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Hypopyon

MedGen UID:
43802
Concept ID:
C0020641
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: hypopyon; Pus in anterior chamber
SNOMED CT: Pus in anterior chamber (87807004); Hypopyon (87807004)
 
HPO: HP:0031615
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0001036

Definition

Presence of pus (appears as a white fluid) producing a fluid level in the inferior part of the anterior chamber. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Behcet disease
MedGen UID:
2568
Concept ID:
C0004943
Disease or Syndrome
Behçet disease is an inflammatory condition that affects many parts of the body. The health problems associated with Behçet disease result from widespread inflammation of blood vessels (vasculitis). This inflammation most commonly affects small blood vessels in the mouth, genitals, skin, and eyes.\n\nPainful mouth sores called aphthous ulcers are usually the first sign of Behçet disease. These sores can occur on the lips, tongue, inside the cheeks, the roof of the mouth, the throat, and the tonsils. The ulcers look like common canker sores, and they typically heal within one to two weeks. About 75 percent of all people with Behçet disease develop similar ulcers on the genitals. These ulcers occur most frequently on the scrotum in men and on the labia in women.\n\nBehçet disease can also cause painful bumps and sores on the skin. Most affected individuals develop pus-filled bumps that resemble acne. These bumps can occur anywhere on the body. Some affected people also have red, tender nodules called erythema nodosum. These nodules usually develop on the legs but can also occur on the arms, face, and neck.\n\nAn inflammation of the eye called uveitis is found in more than half of people with Behçet disease. Eye problems are more common in younger people with the disease and affect men more often than women. Uveitis can result in blurry vision and an extreme sensitivity to light (photophobia). Rarely, inflammation can also cause eye pain and redness. If untreated, the eye problems associated with Behçet disease can lead to blindness.\n\nJoint involvement is also common in Behçet disease. Often this affects one joint at a time, with each affected joint becoming swollen and painful and then getting better.\n\nLess commonly, Behçet disease can affect the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system), gastrointestinal tract, large blood vessels, heart, lungs, and kidneys. Central nervous system abnormalities can lead to headaches, confusion, personality changes, memory loss, impaired speech, and problems with balance and movement. Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract can lead to a hole in the wall of the intestine (intestinal perforation), which can cause serious infection and may be life-threatening.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of Behçet disease usually begin in a person's twenties or thirties, although they can appear at any age. Some affected people have relatively mild symptoms that are limited to sores in the mouth and on the genitals. Others have more severe symptoms affecting various parts of the body, including the eyes and the vital organs. The features of Behçet disease typically come and go over a period of months or years. In most affected individuals, the health problems associated with this disorder improve with age.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Priyadarshini SR, Soni T, Sahu SK, Mohanty A, Sharma S, Mitra S, Ali MH, Das S
Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 Oct;70(10):3522-3527. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_659_22. PMID: 36190039Free PMC Article
Khurana A, Kumar A, Chauhan L
Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 Mar;70(3):852-859. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_999_21. PMID: 35225530Free PMC Article
Yu J, Syed ZA, Rapuano CJ
Eye Contact Lens 2021 Aug 1;47(8):434-441. doi: 10.1097/ICL.0000000000000813. PMID: 34224444

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Niu L, Liu X, Ma Z, Yin Y, Sun L, Yang L, Zheng Y
Microb Pathog 2020 Jan;138:103802. Epub 2019 Oct 15 doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103802. PMID: 31626916
Ortiz MV, Dunkel IJ
J Child Neurol 2016 Feb;31(2):227-36. Epub 2015 May 28 doi: 10.1177/0883073815587943. PMID: 26023180
Ray M, Nigel LC, Tan AM
Eye Contact Lens 2014 May;40(3):123-6. doi: 10.1097/ICL.0000000000000022. PMID: 24681610
Aerts I, Lumbroso-Le Rouic L, Gauthier-Villars M, Brisse H, Doz F, Desjardins L
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2006 Aug 25;1:31. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-1-31. PMID: 16934146Free PMC Article
Rathinam SR, Namperumalsamy P
Ocul Immunol Inflamm 1999 Jun;7(2):109-18. doi: 10.1076/ocii.7.2.109.4020. PMID: 10420207

