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Dextrocardia

MedGen UID:
4255
Concept ID:
C0011813
Congenital Abnormality
Synonym: Dextrocardias
SNOMED CT: Right sided heart (27637000); Dextrocardia (27637000); Heart in right chest (27637000)
 
HPO: HP:0001651
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0015661
Orphanet: ORPHA1666

Definition

The heart is located in the right hand sided hemithorax. That is, there is a left-right reversal (or "mirror reflection") of the anatomical location of the heart in which the heart is locate on the right side instead of the left. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVDextrocardia

Conditions with this feature

Poland anomaly
MedGen UID:
10822
Concept ID:
C0032357
Disease or Syndrome
Poland syndrome consists of unilateral absence or hypoplasia of the pectoralis muscle, most frequently involving the sternocostal portion of the pectoralis major muscle, and a variable degree of ipsilateral hand and digit anomalies, including symbrachydactyly. Sometimes called Poland sequence, it was first described by Poland (1841). Poland syndrome is most commonly a sporadic condition (David, 1982; Opitz, 1982), but familial cases have been reported.
Marden-Walker syndrome
MedGen UID:
163206
Concept ID:
C0796033
Disease or Syndrome
Marden-Walker syndrome (MWKS) is characterized by psychomotor retardation, a mask-like face with blepharophimosis, micrognathia and a high-arched or cleft palate, low-set ears, kyphoscoliosis, and joint contractures. Other features may include Dandy-Walker malformation with hydrocephalus and vertebral abnormalities (summary by Schrander-Stumpel et al., 1993). There are 2 distal arthrogryposis syndromes with features overlapping those of Marden-Walker syndrome that are also caused by heterozygous mutation in PIEZO2: distal arthrogryposis type 3 (DA3, or Gordon syndrome; 114300) and distal arthrogryposis type 5 (DA5; 108145), which are distinguished by the presence of cleft palate and ocular abnormalities, respectively. McMillin et al. (2014) suggested that the 3 disorders may represent variable expressivity of the same condition.
Heterotaxy, visceral, 2, autosomal
MedGen UID:
237904
Concept ID:
C1415817
Disease or Syndrome
The more common form of transposition of the great arteries, dextro-looped TGA, consists of complete inversion of the great vessels, so that the aorta incorrectly arises from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery incorrectly arises from the left ventricle. (In the less common type of TGA, levo-looped TGA, the ventricles are inverted instead) (Goldmuntz et al., 2002). This creates completely separate pulmonary and systemic circulatory systems, an arrangement that is incompatible with life. Patients with TGA often have atrial and/or ventricular septal defects or other types of shunting that allow some mixing between the circulations in order to support life minimally, but surgical intervention is always required. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of dextro-looped transposition of the great arteries, see 608808.
Meacham syndrome
MedGen UID:
373234
Concept ID:
C1837026
Disease or Syndrome
WT1 disorder is characterized by congenital/infantile or childhood onset of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a progressive glomerulopathy that does not respond to standard steroid therapy. Additional common findings can include disorders of testicular development (with or without abnormalities of the external genitalia and/or müllerian structures) and Wilms tumor. Less common findings are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gonadoblastoma. While various combinations of renal and other findings associated with a WT1 pathogenic variant were designated as certain syndromes in the past, those designations are now recognized to be part of a phenotypic continuum and are no longer clinically helpful.
Atrial septal defect 2
MedGen UID:
334249
Concept ID:
C1842778
Congenital Abnormality
Any atrial heart septal defect in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the GATA4 gene.
Heterotaxy, visceral, 1, X-linked
MedGen UID:
336609
Concept ID:
C1844020
Disease or Syndrome
Heterotaxy Heterotaxy ('heter' meaning 'other' and 'taxy' meaning 'arrangement'), or situs ambiguus, is a developmental condition characterized by randomization of the placement of visceral organs, including the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and stomach. The organs are oriented randomly with respect to the left-right axis and with respect to one another (Srivastava, 1997). Heterotaxy is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Multiple Types of Congenital Heart Defects Congenital heart defects (CHTD) are among the most common congenital defects, occurring with an incidence of 8/1,000 live births. The etiology of CHTD is complex, with contributions from environmental exposure, chromosomal abnormalities, and gene defects. Some patients with CHTD also have cardiac arrhythmias, which may be due to the anatomic defect itself or to surgical interventions (summary