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Hypercalciuria

MedGen UID:
43775
Concept ID:
C0020438
Finding
Synonyms: Elevated urine calcium levels; Hypercalcinuria; Hypercalcuria
SNOMED CT: Hypercalciuria (71938000); Hypercalcuria (71938000)
 
HPO: HP:0002150

Definition

Abnormally high level of calcium in the urine. [from NCI]

Conditions with this feature

Cystic fibrosis
MedGen UID:
41393
Concept ID:
C0010674
Disease or Syndrome
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disease affecting epithelia of the respiratory tract, exocrine pancreas, intestine, hepatobiliary system, and exocrine sweat glands. Morbidities include recurrent sinusitis and bronchitis, progressive obstructive pulmonary disease with bronchiectasis, exocrine pancreatic deficiency and malnutrition, pancreatitis, gastrointestinal manifestations (meconium ileus, rectal prolapse, distal intestinal obstructive syndrome), liver disease, diabetes, male infertility due to hypoplasia or aplasia of the vas deferens, and reduced fertility or infertility in some women. Pulmonary disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in CF.
Wilson disease
MedGen UID:
42426
Concept ID:
C0019202
Disease or Syndrome
Wilson disease is a disorder of copper metabolism that can present with hepatic, neurologic, or psychiatric disturbances, or a combination of these, in individuals ranging from age three years to older than 50 years; symptoms vary among and within families. Liver disease includes recurrent jaundice, simple acute self-limited hepatitis-like illness, autoimmune-type hepatitis, fulminant hepatic failure, or chronic liver disease. Neurologic presentations include movement disorders (tremors, poor coordination, loss of fine-motor control, chorea, choreoathetosis) or rigid dystonia (mask-like facies, rigidity, gait disturbance, pseudobulbar involvement). Psychiatric disturbance includes depression, neurotic behaviors, disorganization of personality, and, occasionally, intellectual deterioration. Kayser-Fleischer rings, frequently present, result from copper deposition in Descemet's membrane of the cornea and reflect a high degree of copper storage in the body.
Williams syndrome
MedGen UID:
59799
Concept ID:
C0175702
Disease or Syndrome
Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by cardiovascular disease (elastin arteriopathy, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis, hypertension), distinctive facies, connective tissue abnormalities, intellectual disability (usually mild), a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, growth abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroidism, and early puberty). Feeding difficulties often lead to poor weight gain in infancy. Hypotonia and hyperextensible joints can result in delayed attainment of motor milestones.
Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Jansen type
MedGen UID:
120529
Concept ID:
C0265295
Disease or Syndrome
The Murk Jansen type of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia is characterized by severe short stature, short bowed limbs, clinodactyly, prominent upper face, and small mandible. Hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia occur despite the lack of parathyroid abnormalities (summary by Cohen, 2002).
Infantile hypophosphatasia
MedGen UID:
75677
Concept ID:
C0268412
Disease or Syndrome
Hypophosphatasia is characterized by defective mineralization of growing or remodeling bone, with or without root-intact tooth loss, in the presence of low activity of serum and bone alkaline phosphatase. Clinical features range from stillbirth without mineralized bone at the severe end to pathologic fractures of the lower extremities in later adulthood at the mild end. While the disease spectrum is a continuum, seven clinical forms of hypophosphatasia are usually recognized based on age at diagnosis and severity of features: Perinatal (severe): characterized by pulmonary insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Perinatal (benign): prenatal skeletal manifestations that slowly resolve into one of the milder forms. Infantile: onset between birth and age six months of clinical features of rickets without elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Severe childhood (juvenile): variable presenting features progressing to rickets. Mild childhood: low bone mineral density for age, increased risk of fracture, and premature loss of primary teeth with intact roots. Adult: characterized by stress fractures and pseudofractures of the lower extremities in middle age, sometimes associated with early loss of adult dentition. Odontohypophosphatasia: characterized by premature exfoliation of primary teeth and/or severe dental caries without skeletal manifestations.
Hyperphosphatasemia with bone disease