Diagnosis

Ksiaa I, Abroug N, Mahmoud A, Ben Amor H, Attia S, Khochtali S, Khairallah M
Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 May 19;29(4):817-829. Epub 2021 Jul 13 doi: 10.1080/09273948.2021.1922708. PMID: 34255602
Niu L, Liu X, Ma Z, Yin Y, Sun L, Yang L, Zheng Y
Microb Pathog 2020 Jan;138:103802. Epub 2019 Oct 15 doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103802. PMID: 31626916
Durand ML
Clin Microbiol Rev 2017 Jul;30(3):597-613. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00113-16. PMID: 28356323Free PMC Article
Ramsay A, Lightman S
Surv Ophthalmol 2001 Jul-Aug;46(1):1-18. doi: 10.1016/s0039-6257(01)00231-4. PMID: 11525785
Rathinam SR, Namperumalsamy P
Ocul Immunol Inflamm 1999 Jun;7(2):109-18. doi: 10.1076/ocii.7.2.109.4020. PMID: 10420207

Therapy

Gurnani B, Kaur K, Venugopal A, Srinivasan B, Bagga B, Iyer G, Christy J, Prajna L, Vanathi M, Garg P, Narayana S, Agarwal S, Sahu S
Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 Apr;70(4):1107-1120. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1534_21. PMID: 35325996Free PMC Article
Yiu G, Emami-Naeni P
JAMA Ophthalmol 2019 Jun 1;137(6):e185256. Epub 2019 Jun 13 doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2018.5256. PMID: 31194236
Lakshmi S, Garcia CV
BMJ Case Rep 2019 Apr 24;12(4) doi: 10.1136/bcr-2019-229226. PMID: 31023737Free PMC Article
Durand ML
Clin Microbiol Rev 2017 Jul;30(3):597-613. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00113-16. PMID: 28356323Free PMC Article
Wilhelmus KR, Jones DB
Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 2001;99:111-30; discussion 130-2. PMID: 11797300Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Niu L, Liu X, Ma Z, Yin Y, Sun L, Yang L, Zheng Y
Microb Pathog 2020 Jan;138:103802. Epub 2019 Oct 15 doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103802. PMID: 31626916
Hernandez-Bogantes E, Navas A, Naranjo A, Amescua G, Graue-Hernandez EO, Flynn HW Jr, Ahmed I
Surv Ophthalmol 2019 Jul-Aug;64(4):463-476. Epub 2019 Jan 28 doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2019.01.009. PMID: 30703402
Durand ML
Clin Microbiol Rev 2017 Jul;30(3):597-613. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00113-16. PMID: 28356323Free PMC Article
Ortiz MV, Dunkel IJ
J Child Neurol 2016 Feb;31(2):227-36. Epub 2015 May 28 doi: 10.1177/0883073815587943. PMID: 26023180
Rathinam SR, Namperumalsamy P
Ocul Immunol Inflamm 1999 Jun;7(2):109-18. doi: 10.1076/ocii.7.2.109.4020. PMID: 10420207

Clinical prediction guides

Khurana A, Kumar A, Chauhan L
Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 Mar;70(3):852-859. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_999_21. PMID: 35225530Free PMC Article
Chaudhary S, Kate A, Bagga B, Mohamed A, Sharma S
Cornea 2022 Jun 1;41(6):709-713. Epub 2021 Aug 5 doi: 10.1097/ICO.0000000000002825. PMID: 34369394
Kriegel MF, Loo J, Farsiu S, Prajna V, Tuohy M, Kim KH, Valicevic AN, Niziol LM, Tan H, Ashfaq HA, Ballouz D, Woodward MA
Cornea 2020 Dec;39(12):1503-1509. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0000000000002470. PMID: 32833849Free PMC Article
Greenberg JP, Belin P, Butler J, Feiler D, Mueller C, Tye A, Friedlander SM, Emerson GG, Ferrone PJ; Aflibercept Sterile Inflammation Research Group
Ophthalmol Retina 2019 Sep;3(9):753-759. Epub 2019 Apr 11 doi: 10.1016/j.oret.2019.04.006. PMID: 31153850
Aerts I, Lumbroso-Le Rouic L, Gauthier-Villars M, Brisse H, Doz F, Desjardins L
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2006 Aug 25;1:31. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-1-31. PMID: 16934146Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Jackson TL, Paraskevopoulos T, Georgalas I
Surv Ophthalmol 2014 Nov-Dec;59(6):627-35. Epub 2014 Jun 18 doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2014.06.002. PMID: 25113611

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