by van de Meerakker et al., 2011). Reviews Obler et al. (2008) reviewed published cases of double-outlet right ventricle and discussed etiology and associations. Genetic Heterogeneity of Visceral Heterotaxy See also HTX2 (605376), caused by mutation in the CFC1 gene (605194) on chromosome 2q21; HTX3 (606325), which maps to chromosome 6q21; HTX4 (613751), caused by mutation in the ACVR2B gene (602730) on chromosome 3p22; HTX5 (270100), caused by mutation in the NODAL gene (601265) on chromosome 10q22; HTX6 (614779), caused by mutation in the CCDC11 gene (614759) on chromosome 18q21; HTX7 (616749), caused by mutation in the MMP21 gene (608416) on chromosome 10q26; HTX8 (617205), caused by mutation in the PKD1L1 gene (609721) on chromosome 7p12; HTX9 (618948), caused by mutation in the MNS1 gene (610766) on chromosome 15q21; HTX10 (619607), caused by mutation in the CFAP52 gene (609804) on chromosome 17p13; HTX11 (619608), caused by mutation in the CFAP45 gene (605152) on chromosome 1q23; and HTX12 (619702), caused by mutation in the CIROP gene (619703) on chromosome 14q11. Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Types of Congenital Heart Defects An X-linked form of CHTD, CHTD1, is caused by mutation in the ZIC3 gene on chromosome Xq26. CHTD2 (614980) is caused by mutation in the TAB2 gene (605101) on chromosome 6q25. A form of nonsyndromic congenital heart defects associated with cardiac rhythm and conduction disturbances (CHTD3; 614954) has been mapped to chromosome 9q31. CHTD4 (615779) is caused by mutation in the NR2F2 gene (107773) on chromosome 15q26. CHTD5 (617912) is caused by mutation in the GATA5 gene (611496) on chromosome 20q13. CHTD6 (613854) is caused by mutation in the GDF1 gene (602880) on chromosome 19p13. CHTD7 (618780) is caused by mutation in the FLT4 gene (136352) on chromosome 5q35. CHTD8 (619657) is caused by mutation in the SMAD2 gene (601366) on chromosome 18q21. CHTD9 (620294) is caused by mutation in the PLXND1 gene (604282) on chromosome 3q22.
Catel-Manzke syndrome
MedGen UID:
375536
Concept ID:
C1844887
Disease or Syndrome
Catel-Manzke syndrome is characterized by the Pierre Robin anomaly, which comprises cleft palate, glossoptosis, and micrognathia, and a unique form of bilateral hyperphalangy in which there is an accessory bone inserted between the second metacarpal and its corresponding proximal phalanx, resulting in radial deviation of the index finger (summary by Manzke et al., 2008).
Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome
MedGen UID:
337547
Concept ID:
C1846265
Disease or Syndrome
Oculofaciocardiodental (OFCD) syndrome is a condition that affects the development of the eyes (oculo-), facial features (facio-), heart (cardio-) and teeth (dental). This condition occurs only in females.\n\nThe eye abnormalities associated with OFCD syndrome can affect one or both eyes. Many people with this condition are born with eyeballs that are abnormally small (microphthalmia). Other eye problems can include clouding of the lens (cataract) and a higher risk of glaucoma, an eye disease that increases the pressure in the eye. These abnormalities can lead to vision loss or blindness.\n\nPeople with OFCD syndrome often have a long, narrow face with distinctive facial features, including deep-set eyes and a broad nasal tip that is divided by a cleft. Some affected people have an opening in the roof of the mouth called a cleft palate.\n\nHeart defects are another common feature of OFCD syndrome. Babies with this condition may be born with a hole between two chambers of the heart (an atrial or ventricular septal defect) or a leak in one of the valves that controls blood flow through the heart (mitral valve prolapse).\n\nTeeth with very large roots (radiculomegaly) are characteristic of OFCD syndrome. Additional dental abnormalities can include delayed loss of primary (baby) teeth, missing or abnormally small teeth, misaligned teeth, and defective tooth enamel.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 2
MedGen UID:
338258
Concept ID:
C1847554
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.\n\nIn the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.\n\nApproximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.\n\nSome individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.\n\nAnother feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.\n\nRarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.
Methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type cblF
MedGen UID:
336373
Concept ID:
C1848578