MedGen UID:
75678
Concept ID:
C0268414
Disease or Syndrome
Paget disease of bone-5 is an autosomal recessive, juvenile-onset form of Paget disease, a disorder of the skeleton resulting from abnormal bone resorption and formation. Clinical manifestations include short stature, progressive long bone deformities, fractures, vertebral collapse, skull enlargement, and hyperostosis with progressive deafness. There is phenotypic variability, with some patients presenting in infancy, while others present later in childhood (summary by Naot et al., 2014). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Paget disease of bone, see 167250.
Proximal renal tubular acidosis
MedGen UID:
82804
Concept ID:
C0268435
Disease or Syndrome
A type of renal tubular acidosis characterized by a failure of the proximal tubular cells to reabsorb bicarbonate, leading to urinary bicarbonate wasting and subsequent acidemia.
Primary hypomagnesemia
MedGen UID:
120640
Concept ID:
C0268448
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is a progressive renal disorder characterized by excessive urinary Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) excretion. There is progressive loss of kidney function, and in about 50% of cases, the need for renal replacement therapy arises as early as the second decade of life (summary by Muller et al., 2006). Amelogenesis imperfecta may also be present in some patients (Bardet et al., 2016). A similar disorder with renal magnesium wasting, renal failure, and nephrocalcinosis (HOMG5; 248190) is caused by mutations in another tight-junction gene, CLDN19 (610036), and is distinguished by the association of severe ocular involvement. For a discussion of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of familial hypomagnesemia, see HOMG1 (602014).
Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia 1
MedGen UID:
87438
Concept ID:
C0342345
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia-1 is associated with low or normal serum parathyroid hormone concentrations (PTH). Approximately 50% of patients have mild or asymptomatic hypocalcemia; about 50% have paresthesias, carpopedal spasm, and seizures; about 10% have hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis or kidney stones; and more than 35% have ectopic and basal ganglia calcifications (summary by Nesbit et al., 2013). Thakker (2001) noted that patients with gain-of-function mutations in the CASR gene, resulting in generally asymptomatic hypocalcemia with hypercalciuria, have low-normal serum PTH concentrations and have often been diagnosed with hypoparathyroidism because of the insensitivity of earlier PTH assays. Because treatment with vitamin D to correct the hypocalcemia in these patients causes hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal impairment, these patients need to be distinguished from those with other forms of hypoparathyroidism (see 146200). Thakker (2001) suggested the designation 'autosomal dominant hypocalcemic hypercalciuria' for this CASR-related disorder. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia-2 (HYPOC2; 615361) is caused by mutation in the GNA11 gene (139313) on chromosome 19p13.
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia 1
MedGen UID:
137973
Concept ID:
C0342637
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (HHC) is a heritable disorder of mineral homeostasis that is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with a high degree of penetrance. HHC is characterized biochemically by lifelong elevation of serum calcium concentrations and is associated with inappropriately low urinary calcium excretion and a normal or mildly elevated circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH; 168450) level. Hypermagnesemia is typically present. Individuals with HHC are usually asymptomatic and the disorder is considered benign. However, chondrocalcinosis and pancreatitis occur in some adults (summary by Hannan et al., 2010). Characteristic features of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia include mild to moderate hypercalcemia, nonsuppressed parathyroid hormone, relative hypocalciuria while hypercalcemic (calcium/creatinine clearance ratio less than 0.01, or 24-hr urine calcium less than 6.25 mmol), almost 100% penetrance of hypercalcemia from birth, absence of complications, persistence of hypercalcemia following subtotal parathyroidectomy, and normal parathyroid size, weight, and histology at surgery. However, atypical presentations with severe hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria with or without nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis, kindreds with affected members displaying either hypercalciuria or hypocalciuria, postoperative normocalcemia, and pancreatitis have all been described in FHH (Warner et al., 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type II (HHC2; 145981) is caused by mutation in the GNA11 gene (139313) on chromosome 19p13, and HHC3 (600740) is caused by mutation in the AP2S1 gene (602242) on chromosome 19q13.
