate or severe, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1794224
Concept ID:
C5562014
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia
MedGen UID:
1810975
Concept ID:
C5676875
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia (EB-PA) is characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes, manifested by blistering with little or no trauma; congenital pyloric atresia; and ureteral and renal anomalies (dysplastic/multicystic kidney, hydronephrosis/hydroureter, ureterocele, duplicated renal collecting system, absent bladder). The course of EB-PA is usually severe and often lethal in the neonatal period. Most affected children succumb as neonates; those who survive may have severe blistering with formation of granulation tissue on the skin around the mouth, nose, fingers, and toes, and internally around the trachea. However, some affected individuals have little or no blistering later in life. Additional features shared by EB-PA and the other major forms of EB include congenital localized absence of skin (aplasia cutis congenita) affecting the extremities and/or head, milia, nail dystrophy, scarring alopecia, hypotrichosis, contractures, and dilated cardiomyopathy.
Epidermolysis bullosa, junctional 2A, intermediate
MedGen UID:
1807376
Concept ID:
C5676936
Disease or Syndrome
Intermediate junctional epidermolysis bullosa 2A (JEB2A) is an autosomal recessive blistering disease of skin and mucous membranes. Blistering is less severe than in severe JEB (see 226700). The plane of skin cleavage is through the lamina lucida of the cutaneous basement membrane zone. Oral mucosa may be involved and nail bed blistering has been reported. Blistering does not affect the life span of affected individuals (summary by Has et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the subtypes of JEB, see JEB1A (226650). Reviews Has et al. (2020) reviewed the clinical and genetic aspects, genotype-phenotype correlations, disease-modifying factors, and natural history of epidermolysis bullosa.
Epidermolysis bullosa, junctional 2B, severe
MedGen UID:
1805467
Concept ID:
C5676937
Disease or Syndrome
Severe junctional epidermolysis bullosa 2B (JEB2B) is an autosomal recessive skin blistering disorder characterized by extreme fragility of the skin and epithelia of various extracutaneous tissues. Skin blisters and erosions are present at birth. The plane of skin cleavage is through the lamina lucida of the cutaneous basement membrane zone. Oral mucosal blistering and laryngeal and esophageal mucosal involvement can occur. Patients usually die before 1 year of age (summary by Has et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the subtypes of JEB, see JEB1A (226650). Reviews Has et al. (2020) reviewed the clinical and genetic aspects, genotype-phenotype correlations, disease-modifying factors, and natural history of epidermolysis bullosa.
Epidermolysis bullosa, junctional 3A, intermediate
MedGen UID:
1812940
Concept ID:
C5676938
Disease or Syndrome
Intermediate junctional epidermolysis bullosa 3A (JEB3A) is an autosomal recessive blistering disease of skin and mucous membranes. Blistering is less severe than in severe JEB (see 226700). The plane of skin cleavage is through the lamina lucida of the cutaneous basement membrane zone. Nail and dental abnormalities occur. Blistering does not affect the life span of affected individuals (summary by Has et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the subtypes of JEB, see JEB1A (226650). Reviews Has et al. (2020) reviewed the clinical and genetic aspects, genotype-phenotype correlations, disease-modifying factors, and natural history of epidermolysis bullosa.
Epidermolysis bullosa, junctional 3B, severe
MedGen UID:
1807897
Concept ID:
C5676939
Disease or Syndrome
Severe junctional epidermolysis bullosa 3B (JEB3B) is an autosomal recessive skin blistering disorder characterized by extreme fragility of the skin and epithelia of various extracutaneous tissues. Skin blisters and erosions are present at birth. The plane of skin cleavage is through the lamina lucida of the cutaneous basement membrane zone. Patients die in infancy to early adulthood (summary by Has et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the subtypes of JEB, see JEB1A (226650). Reviews Has et al. (2020) reviewed the clinical and genetic aspects, genotype-phenotype correlations, disease-modifying factors, and natural history of epidermolysis bullosa.
Epidermolysis bullosa, junctional 5A, intermediate
MedGen UID:
1811851
Concept ID:
C5676956
Disease or Syndrome
Intermediate junctional epidermolysis bullosa 5A (JEB5A) is an autosomal recessive blistering disease of skin and mucous membranes. Blistering is less severe than in severe JEB (see 226700). The plane of skin cleavage is through the lamina lucida of the cutaneous basement membrane zone. Nails may be dystrophic and dental enamel defects are present. Blistering does not affect the life span of affected individuals (summary by Has et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the subtypes of JEB, see JEB1A (226650). Reviews Has et al. (2020) reviewed the clinical and genetic aspects, genotype-phenotype correlations, disease-modifying factors, and natural history of epidermolysis bullosa.
Epidermolysis bullosa, junctional 6, with pyloric atresia
MedGen UID:
1803348
Concept ID:
C5676957
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia (EB-PA) is characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes, manifested by blistering with little or no trauma; congenital pyloric atresia; and ureteral and renal anomalies (dysplastic/multicystic kidney, hydronephrosis/hydroureter, ureterocele, duplicated renal collecting system, absent bladder). The course of EB-PA is usually severe and often lethal in the neonatal period. Most affected children succumb as neonates; those who survive may have severe blistering with formation of granulation tissue on the skin around the mouth, nose, fingers, and toes, and internally around the trachea. However, some affected individuals have little or no blistering later in life. Additional features shared by EB-PA and the other major forms of EB include congenital localized absence of skin (aplasia cutis congenita) affecting the extremities and/or head, milia, nail dystrophy, scarring alopecia, hypotrichosis, contractures, and dilated cardiomyopathy.
Ichthyosis, annular epidermolytic, 2
MedGen UID:
1824037
Concept ID:
C5774264
Disease or Syndrome
Annular epidermolytic ichthyosis-2 (AEI2) is characterized by erythema and blistering of skin at birth that improves without scarring, as well as palmoplantar keratoderma. Some patients experience intermittent severe flares of generalized annular and polycyclic erythematous scaling plaques (Sybert et al., 1999; Zaki et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of AEI, see AEI1 (607602).
Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis 1
MedGen UID:
1826137
Concept ID:
C5781874
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis-1 (EHK1) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of cornification. The disorder usually presents at birth with erythema and blistering and is characterized in adulthood by warty flexural hyperkeratosis with fewer erosions and blisters. Ultrastructural analysis reveals clumping of the intermediate filaments within keratinocytes of the spinous and granular layers (summary by Whittock et al., 2001). A form of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis that is limited to the palms and soles, designated palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK; 144200), can also be caused by mutation in KRT1, as well KRT9 (607606). Genetic Heterogeneity of Epidermolytic Hyperkeratosis Mutation in the KRT10 gene (148080) results in both autosomal dominant (EHK2A; 620150) and autosomal recessive (EHK2B; 620707) forms of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis.
Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis 2
MedGen UID:
1831005
Concept ID:
C5781877
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant epidermolytic hyperkeratosis-2A (EHK2A) is a skin disorder characterized by blistering, keratoderma, and erythroderma. Severity and body involvement show clinical heterogeneity (summary by Syder et al., 1994). While the neonatal presentation is often blistering and redness, the primary features of the disorder are hyperkeratosis (thickening of the uppermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum) and blistering (summary by Chipev et al., 1994). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, see EHK1 (113800).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Papanikolaou M, Onoufriadis A, Mellerio JE, Nattkemper LA, Yosipovitch G, Steinhoff M, McGrath JA
Br J Dermatol 2021 May;184(5):816-825. Epub 2020 Nov 29 doi: 10.1111/bjd.19496. PMID: 32810291
Titeux M, Bonnet des Claustres M, Izmiryan A, Ragot H, Hovnanian A
Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 2020 Dec;25(4):467-489. Epub 2020 Dec 14 doi: 10.1080/14728214.2020.1839049. PMID: 33094671
Kridin K, Ahn C, Huang WC, Ansari A, Sami N
Dermatol Clin 2019 Apr;37(2):215-228. Epub 2019 Feb 14 doi: 10.1016/j.det.2018.12.003. PMID: 30850044