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of intracellular cobalamin metabolism have a variable phenotype and age of onset that are influenced by the severity and location within the pathway of the defect. The prototype and best understood phenotype is cblC; it is also the most common of these disorders. The age of initial presentation of cblC spans a wide range: In utero with fetal presentation of nonimmune hydrops, cardiomyopathy, and intrauterine growth restriction. Newborns, who can have microcephaly, poor feeding, and encephalopathy. Infants, who can have poor feeding and slow growth, neurologic abnormality, and, rarely, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Toddlers, who can have poor growth, progressive microcephaly, cytopenias (including megaloblastic anemia), global developmental delay, encephalopathy, and neurologic signs such as hypotonia and seizures. Adolescents and adults, who can have neuropsychiatric symptoms, progressive cognitive decline, thromboembolic complications, and/or subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.
Holoprosencephaly-postaxial polydactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
340382
Concept ID:
C1849649
Disease or Syndrome
Holoprosencephaly-postaxial polydactyly syndrome associates, in chromosomally normal neonates, holoprosencephaly, severe facial dysmorphism, postaxial polydactyly and other congenital abnormalities, suggestive of trisomy 13. Incidence is unknown. Dysmorphic features include hypotelorism, severe eye anomalies such as microphthalmia or anophthalmia, premaxillary region aplasia and cleft lip and palate. Congenital cardiac anomalies are common. The condition seems to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Prognosis is poor.
Atrioventricular septal defect, susceptibility to, 2
MedGen UID:
381193
Concept ID:
C1853508
Finding
Any atrioventricular septal defect in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CRELD1 gene.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 7
MedGen UID:
394834
Concept ID:
C2678473
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from loss of normal ciliary function. Kartagener (pronounced KART-agayner) syndrome is characterized by the combination of primary ciliary dyskinesia and situs inversus, and occurs in approximately half of patients with ciliary dyskinesia. Since normal nodal ciliary movement in the embryo is required for normal visceral asymmetry, absence of normal ciliary movement results in a lack of definitive patterning; thus, random chance alone appears to determine whether the viscera take up the normal or reversed left-right position during embryogenesis. This explains why approximately 50% of patients, even within the same family, have situs inversus (Afzelius, 1976; El Zein et al., 2003). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia and the Kartagener syndrome, see CILD1 (244400).
Polycystic kidney disease 2
MedGen UID:
442699
Concept ID:
C2751306
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is generally a late-onset multisystem disorder characterized by bilateral kidney cysts, liver cysts, and an increased risk of intracranial aneurysms. Other manifestations include: cysts in the pancreas, seminal vesicles, and arachnoid membrane; dilatation of the aortic root and dissection of the thoracic aorta; mitral valve prolapse; and abdominal wall hernias. Kidney manifestations include early-onset hypertension, kidney pain, and kidney insufficiency. Approximately 50% of individuals with ADPKD have end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) by age 60 years. The prevalence of liver cysts increases with age and occasionally results in clinically significant severe polycystic liver disease (PLD), most often in females. Overall, the prevalence of intracranial aneurysms is fivefold higher than in the general population and further increased in those with a positive family history of aneurysms or subarachnoid hemorrhage. There is substantial variability in the severity of kidney disease and other extra-kidney manifestations.
VACTERL association, X-linked, with or without hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
419019
Concept ID:
C2931228
Disease or Syndrome
VACTERL is an acronym for vertebral anomalies (similar to those of spondylocostal dysplasia), anal atresia, cardiac malformations, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal anomalies (urethral atresia with hydronephrosis), and limb anomalies (hexadactyly, humeral hypoplasia, radial aplasia, and proximally placed thumb; see 192350). Some patients may have hydrocephalus, which is referred to as VACTERL-H (Briard et al., 1984).
Spondylocostal dysostosis 4, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
462292
Concept ID:
C3150942
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylocostal dysostosis (SCDO), defined radiographically as multiple segmentation defects of the vertebrae (M-SDV) in combination with abnormalities of the ribs, is characterized clinically by: a short trunk in proportion to height; short neck; non-progressive mild scoliosis in most affected individuals, and occasionally, more significant scoliosis. Respiratory function in neonates may be compromised by reduced size of the thorax. By age two years lung growth may improve sufficiently to support relatively normal growth and development; however, even then life-threatening complications can occur, especially pulmonary hypertension in children with severely restricted lung capacity from birth. Males with SCDO appear to be at increased risk for inguinal hernia.