Familial idiopathic hypercalciuria
MedGen UID:
137974
Concept ID:
C0342639
Congenital Abnormality
Pearson syndrome
MedGen UID:
87459
Concept ID:
C0342784
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion syndromes predominantly comprise three overlapping phenotypes that are usually simplex (i.e., a single occurrence in a family), but rarely may be observed in different members of the same family or may evolve from one clinical syndrome to another in a given individual over time. The three classic phenotypes caused by mtDNA deletions are Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), Pearson syndrome, and progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO). KSS is a progressive multisystem disorder defined by onset before age 20 years, pigmentary retinopathy, and PEO; additional features include cerebellar ataxia, impaired intellect (intellectual disability, dementia, or both), sensorineural hearing loss, ptosis, oropharyngeal and esophageal dysfunction, exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, cardiac conduction block, and endocrinopathy. Pearson syndrome is characterized by sideroblastic anemia and exocrine pancreas dysfunction and may be fatal in infancy without appropriate hematologic management. PEO is characterized by ptosis, impaired eye movements due to paralysis of the extraocular muscles (ophthalmoplegia), oropharyngeal weakness, and variably severe proximal limb weakness with exercise intolerance. Rarely, a mtDNA deletion can manifest as Leigh syndrome.
X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis with renal failure
MedGen UID:
96047
Concept ID:
C0403720
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis with renal failure (XRN) is a form of X-linked hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis, which comprises a group of disorders characterized by proximal renal tubular reabsorptive failure, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis, and renal insufficiency. These disorders have also been referred to as the 'Dent disease complex' (Scheinman, 1998; Gambaro et al., 2004). For a general discussion of Dent disease, see 300009.
Neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism
MedGen UID:
331326
Concept ID:
C1832615
Disease or Syndrome
Neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism usually manifests in the first 6 months of life with severe hypercalcemia, bone demineralization, and failure to thrive. Early diagnosis is critical because untreated NSHPT can be a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder, which in some cases is lethal without parathyroidectomy. Some infants have milder hyperparathyroidism and a substantially milder clinical presentation and natural history (summary by Egbuna and Brown, 2008).
Proteinuria, low molecular weight, with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis
MedGen UID:
333426
Concept ID:
C1839874
Disease or Syndrome
Low molecular weight proteinuria with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is a form of X-linked hypercalciuric nephrocalcinosis, a group of disorders characterized by proximal renal tubular reabsorptive failure, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal insufficiency. These disorders have also been referred to as the 'Dent disease complex' (Scheinman, 1998; Gambaro et al., 2004). For a general discussion of Dent disease, see 300009.
Dent disease type 2
MedGen UID:
336867
Concept ID:
C1845167
Disease or Syndrome
Dent disease, an X-linked disorder of proximal renal tubular dysfunction, is characterized by low molecular weight (LMW) proteinuria, hypercalciuria, and at least one additional finding including nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, hematuria, hypophosphatemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and evidence of X-linked inheritance. Males younger than age ten years may manifest only LMW proteinuria and/or hypercalciuria, which are usually asymptomatic. Thirty to 80% of affected males develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between ages 30 and 50 years; in some instances ESRD does not develop until the sixth decade of life or later. The disease may also be accompanied by rickets or osteomalacia, growth restriction, and short stature. Disease severity can vary within the same family. Males with Dent disease 2 (caused by pathogenic variants in OCRL) may also have mild intellectual disability, cataracts, and/or elevated muscle enzymes. Due to random X-chromosome inactivation, some female carriers may manifest hypercalciuria and, rarely, renal calculi and moderate LMW proteinuria. Females rarely develop CKD.