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Miyamoto D, Gordilho JO, Santi CG, Porro AM
An Bras Dermatol 2022 Jul-Aug;97(4):409-423. Epub 2022 Jun 11 doi: 10.1016/j.abd.2021.09.010. PMID: 35701269Free PMC Article
Hon KL, Chu S, Leung AKC
Curr Pediatr Rev 2022;18(3):182-190. doi: 10.2174/1573396317666210525161252. PMID: 34036913
Hou PC, Wang HT, Abhee S, Tu WT, McGrath JA, Hsu CK
Am J Clin Dermatol 2021 Nov;22(6):801-817. Epub 2021 Jul 22 doi: 10.1007/s40257-021-00626-3. PMID: 34292508
Bardhan A, Bruckner-Tuderman L, Chapple ILC, Fine JD, Harper N, Has C, Magin TM, Marinkovich MP, Marshall JF, McGrath JA, Mellerio JE, Polson R, Heagerty AH
Nat Rev Dis Primers 2020 Sep 24;6(1):78. doi: 10.1038/s41572-020-0210-0. PMID: 32973163
Has C, Bauer JW, Bodemer C, Bolling MC, Bruckner-Tuderman L, Diem A, Fine JD, Heagerty A, Hovnanian A, Marinkovich MP, Martinez AE, McGrath JA, Moss C, Murrell DF, Palisson F, Schwieger-Briel A, Sprecher E, Tamai K, Uitto J, Woodley DT, Zambruno G, Mellerio JE
Br J Dermatol 2020 Oct;183(4):614-627. Epub 2020 Mar 11 doi: 10.1111/bjd.18921. PMID: 32017015