Heterotaxy, visceral, 4, autosomal
MedGen UID:
462407
Concept ID:
C3151057
Disease or Syndrome
Heterotaxy ('heter' meaning 'other' and 'taxy' meaning 'arrangement'), or situs ambiguus, is a developmental condition characterized by randomization of the placement of visceral organs, including the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and stomach. The organs are oriented randomly with respect to the left-right axis and with respect to one another (Srivastava, 1997). Heterotaxy is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. For a discussion of the genetic heterogeneity of visceral heterotaxy, see HTX1 (306955).
Right atrial isomerism
MedGen UID:
465274
Concept ID:
C3178806
Congenital Abnormality
Right atrial isomerism is characterized by bilateral triangular, morphologically right atrial, appendages, both joining the atrial chamber along a broad front with internal terminal crest.
Chromosome 15q25 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
481985
Concept ID:
C3280355
Disease or Syndrome
Heterotaxy, visceral, 5, autosomal
MedGen UID:
501198
Concept ID:
C3495537
Congenital Abnormality
Heterotaxy ('heter' meaning 'other' and 'taxy' meaning 'arrangement'), or situs ambiguus, is a developmental condition characterized by randomization of the placement of visceral organs, including the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and stomach. The organs are oriented randomly with respect to the left-right axis and with respect to one another (Srivastava, 1997). Heterotaxy is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of visceral heterotaxy, see HTX1 (306955).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 20
MedGen UID:
761920
Concept ID:
C3540844
Disease or Syndrome
CILD20 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by infantile onset of chronic sinopulmonary infections resulting from immotile cilia and defective clearance. Patients may also have situs inversus or cardiac anomalies. Electron microscopy of respiratory epithelial cells shows absence of the outer dynein arms. Unlike other forms of CILD, patients with CILD20 do not appear to be infertile. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 17
MedGen UID:
762261
Concept ID:
C3542550
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-17 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early infantile onset of respiratory distress associated with a defect in the function of ciliary outer dynein arms. Situs inversus is variable (summary by Panizzi et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Heterotaxy, visceral, 6, autosomal
MedGen UID:
766590
Concept ID:
C3553676
Disease or Syndrome
Visceral heterotaxy-6 (HTX6) is characterized by dextrocardia with or without accompanying complex cardiovascular defects, as well as variable manifestations of visceral heterotaxy, including situs inversus totalis (Perles et al., 2012).
MEGF8-related Carpenter syndrome
MedGen UID:
767161
Concept ID:
C3554247
Disease or Syndrome
Carpenter syndrome-2 (CRPT2) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital malformation disorder characterized by multisuture craniosynostosis and polysyndactyly of the hands and feet, in association with abnormal left-right patterning and other features, most commonly obesity, umbilical hernia, cryptorchidism, and congenital heart disease (summary by Twigg et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Carpenter syndrome, see 201000.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 17
MedGen UID:
811538
Concept ID:
C3714980
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-17 (BBS17) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, cognitive impairment, obesity, renal dysfunction, and hypogenitalism. Polydactyly, most often postaxial, is also a primary feature of BBS; in BBS17, mesoaxial polydactyly, with fused or Y-shaped metacarpals, is a distinct manifestation (Deffert et al., 2007; Schaefer et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 22
MedGen UID:
815873
Concept ID:
C3809543
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-22 (CILD22) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective structure and function of cilia or flagella. Ciliary dysfunction causes respiratory distress in term neonates, impaired mucociliary clearance, chronic cough, sinusitis, bronchiectasis, and male infertility. Defective motility of embryonic nodal cilia leads to situs abnormalities in about 50% of patients. CILD22 is characterized by defects of the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Zariwala et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 25
MedGen UID:
815971
Concept ID:
C3809641
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-25 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective ciliary movement. Affected individuals have recurrent upper and lower airway disease, bronchiectasis, and decreased fertility. About half of patients show laterality defects, including situs inversus totalis. Respiratory cilia from patients show defects in the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Tarkar et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 30