Hypophosphatemic rickets, X-linked recessive
MedGen UID:
335115
Concept ID:
C1845168
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHRR) is a form of X-linked hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis, which comprises a group of disorders characterized by proximal renal tubular reabsorptive failure, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal insufficiency. These disorders have also been referred to as the 'Dent disease complex' (Scheinman, 1998; Gambaro et al., 2004). For a general discussion of Dent disease, see 300009.
IMAGe syndrome
MedGen UID:
337364
Concept ID:
C1846009
Disease or Syndrome
IMAGe syndrome is an acronym for the major findings of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genitourinary abnormalities (in males). Findings reported in individuals with a clinical and/or molecular diagnosis include: IUGR; Some type of skeletal abnormality (most commonly delayed bone age and short stature, and occasionally, metaphyseal and epiphyseal dysplasia of varying severity); Adrenal insufficiency often presenting in the first month of life as an adrenal crisis or (rarely) later in childhood with failure to thrive and recurrent vomiting; Genital abnormalities in males (cryptorchidism, micropenis, and hypospadias) but not in females. Hypotonia and developmental delay are reported in some individuals; cognitive outcome appears to be normal in the majority of individuals.
Dent disease type 1
MedGen UID:
336322
Concept ID:
C1848336
Disease or Syndrome
Dent disease, an X-linked disorder of proximal renal tubular dysfunction, is characterized by low molecular weight (LMW) proteinuria, hypercalciuria, and at least one additional finding including nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, hematuria, hypophosphatemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and evidence of X-linked inheritance. Males younger than age ten years may manifest only LMW proteinuria and/or hypercalciuria, which are usually asymptomatic. Thirty to 80% of affected males develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between ages 30 and 50 years; in some instances ESRD does not develop until the sixth decade of life or later. The disease may also be accompanied by rickets or osteomalacia, growth restriction, and short stature. Disease severity can vary within the same family. Males with Dent disease 2 (caused by pathogenic variants in OCRL) may also have mild intellectual disability, cataracts, and/or elevated muscle enzymes. Due to random X-chromosome inactivation, some female carriers may manifest hypercalciuria and, rarely, renal calculi and moderate LMW proteinuria. Females rarely develop CKD.
Autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic bone disease
MedGen UID:
501133
Concept ID:
C1853271
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the presence of hypophosphatemia secondary to renal phosphate wasting, radiographic and/or histologic evidence of rickets, limb deformities, muscle weakness, and bone pain. HHRH is distinct from other forms of hypophosphatemic rickets in that affected individuals present with hypercalciuria due to increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels and increased intestinal calcium absorption (summary by Bergwitz et al., 2006).
Hypouricemia, hypercalcinuria, and decreased bone density
MedGen UID:
343419
Concept ID:
C1855793
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter disease type 2
MedGen UID:
343428
Concept ID:
C1855849
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal forms of Bartter syndrome typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome (see BARTS3, 607364) present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
Hyperparathyroidism, neonatal self-limited primary, with hypercalciuria
MedGen UID:
344611
Concept ID:
C1855924
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter disease type 1
MedGen UID:
355727
Concept ID:
C1866495
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal forms of Bartter syndrome typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome (see BARTS3, 607364) present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
Hypophosphatemic nephrolithiasis/osteoporosis 1
MedGen UID:
436776
Concept ID:
C2676786
Disease or Syndrome
Sarcoidosis, susceptibility to, 1
MedGen UID:
394568
Concept ID:
C2697310
Finding
Any sarcoidosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the HLA-DRB1 gene.
Fanconi renotubular syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
462002
Concept ID:
C3150652
Disease or Syndrome
Any Fanconi syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SLC34A1 gene.