Diagnosis

Miyamoto D, Gordilho JO, Santi CG, Porro AM
An Bras Dermatol 2022 Jul-Aug;97(4):409-423. Epub 2022 Jun 11 doi: 10.1016/j.abd.2021.09.010. PMID: 35701269Free PMC Article
Hon KL, Chu S, Leung AKC
Curr Pediatr Rev 2022;18(3):182-190. doi: 10.2174/1573396317666210525161252. PMID: 34036913
Hou PC, Wang HT, Abhee S, Tu WT, McGrath JA, Hsu CK
Am J Clin Dermatol 2021 Nov;22(6):801-817. Epub 2021 Jul 22 doi: 10.1007/s40257-021-00626-3. PMID: 34292508
Bardhan A, Bruckner-Tuderman L, Chapple ILC, Fine JD, Harper N, Has C, Magin TM, Marinkovich MP, Marshall JF, McGrath JA, Mellerio JE, Polson R, Heagerty AH
Nat Rev Dis Primers 2020 Sep 24;6(1):78. doi: 10.1038/s41572-020-0210-0. PMID: 32973163
Has C, Bauer JW, Bodemer C, Bolling MC, Bruckner-Tuderman L, Diem A, Fine JD, Heagerty A, Hovnanian A, Marinkovich MP, Martinez AE, McGrath JA, Moss C, Murrell DF, Palisson F, Schwieger-Briel A, Sprecher E, Tamai K, Uitto J, Woodley DT, Zambruno G, Mellerio JE
Br J Dermatol 2020 Oct;183(4):614-627. Epub 2020 Mar 11 doi: 10.1111/bjd.18921. PMID: 32017015