MedGen UID:
863453
Concept ID:
C4015016
Disease or Syndrome
Any primary ciliary dyskinesia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CCDC151 gene.
Heterotaxy, visceral, 7, autosomal
MedGen UID:
902629
Concept ID:
C4225217
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal visceral heterotaxy-7 is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by complex congenital heart malformations and/or situs inversus and caused by defects in the normal left-right asymmetric positioning of internal organs. The phenotype is variable (summary by Guimier et al., 2015). For a discussion of the genetic heterogeneity of visceral heterotaxy, see HTX1 (306955).
Heterotaxy, visceral, 8, autosomal
MedGen UID:
934635
Concept ID:
C4310668
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal visceral heterotaxy-8 (HTX8) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by visceral situs inversus associated with complex congenital heart malformations caused by defects in the normal left-right asymmetric positioning of internal organs (summary by Vetrini et al., 2016). For a discussion of the genetic heterogeneity of visceral heterotaxy, see HTX1 (306955).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 37
MedGen UID:
1615746
Concept ID:
C4539798
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital total pulmonary venous return anomaly
MedGen UID:
1648157
Concept ID:
C4551903
Disease or Syndrome
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a cyanotic form of congenital heart defect in which the pulmonary veins fail to enter the left atrium and instead drain into the right atrium or one of the venous tributaries (summary by Bleyl et al., 1994).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 38
MedGen UID:
1648465
Concept ID:
C4748052
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-38 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chronic airway disease and recurrent sinopulmonary infections beginning in infancy and caused by defective ciliary function. Affected individuals often have neonatal respiratory distress and may later have infertility. About half of patients have laterality defects due to ciliary dysfunction in early embryonic development (summary by Fassad et al., 2018 and Hoben et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 66
MedGen UID:
1648486
Concept ID:
C4748070
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-66 (DEE66) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of various types of seizures in the first days or weeks of life. Most seizures have focal origins; secondary generalization is common. Seizure control is difficult at first, but may become easier with time. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic features or ophthalmologic defects. Brain imaging often shows cerebellar dysgenesis. A subset of patients have extraneurologic manifestations, including hematologic and distal limb abnormalities (summary by Olson et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 39
MedGen UID:
1648363
Concept ID:
C4748841
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-39 (CILD39) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chronic sinopulmonary infections beginning soon after birth and laterality defects in about 50% of patients. Although patient nasal ciliary samples have normal structure, detailed studies may show ciliary kinetic defects in some patients (summary by Bonnefoy et al., 2018). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Cardiac-urogenital syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648333
Concept ID:
C4748946
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiac-urogenital syndrome is characterized by partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in association with tracheal anomalies, pulmonary hypoplasia, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, thyroid fibrosis, thymic involution, cleft spleen, penoscrotal hypospadias, and cryptorchidism (Pinz et al., 2018).
Agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac, ocular, and genital syndrome
MedGen UID:
1718475
Concept ID:
C5394523
Disease or Syndrome
Agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac, ocular, and genital syndrome (ACOGS) is a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphisms, and ocular, cardiac, and genital anomalies (Accogli et al., 2019).
Heterotaxy, visceral, 9, autosomal, with male infertility
MedGen UID:
1717772
Concept ID:
C5394551
Disease or Syndrome
Visceral heterotaxy-9 (HTX9) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by randomization of organ laterality, resulting in defects such as situs inversus and dextrocardia. Affected males are infertile mainly due to defective sperm motility, whereas affected females do not appear to have fertility problems. The disorder results from impaired function of the embryonic nodal cilia and sperm flagella. However, patients do not have classic respiratory symptoms of primary ciliary dyskinesia (see, e.g., CILD; 244400). The phenotype is highly variable; some affected individuals may be identified incidentally (summary by Ta-Shma et al., 2018 and Leslie et al., 2020). For a discussion of the genetic heterogeneity of visceral heterotaxy, see HTX1 (306955).