Fanconi-Bickel syndrome
MedGen UID:
501176
Concept ID:
C3495427
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi-Bickel syndrome is a rare but well-defined clinical entity, inherited in an autosomal recessive mode and characterized by hepatorenal glycogen accumulation, proximal renal tubular dysfunction, and impaired utilization of glucose and galactose (Manz et al., 1987). Because no underlying enzymatic defect in carbohydrate metabolism had been identified and because metabolism of both glucose and galactose is impaired, a primary defect of monosaccharide transport across the membranes had been suggested (Berry et al., 1995; Fellers et al., 1967; Manz et al., 1987; Odievre, 1966). Use of the term glycogenosis type XI introduced by Hug (1987) is to be discouraged because glycogen accumulation is not due to the proposed functional defect of phosphoglucomutase, an essential enzyme in the common degradative pathways of both glycogen and galactose, but is secondary to nonfunctional glucose transport.
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
815686
Concept ID:
C3809356
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, lack of psychomotor development, seizures, dysmorphic features, and variable congenital anomalies involving the cardiac, urinary, and gastrointestinal systems. Most affected individuals die before 3 years of age (summary by Maydan et al., 2011). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Familial hyperaldosteronism type III
MedGen UID:
824604
Concept ID:
C3838758
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperaldosteronism type III (HALD3) is characterized by hypertension secondary to massive adrenal mineralocorticoid production. Like patients with glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism (GRA, or HALD1; 103900), patients with HALD3 present with childhood hypertension, elevated aldosteronism levels, and high levels of the hybrid steroids 18-oxocortisol and 18-hydroxycortisol. However, hypertension and aldosteronism in HALD3 are not reversed by administration of exogenous glucocorticoids and patients require adrenalectomy to control hypertension (Geller et al., 2008).
Hypercalcemia, infantile, 1
MedGen UID:
934200
Concept ID:
C4310232
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile hypercalcemia is characterized by severe hypercalcemia, failure to thrive, vomiting, dehydration, and nephrocalcinosis. An epidemic of idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia occurred in the United Kingdom in the 1950s after the implementation of an increased prophylactic dose of vitamin D supplementation; however, the fact that most infants receiving the prophylaxis remained unaffected suggested that an intrinsic hypersensitivity to vitamin D might be implicated in the pathogenesis (summary by Schlingmann et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity Infantile hypercalcemia-2 (HCINF2; 616963) is caused by mutation in the SLC34A1 gene (182309) on chromosome 5q35.
Hypercalcemia, infantile, 2
MedGen UID:
934441
Concept ID:
C4310473
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile hypercalcemia is characterized by severe hypercalcemia with failure to thrive, vomiting, dehydration, and nephrocalcinosis (summary by Schlingmann et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of infantile hypercalcemia, see HCINF1 (143880).
Midface hypoplasia, hearing impairment, elliptocytosis, and nephrocalcinosis
MedGen UID:
934777
Concept ID:
C4310810
Disease or Syndrome
Midface hypoplasia, hearing impairment, elliptocytosis, and nephrocalcinosis is an X-linked recessive disorder with onset of features in early childhood. Anemia is sometimes present. Some patients may show mild early motor or speech delay, but cognition is normal (summary by Andreoletti et al., 2017).
Bartter disease type 5
MedGen UID:
934787
Concept ID:
C4310820
Disease or Syndrome
Antenatal Bartter syndrome is a potentially life-threatening disease characterized by fetal polyuria, polyhydramnios, prematurity, and postnatal polyuria with persistent renal salt wasting. In transient antenatal Bartter syndrome-5, the onset of polyhydramnios and labor occur several weeks earlier than in other forms of Bartter syndrome. Polyuria lasts from a few days to 6 weeks, ending around 30 to 33 weeks of gestational age. Other features in the neonatal period include hypercalciuria, causing nephrocalcinosis in some cases, as well as hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and elevated renin and aldosterone; these subsequently resolve or normalize, although nephrocalcinosis may persist (Laghmani et al., 2016).
Tumoral calcinosis, hyperphosphatemic, familial, 2
MedGen UID:
1640532
Concept ID:
C4693863