Therapy

Kern JS, Sprecher E, Fernandez MF, Schauer F, Bodemer C, Cunningham T, Löwe S, Davis C, Sumeray M, Bruckner AL, Murrell DF; EASE investigators
Br J Dermatol 2023 Jan 23;188(1):12-21. doi: 10.1093/bjd/ljac001. PMID: 36689495
Guide SV, Gonzalez ME, Bağcı IS, Agostini B, Chen H, Feeney G, Steimer M, Kapadia B, Sridhar K, Quesada Sanchez L, Gonzalez F, Van Ligten M, Parry TJ, Chitra S, Kammerman LA, Krishnan S, Marinkovich MP
N Engl J Med 2022 Dec 15;387(24):2211-2219. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2206663. PMID: 36516090
Leszczynski R, da Silva CA, Pinto ACPN, Kuczynski U, da Silva EM
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Sep 26;9(9):CD011642. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011642.pub2. PMID: 36161591Free PMC Article
Miyamoto D, Gordilho JO, Santi CG, Porro AM
An Bras Dermatol 2022 Jul-Aug;97(4):409-423. Epub 2022 Jun 11 doi: 10.1016/j.abd.2021.09.010. PMID: 35701269Free PMC Article
Gurevich I, Agarwal P, Zhang P, Dolorito JA, Oliver S, Liu H, Reitze N, Sarma N, Bagci IS, Sridhar K, Kakarla V, Yenamandra VK, O'Malley M, Prisco M, Tufa SF, Keene DR, South AP, Krishnan SM, Marinkovich MP
Nat Med 2022 Apr;28(4):780-788. Epub 2022 Mar 28 doi: 10.1038/s41591-022-01737-y. PMID: 35347281Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Miyamoto D, Gordilho JO, Santi CG, Porro AM
An Bras Dermatol 2022 Jul-Aug;97(4):409-423. Epub 2022 Jun 11 doi: 10.1016/j.abd.2021.09.010. PMID: 35701269Free PMC Article
Stoj V, Lu J
Clin Dermatol 2022 Mar-Apr;40(2):156-165. Epub 2021 Nov 19 doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2021.10.009. PMID: 34808244
Hon KL, Chu S, Leung AKC
Curr Pediatr Rev 2022;18(3):182-190. doi: 10.2174/1573396317666210525161252. PMID: 34036913
Bardhan A, Bruckner-Tuderman L, Chapple ILC, Fine JD, Harper N, Has C, Magin TM, Marinkovich MP, Marshall JF, McGrath JA, Mellerio JE, Polson R, Heagerty AH
Nat Rev Dis Primers 2020 Sep 24;6(1):78. doi: 10.1038/s41572-020-0210-0. PMID: 32973163
Korman N
J Am Acad Dermatol 1987 May;16(5 Pt 1):907-24. doi: 10.1016/s0190-9622(87)70115-7. PMID: 3294944

Clinical prediction guides

Yavuz Y, An I, Yazmaci B, Akkus Z, Ortac H
Medicina (Kaunas) 2023 Jun 21;59(7) doi: 10.3390/medicina59071185. PMID: 37511997Free PMC Article
Guide SV, Gonzalez ME, Bağcı IS, Agostini B, Chen H, Feeney G, Steimer M, Kapadia B, Sridhar K, Quesada Sanchez L, Gonzalez F, Van Ligten M, Parry TJ, Chitra S, Kammerman LA, Krishnan S, Marinkovich MP
N Engl J Med 2022 Dec 15;387(24):2211-2219. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2206663. PMID: 36516090
du Rand A, Hunt JMT, Feisst V, Sheppard HM
Mol Diagn Ther 2022 Nov;26(6):627-643. Epub 2022 Oct 17 doi: 10.1007/s40291-022-00613-2. PMID: 36251245Free PMC Article
Hon KL, Chu S, Leung AKC
Curr Pediatr Rev 2022;18(3):182-190. doi: 10.2174/1573396317666210525161252. PMID: 34036913
Winter L, Wiche G
Acta Neuropathol 2013 Jan;125(1):77-93. Epub 2012 Aug 3 doi: 10.1007/s00401-012-1026-0. PMID: 22864774

Recent systematic reviews

Kianfar N, Dasdar S, Daneshpazhooh M, Aryanian Z, Goodarzi A
Exp Dermatol 2023 Jul;32(7):934-944. Epub 2023 May 7 doi: 10.1111/exd.14829. PMID: 37150538
Leszczynski R, da Silva CA, Pinto ACPN, Kuczynski U, da Silva EM
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Sep 26;9(9):CD011642. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011642.pub2. PMID: 36161591Free PMC Article
Aromolo IF, Maronese CA, Moltrasio C, Genovese G, Marzano AV
Int J Dermatol 2022 Nov;61(11):1353-1358. Epub 2022 Jan 20 doi: 10.1111/ijd.16045. PMID: 35049061
Weisman A, Chan JM, LaPointe C, Sjoholm K, Steinau K, Artus K, Widhiati S, Bodan R, Wood M, Salas-Alanis JC, Rocha AC, Faitli B, Khuu P
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Sep 30;16(1):406. doi: 10.1186/s13023-021-01997-w. PMID: 34593011Free PMC Article
Tang JY, Marinkovich MP, Lucas E, Gorell E, Chiou A, Lu Y, Gillon J, Patel D, Rudin D
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Apr 13;16(1):175. doi: 10.1186/s13023-021-01811-7. PMID: 33849616Free PMC Article

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