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Hereditary fructosuria(HFI)

MedGen UID:
42105
Concept ID:
C0016751
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Aldolase B deficiency; Fructose intolerance; Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase B deficiency; Fructose-1-phosphate aldolase deficiency; FRUCTOSEMIA; Hereditary fructose intolerance
SNOMED CT: ALDB - aldolase B deficiency (20052008); Hereditary fructosuria (20052008); Fructose-1-phosphate aldolase deficiency (20052008); Hereditary fructose intolerance (20052008); Fructose-biphosphate aldolase B deficiency (20052008); ALDB deficiency (20052008); Aldolase B deficiency (20052008); Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase B deficiency (20052008); Fructose intolerance (20052008); Fructosemia (20052008)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): ALDOB (9q31.1)
 
HPO: HP:0005973
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0009249
OMIM®: 229600
Orphanet: ORPHA469

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Hereditary Fructose Intolerance
Following dietary exposure to fructose, sucrose, or sorbitol, untreated hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is characterized by metabolic disturbances (hypoglycemia, lactic acidemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperuricemia, hypermagnesemia, hyperalaninemia) and clinical findings (nausea, vomiting, and abdominal distress; chronic growth restriction / failure to thrive). While untreated HFI typically first manifested when fructose- and sucrose-containing foods were introduced in the course of weaning young infants from breast milk, it is now presenting earlier, due to the addition of fructose-containing nutrients in infant formulas. If the infant ingests large quantities of fructose, the infant may acutely develop lethargy, seizures, and/or progressive coma. Untreated HFI may result in renal and hepatic failure. If identified and treated before permanent organ injury occurs, individuals with HFI can experience a normal quality of life and life expectancy. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Sommer Gaughan  |  Lachlan Ayres  |  Peter R Baker   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) becomes apparent in infancy at the time of weaning, when fructose or sucrose is added to the diet. Clinical features include recurrent vomiting, abdominal pain, and hypoglycemia that may be fatal. Long-term exposure to fructose can result in liver failure, renal tubulopathy, and growth retardation. Older patients who survive infancy develop a natural avoidance of sweets and fruits. Ali et al. (1998) provided a detailed review of the biochemical, genetic, and molecular basis of aldolase B deficiency in hereditary fructose intolerance.  http://www.omim.org/entry/229600
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Hereditary fructose intolerance is a condition that affects a person's ability to digest the sugar fructose. Fructose is a simple sugar found primarily in fruits. Affected individuals develop signs and symptoms of the disorder in infancy when fruits, juices, or other foods containing fructose are introduced into the diet. After ingesting fructose, individuals with hereditary fructose intolerance may experience nausea, bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Affected infants may fail to grow and gain weight at the expected rate (failure to thrive).

Repeated ingestion of fructose-containing foods can lead to liver and kidney damage. The liver damage can result in a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice), an enlarged liver (hepatomegaly), and chronic liver disease (cirrhosis). Continued exposure to fructose may result in seizures, coma, and ultimately death from liver and kidney failure. Due to the severity of symptoms experienced when fructose is ingested, most people with hereditary fructose intolerance develop a dislike for fruits, juices, and other foods containing fructose.

Hereditary fructose intolerance should not be confused with a condition called fructose malabsorption. In people with fructose malabsorption, the cells of the intestine cannot absorb fructose normally, leading to bloating, diarrhea or constipation, flatulence, and stomach pain. Fructose malabsorption is thought to affect approximately 40 percent of individuals in the Western hemisphere; its cause is unknown.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/hereditary-fructose-intolerance