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by the progressive deposition of basic calcium phosphate crystals in periarticular spaces, soft tissues, and sometimes bone (Chefetz et al., 2005). The biochemical hallmark of tumoral calcinosis is hyperphosphatemia caused by increased renal absorption of phosphate due to loss-of-function mutations in the FGF23 or GALNT3 (601756) gene. The term 'hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome' is sometimes used when the disorder is characterized by involvement of the long bones associated with the radiographic findings of periosteal reaction and cortical hyperostosis. Although some have distinguished HHS from FTC by the presence of bone involvement and the absence of skin involvement (Frishberg et al., 2005), Ichikawa et al. (2010) concluded that the 2 entities represent a continuous spectrum of the same disease, best described as familial hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis. HFTC is considered to be the clinical converse of autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR; 193100), an allelic disorder caused by gain-of-function mutations in the FGF23 gene and associated with hypophosphatemia and decreased renal phosphate absorption (Chefetz et al., 2005; Ichikawa et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HFTC, see 211900.
Renal hypomagnesemia 5 with ocular involvement
MedGen UID:
1648449
Concept ID:
C4721891
Disease or Syndrome
HOMG5 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe renal magnesium wasting, progressive renal failure, and nephrocalcinosis. Some patients also have severe visual impairment. Amelogenesis imperfecta has been reported in some patients (summary by Konrad et al., 2006 and Yamaguti et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of renal hypomagnesemia, see 602014.
Oculocerebrodental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1674537
Concept ID:
C5193101
Disease or Syndrome
Oculoskeletodental syndrome (OCSKD) is characterized by congenital cataract, short stature and various skeletal anomalies, dysmorphic facial features and dental anomalies, developmental delay, and stroke. Other recurrent features include hearing loss, secondary glaucoma, and nephrocalcinosis (Tiosano et al., 2019).
Renal tubular acidosis, distal, 3, with or without sensorineural hearing loss
MedGen UID:
1732975
Concept ID:
C5399980
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with hereditary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) typically present in infancy with failure to thrive, although later presentations can occur, especially in individuals with autosomal dominant SLC4A1-dRTA. Initial clinical manifestations can also include emesis, polyuria, polydipsia, constipation, diarrhea, decreased appetite, and episodes of dehydration. Electrolyte manifestations include hyperchloremic non-anion gap metabolic acidosis and hypokalemia. Renal complications of dRTA include nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, medullary cysts, and impaired renal function. Additional manifestations include bone demineralization (rickets, osteomalacia), growth deficiency, sensorineural hearing loss (in ATP6V0A4-, ATP6V1B1-, and FOXI1-dRTA), and hereditary hemolytic anemia (in some individuals with SLC4A1-dRTA).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Haffner D, Leifheit-Nestler M, Grund A, Schnabel D
Pediatr Nephrol 2022 Oct;37(10):2289-2302. Epub 2022 Mar 29 doi: 10.1007/s00467-022-05505-5. PMID: 35352187Free PMC Article
Gupta P, Dabas A, Seth A, Bhatia VL, Khadgawat R, Kumar P, Balasubramanian S, Khadilkar V, Mallikarjuna HB, Godbole T, Krishnamurthy S, Goyal JP, Bhakhri BK, Ahmad A, Angadi K, Basavaraj GV, Parekh BJ, Kurpad A, Marwaha RK, Shah D, Munns C, Sachdev HPS
Indian Pediatr 2022 Feb 15;59(2):142-158. Epub 2021 Dec 29 PMID: 34969941
Tebben PJ, Singh RJ, Kumar R
Endocr Rev 2016 Oct;37(5):521-547. Epub 2016 Sep 2 doi: 10.1210/er.2016-1070. PMID: 27588937Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Alexander RT, Fuster DG, Dimke H
Annu Rev Physiol 2022 Feb 10;84:559-583. Epub 2021 Oct 26 doi: 10.1146/annurev-physiol-052521-121822. PMID: 34699268
Hannan FM, Kallay E, Chang W, Brandi ML, Thakker RV
Nat Rev Endocrinol 2018 Dec;15(1):33-51. doi: 10.1038/s41574-018-0115-0. PMID: 30443043Free PMC Article
Plain A, Alexander RT
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2018 Jul;27(4):268-276. doi: 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000426. PMID: 29782346
Coe FL, Worcester EM, Evan AP
Nat Rev Nephrol 2016 Sep;12(9):519-33. Epub 2016 Jul 25 doi: 10.1038/nrneph.2016.101. PMID: 27452364Free PMC Article
Ticinesi A, Nouvenne A, Maalouf NM, Borghi L, Meschi T
Nephrol Dial Transplant 2016 Jan;31(1):39-45. Epub 2014 Jul 16 doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfu243. PMID: 25031016