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794200
Concept ID:
C5561990
Disease or Syndrome
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome (BRENS) is an autosomal recessive complex ciliopathy with multisystemic manifestations. The most common presentation is severe neonatal cholestasis that progresses to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Most patients have additional clinical features suggestive of a ciliopathy, including postaxial polydactyly, hydrocephalus, retinal abnormalities, and situs inversus. Additional features of the syndrome may include congenital cardiac defects, echogenic kidneys with renal failure, ocular abnormalities, joint hyperextensibility, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients have global developmental delay. Brain imaging typically shows dilated ventricles, hypomyelination, and white matter abnormalities, although some patients have been described with abnormal pituitary development (summary by Shaheen et al., 2020 and David et al., 2020).
Congenital heart defects, multiple types, 8, with or without heterotaxy
MedGen UID:
1794252
Concept ID:
C5562042
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple types of congenital heart defects-8 (CHTD8) is characterized by cardiac septal defects, double-outlet right ventricle, unbalanced complete atrioventricular canal, and valvular anomalies, as well as vascular anomalies including dextroposition of the great arteries, anomalous pulmonary venous return, and superior vena cava to left atrium defect. Patients may also exhibit laterality defects, including dextrocardia, atrial isomerism, dextrogastria, left-sided gallbladder, and intestinal malrotation (Zaidi et al., 2013; Granadillo et al., 2018).
Heterotaxy, visceral, 10, autosomal, with male infertility
MedGen UID:
1794282
Concept ID:
C5562072
Disease or Syndrome
Visceral heterotaxy-10 (HTX10) is characterized by a failure to generate normal left-right visceral asymmetry during embryogenesis, which can result in heterotaxy syndrome or situs inversus totalis. Affected individuals may experience mild chronic respiratory symptoms, but do not fulfill the criteria for primary ciliary dyskinesia (see 244400). Male infertility has been reported (Ta-Shma et al., 2015; Dougherty et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of visceral heterotaxy, see HTX1 (306955).
Heterotaxy, visceral, 12, autosomal
MedGen UID:
1803695
Concept ID:
C5676898
Congenital Abnormality
Visceral heterotaxy-12 (HTX12) is an embryonic developmental disorder characterized by defects in the asymmetric positioning of visceral organs across the left-right axis, known as laterality defects. The phenotype is highly variable, ranging from complete organ reversal (situs inversus totalis) to selective misarrangement of organs (situs ambiguus) such as the liver, spleen, and pancreas. The disorder is often associated with dextrocardia or variable complex congenital heart defects. Early death may occur in the most severe cases (summary by Szenker-Ravi et al., 2022). For a discussion of the genetic heterogeneity of visceral heterotaxy, see HTX1 (306955).
Neurooculorenal syndrome
MedGen UID:
1841013
Concept ID:
C5830377
Disease or Syndrome
Neurooculorenal syndrome (NORS) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder with highly variable clinical manifestations involving several organ systems. Some affected individuals present in utero with renal agenesis and structural brain abnormalities incompatible with life, whereas others present in infancy with a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and dysmorphic facial features that may be associated with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). Additional more variable features may include ocular anomalies, most commonly strabismus, congenital heart defects, and pituitary hormone deficiency. Brain imaging usually shows structural midline defects, including dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and hindbrain. There is variation in the severity, manifestations, and expressivity of the phenotype, even within families (Rasmussen et al., 2018; Munch et al., 2022).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Soofi M, Alpert MA, Barbadora J, Mukerji B, Mukerji V
Am J Med Sci 2021 Sep;362(3):233-242. Epub 2021 May 28 doi: 10.1016/j.amjms.2021.05.020. PMID: 34052215
Wang X, Shi Y, Zeng S, Zhou J, Zhou J, Yuan H, Wang L, Shi W, Zhou Q
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Rapoport Y, Fox CJ, Khade P, Fox ME, Urman RD, Kaye AD
J Anesth 2015 Oct;29(5):769-85. Epub 2015 May 10 doi: 10.1007/s00540-015-2019-7. PMID: 25957984
Chenniappan M, Sankar RU, Saravanan K, Karthikeyan
J Assoc Physicians India 2013 Sep;61(9):650-4. PMID: 24772703
Dhar DK, Ganguly KC, Alam S, Hossain A, Sarker UK, Das BK, Haque MJ
Mymensingh Med J 2009 Jan;18(1):75-9. PMID: 19182755