Clinical features

From HPO
Abdominal pain
MedGen UID:
7803
Concept ID:
C0000737
Sign or Symptom
An unpleasant sensation characterized by physical discomfort (such as pricking, throbbing, or aching) and perceived to originate in the abdomen.
Glycosuria
MedGen UID:
42267
Concept ID:
C0017979
Finding
An increased concentration of glucose in the urine.
Hyperphosphaturia
MedGen UID:
78638
Concept ID:
C0268079
Disease or Syndrome
An increased excretion of phosphates in the urine.
Hyperuricosuria
MedGen UID:
182691
Concept ID:
C0948643
Finding
An abnormally high level of uric acid in the urine.
Proximal tubulopathy
MedGen UID:
326534
Concept ID:
C1839603
Disease or Syndrome
Dysfunction of the proximal tubule, which is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle.
Bicarbonaturia
MedGen UID:
326596
Concept ID:
C1839865
Finding
Abnormally increased concentration of hydrogencarbonate in the urine.
Transient aminoaciduria
MedGen UID:
870272
Concept ID:
C4024713
Finding
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Gastrointestinal hemorrhage
MedGen UID:
8971
Concept ID:
C0017181
Pathologic Function
Hemorrhage affecting the gastrointestinal tract.
Hepatomegaly
MedGen UID:
42428
Concept ID:
C0019209
Finding
Abnormally increased size of the liver.
Jaundice
MedGen UID:
43987
Concept ID:
C0022346
Sign or Symptom
Yellow pigmentation of the skin due to bilirubin, which in turn is the result of increased bilirubin concentration in the bloodstream.
Cirrhosis of liver
MedGen UID:
7368
Concept ID:
C0023890
Disease or Syndrome
A chronic disorder of the liver in which liver tissue becomes scarred and is partially replaced by regenerative nodules and fibrotic tissue resulting in loss of liver function.
Nausea
MedGen UID:
10196
Concept ID:
C0027497
Sign or Symptom
A sensation of unease in the stomach together with an urge to vomit.
Vomiting
MedGen UID:
12124
Concept ID:
C0042963
Sign or Symptom
Forceful ejection of the contents of the stomach through the mouth by means of a series of involuntary spasmic contractions.
Malnutrition
MedGen UID:
56429
Concept ID:
C0162429
Disease or Syndrome
A deficiency in the intake of energy and nutrients.
Hepatic steatosis
MedGen UID:
398225
Concept ID:
C2711227
Disease or Syndrome
Steatosis is a term used to denote lipid accumulation within hepatocytes.
Coma
MedGen UID:
1054
Concept ID:
C0009421
Disease or Syndrome
The complete absence of wakefulness and consciousness, which is evident through a lack of response to any form of external stimuli.
Lethargy
MedGen UID:
7310
Concept ID:
C0023380
Sign or Symptom
A state of disinterest, listlessness, and indifference, resulting in difficulty performing simple tasks or concentrating.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Lactic acidosis
MedGen UID:
1717
Concept ID:
C0001125
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormal buildup of lactic acid in the body, leading to acidification of the blood and other bodily fluids.
Hereditary fructosuria
MedGen UID:
42105
Concept ID:
C0016751
Disease or Syndrome
Following dietary exposure to fructose, sucrose, or sorbitol, untreated hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is characterized by metabolic disturbances (hypoglycemia, lactic acidemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperuricemia, hypermagnesemia, hyperalaninemia) and clinical findings (nausea, vomiting, and abdominal distress; chronic growth restriction / failure to thrive). While untreated HFI typically first manifested when fructose- and sucrose-containing foods were introduced in the course of weaning young infants from breast milk, it is now presenting earlier, due to the addition of fructose-containing nutrients in infant formulas. If the infant ingests large quantities of fructose, the infant may acutely develop lethargy, seizures, and/or progressive coma. Untreated HFI may result in renal and hepatic failure. If identified and treated before permanent organ injury occurs, individuals with HFI can experience a normal quality of life and life expectancy.
Hypoglycemia
MedGen UID:
6979
Concept ID:
C0020615
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased concentration of glucose in the blood.
Hypophosphatemia
MedGen UID:
39327
Concept ID:
C0085682
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormally decreased phosphate concentration in the blood.
Metabolic acidosis
MedGen UID:
65117
Concept ID:
C0220981
Pathologic Function
Metabolic acidosis (MA) is characterized by a fall in blood pH due to a reduction of serum bicarbonate concentration. This can occur as a result of either the accumulation of acids (high anion gap MA) or the loss of bicarbonate from the gastrointestinal tract or the kidney (hyperchloremic MA). By definition, MA is not due to a respirary cause.
Proximal renal tubular acidosis
MedGen UID:
82804
Concept ID:
C0268435
Disease or Syndrome
A type of renal tubular acidosis characterized by a failure of the proximal tubular cells to reabsorb bicarbonate, leading to urinary bicarbonate wasting and subsequent acidemia.
Hyperbilirubinemia
MedGen UID:
86321
Concept ID:
C0311468
Finding
An increased amount of bilirubin in the blood.
Hyperuricemia
MedGen UID:
149260
Concept ID:
C0740394
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood.
Elevated hepatic transaminase
MedGen UID:
338525
Concept ID:
C1848701
Finding
Elevations of the levels of SGOT and SGPT in the serum. SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase) and SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) are transaminases primarily found in the liver and heart and are released into the bloodstream as the result of liver or heart damage. SGOT and SGPT are used clinically mainly as markers of liver damage.
Reduced hepatic fructose-1,6-phosphate aldolase activity
MedGen UID:
1841939
Concept ID:
C5826691
Finding
Concentration or activity of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase in liver tissue below the lower limit of normal.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVHereditary fructosuria

Conditions with this feature

Hereditary fructosuria
MedGen UID:
42105
Concept ID:
C0016751
Disease or Syndrome
Following dietary exposure to fructose, sucrose, or sorbitol, untreated hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is characterized by metabolic disturbances (hypoglycemia, lactic acidemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperuricemia, hypermagnesemia, hyperalaninemia) and clinical findings (nausea, vomiting, and abdominal distress; chronic growth restriction / failure to thrive). While untreated HFI typically first manifested when fructose- and sucrose-containing foods were introduced in the course of weaning young infants from breast milk, it is now presenting earlier, due to the addition of fructose-containing nutrients in infant formulas. If the infant ingests large quantities of fructose, the infant may acutely develop lethargy, seizures, and/or progressive coma. Untreated HFI may result in renal and hepatic failure. If identified and treated before permanent organ injury occurs, individuals with HFI can experience a normal quality of life and life expectancy.
Fructose and galactose intolerance
MedGen UID:
341598
Concept ID:
C1856686
Disease or Syndrome

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Green PHR, Paski S, Ko CW, Rubio-Tapia A
Gastroenterology 2022 Nov;163(5):1461-1469. Epub 2022 Sep 19 doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2022.07.086. PMID: 36137844
Hammer HF, Fox MR, Keller J, Salvatore S, Basilisco G, Hammer J, Lopetuso L, Benninga M, Borrelli O, Dumitrascu D, Hauser B, Herszenyi L, Nakov R, Pohl D, Thapar N, Sonyi M; European H2-CH4-breath test group
United European Gastroenterol J 2022 Feb;10(1):15-40. Epub 2021 Aug 25 doi: 10.1002/ueg2.12133. PMID: 34431620Free PMC Article
Konturek PC, Brzozowski T, Konturek SJ
J Physiol Pharmacol 2011 Dec;62(6):591-9. PMID: 22314561

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