Diagnosis

Kovacevic L
Pediatr Clin North Am 2022 Dec;69(6):1149-1164. Epub 2022 Oct 29 doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2022.07.008. PMID: 36880927
Mrad FCC, Soares SBM, de Menezes Silva LAW, Dos Anjos Menezes PV, Simões-E-Silva AC
World J Pediatr 2021 Feb;17(1):31-39. Epub 2020 Jun 1 doi: 10.1007/s12519-020-00370-4. PMID: 32488762
Brown DD, Reidy KJ
Pediatr Clin North Am 2019 Feb;66(1):15-30. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2018.08.003. PMID: 30454740
Tebben PJ, Singh RJ, Kumar R
Endocr Rev 2016 Oct;37(5):521-547. Epub 2016 Sep 2 doi: 10.1210/er.2016-1070. PMID: 27588937Free PMC Article
Devuyst O, Thakker RV
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2010 Oct 14;5:28. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-5-28. PMID: 20946626Free PMC Article

Therapy

Pittas AG, Kawahara T, Jorde R, Dawson-Hughes B, Vickery EM, Angellotti E, Nelson J, Trikalinos TA, Balk EM
Ann Intern Med 2023 Mar;176(3):355-363. Epub 2023 Feb 7 doi: 10.7326/M22-3018. PMID: 36745886
Williamson A, Martineau AR, Sheikh A, Jolliffe D, Griffiths CJ
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2023 Feb 6;2(2):CD011511. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011511.pub3. PMID: 36744416Free PMC Article
Hannan FM, Kallay E, Chang W, Brandi ML, Thakker RV
Nat Rev Endocrinol 2018 Dec;15(1):33-51. doi: 10.1038/s41574-018-0115-0. PMID: 30443043Free PMC Article
Pludowski P, Holick MF, Grant WB, Konstantynowicz J, Mascarenhas MR, Haq A, Povoroznyuk V, Balatska N, Barbosa AP, Karonova T, Rudenka E, Misiorowski W, Zakharova I, Rudenka A, Łukaszkiewicz J, Marcinowska-Suchowierska E, Łaszcz N, Abramowicz P, Bhattoa HP, Wimalawansa SJ
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Jan;175:125-135. Epub 2017 Feb 12 doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.01.021. PMID: 28216084
Ticinesi A, Nouvenne A, Maalouf NM, Borghi L, Meschi T
Nephrol Dial Transplant 2016 Jan;31(1):39-45. Epub 2014 Jul 16 doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfu243. PMID: 25031016

Prognosis

Williamson A, Martineau AR, Sheikh A, Jolliffe D, Griffiths CJ
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2023 Feb 6;2(2):CD011511. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011511.pub3. PMID: 36744416Free PMC Article
Brown DD, Reidy KJ
Pediatr Clin North Am 2019 Feb;66(1):15-30. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2018.08.003. PMID: 30454740
Cormier C
Joint Bone Spine 2019 Jul;86(4):459-466. Epub 2018 Oct 6 doi: 10.1016/j.jbspin.2018.10.001. PMID: 30300686
Hannan FM, Kallay E, Chang W, Brandi ML, Thakker RV
Nat Rev Endocrinol 2018 Dec;15(1):33-51. doi: 10.1038/s41574-018-0115-0. PMID: 30443043Free PMC Article
Devuyst O, Thakker RV
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2010 Oct 14;5:28. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-5-28. PMID: 20946626Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Williamson A, Martineau AR, Sheikh A, Jolliffe D, Griffiths CJ
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2023 Feb 6;2(2):CD011511. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011511.pub3. PMID: 36744416Free PMC Article
Capolongo G, Zacchia M, Perna A, Viggiano D, Capasso G
Urolithiasis 2019 Feb;47(1):91-98. Epub 2018 Dec 18 doi: 10.1007/s00240-018-01104-y. PMID: 30564846
Walker MD, Bilezikian JP
Curr Opin Rheumatol 2018 Jul;30(4):427-439. doi: 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000511. PMID: 29664757
Moe OW, Xu LHR
J Nephrol 2018 Apr;31(2):189-196. Epub 2018 Jan 24 doi: 10.1007/s40620-018-0469-3. PMID: 29368300
Pludowski P, Holick MF, Grant WB, Konstantynowicz J, Mascarenhas MR, Haq A, Povoroznyuk V, Balatska N, Barbosa AP, Karonova T, Rudenka E, Misiorowski W, Zakharova I, Rudenka A, Łukaszkiewicz J, Marcinowska-Suchowierska E, Łaszcz N, Abramowicz P, Bhattoa HP, Wimalawansa SJ
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Jan;175:125-135. Epub 2017 Feb 12 doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.01.021. PMID: 28216084

Recent systematic reviews

Pittas AG, Kawahara T, Jorde R, Dawson-Hughes B, Vickery EM, Angellotti E, Nelson J, Trikalinos TA, Balk EM
Ann Intern Med 2023 Mar;176(3):355-363. Epub 2023 Feb 7 doi: 10.7326/M22-3018. PMID: 36745886
Williamson A, Martineau AR, Sheikh A, Jolliffe D, Griffiths CJ
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2023 Feb 6;2(2):CD011511. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011511.pub3. PMID: 36744416Free PMC Article
Palacios C, Kostiuk LK, Peña-Rosas JP
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 Jul 26;7(7):CD008873. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008873.pub4. PMID: 31348529Free PMC Article
O'Donnell S, Moher D, Thomas K, Hanley DA, Cranney A
J Bone Miner Metab 2008;26(6):531-42. Epub 2008 Nov 1 doi: 10.1007/s00774-008-0868-y. PMID: 18979152
Cranney A, Horsley T, O'Donnell S, Weiler H, Puil L, Ooi D, Atkinson S, Ward L, Moher D, Hanley D, Fang M, Yazdi F, Garritty C, Sampson M, Barrowman N, Tsertsvadze A, Mamaladze V
Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) 2007 Aug;(158):1-235. PMID: 18088161Free PMC Article

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