Diagnosis

Rehm A, Ashby E, Thahir A, Ngu AWT, Kobezda T, Ong JCY, Granger L
J Pediatr Orthop B 2023 Mar 1;32(2):185-191. Epub 2022 Nov 14 doi: 10.1097/BPB.0000000000001024. PMID: 36445358
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Queiroz RM, Filho FB
Pan Afr Med J 2018;29:160. Epub 2018 Mar 19 doi: 10.11604/pamj.2018.29.160.14927. PMID: 30050624Free PMC Article
Rapoport Y, Fox CJ, Khade P, Fox ME, Urman RD, Kaye AD
J Anesth 2015 Oct;29(5):769-85. Epub 2015 May 10 doi: 10.1007/s00540-015-2019-7. PMID: 25957984
Perloff JK
Am J Cardiol 2011 Nov 1;108(9):1352-61. Epub 2011 Aug 20 doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.06.055. PMID: 21861958

Therapy

Padua MB, Helm BM, Wells JR, Smith AM, Bellchambers HM, Sridhar A, Ware SM
Hum Mol Genet 2023 Jul 4;32(14):2335-2346. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddad065. PMID: 37158461Free PMC Article
Nakao T, Hanaoka S, Nomura Y, Murata M, Takenaga T, Miki S, Watadani T, Yoshikawa T, Hayashi N, Abe O
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Compton J, Voort WV, Weinstein S
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Mar 15;45(6):378-380. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000002731. PMID: 29952884
Mukherjee D, Nedungadi S
BMJ Case Rep 2018 Aug 10;2018 doi: 10.1136/bcr-2018-226024. PMID: 30097550Free PMC Article
Dhar DK, Ganguly KC, Alam S, Hossain A, Sarker UK, Das BK, Haque MJ
Mymensingh Med J 2009 Jan;18(1):75-9. PMID: 19182755

Prognosis

Rehm A, Ashby E, Thahir A, Ngu AWT, Kobezda T, Ong JCY, Granger L
J Pediatr Orthop B 2023 Mar 1;32(2):185-191. Epub 2022 Nov 14 doi: 10.1097/BPB.0000000000001024. PMID: 36445358
Soofi M, Alpert MA, Barbadora J, Mukerji B, Mukerji V
Am J Med Sci 2021 Sep;362(3):233-242. Epub 2021 May 28 doi: 10.1016/j.amjms.2021.05.020. PMID: 34052215
Compton J, Voort WV, Weinstein S
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Mar 15;45(6):378-380. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000002731. PMID: 29952884
Rapoport Y, Fox CJ, Khade P, Fox ME, Urman RD, Kaye AD
J Anesth 2015 Oct;29(5):769-85. Epub 2015 May 10 doi: 10.1007/s00540-015-2019-7. PMID: 25957984
Chenniappan M, Sankar RU, Saravanan K, Karthikeyan
J Assoc Physicians India 2013 Sep;61(9):650-4. PMID: 24772703

Clinical prediction guides

Yogi A, Iemura R, Nakatani H, Takasawa K, Gau M, Yamauchi T, Yoshida M, Moriyama K, Ishii T, Hosokawa S, Yamada M, Suzuki H, Kosaki K, Kashimada K, Morio T
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Chenniappan M, Sankar RU, Saravanan K, Karthikeyan
J Assoc Physicians India 2013 Sep;61(9):650-4. PMID: 24772703
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Recent systematic reviews

Valenzuela-Fuenzalida JJ, Martínez Hernández D, Milos-Brandenberg D, Koscina Z, Avila-Sepulveda R, Baez B, Perez-Jimenez D, Nova Baeza P, Orellana Donoso M, Bruna-Mejias A
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Yang G, Chen L, Xu C, Yuan M, Li Y
BMC Pediatr 2019 Sep 2;19(1):305. doi: 10.1186/s12887-019-1686-1. PMID: 31477056Free PMC Article
Sehgal IS, Dhooria S, Bal A, Agarwal R
BMJ Case Rep 2015 Aug 6;2015 doi: 10.1136/bcr-2015-211493. PMID: 26250371Free PMC Article

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