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MGAT2-congenital disorder of glycosylation(CDGIIa; CDGS2, FORMERLY; CDG2A)

MedGen UID:
443956
Concept ID:
C2931008
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Alkuraya syndrome; CDG 2A; CDG IIa; Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 2A; Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IIa; MENTAL RETARDATION, GROWTH RETARDATION, PROMINENT COLUMELLA, AND OPEN MOUTH; MGAT2-CDG; MGAT2-CDG (CDG-IIa)
SNOMED CT: Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome type 2a (724142005); Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome type IIa (724142005); Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 2a (724142005); Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIa (724142005); MGAT2-CDG - alpha-1,6-mannosyl-glycoprotein beta-1,2-n-acetylglucosaminyltransferase congenital disorder of glycosylation (724142005); N-Acetylglucosaminyl transferase II deficiency (277894008); CDG - Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type II (277894008); Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type II (277894008)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): MGAT2 (14q21.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0008908
OMIM®: 212066
Orphanet: ORPHA79329

Definition

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzymatic defects in the synthesis and processing of asparagine (N)-linked glycans or oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. These glycoconjugates play critical roles in metabolism, cell recognition and adhesion, cell migration, protease resistance, host defense, and antigenicity, among others. CDGs are divided into 2 main groups: type I CDGs (see, e.g., CDG1A, 212065) comprise defects in the assembly of the dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) chain and its transfer to the nascent protein, whereas type II CDGs refer to defects in the trimming and processing of the protein-bound glycans either late in the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi compartments. The biochemical changes of CDGs are most readily observed in serum transferrin (TF; 190000), and the diagnosis is usually made by isoelectric focusing of this glycoprotein (reviews by Marquardt and Denecke, 2003; Grunewald et al., 2002). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Type II Multiple forms of CDG type II have been identified; see CDG2B (606056) through CDG2Z (620201), and CDG2AA (620454) to CDG2BB (620546). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Midfrontal capillary hemangioma
MedGen UID:
395236
Concept ID:
C1859339
Finding
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Coxa valga
MedGen UID:
116080
Concept ID:
C0239137
Finding
Coxa valga is a deformity of the hip in which the angle between the femoral shaft and the femoral neck is increased compared to age-adjusted values (about 150 degrees in newborns gradually reducing to 120-130 degrees in adults).
Proximal placement of thumb
MedGen UID:
356033
Concept ID:
C1865572
Finding
Proximal mislocalization of the thumb.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Postnatal growth retardation
MedGen UID:
395343
Concept ID:
C1859778
Finding
Slow or limited growth after birth.
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Sensorineural hearing loss disorder
MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve.
Macrotia
MedGen UID:
488785
Concept ID:
C0152421
Congenital Abnormality
Median longitudinal ear length greater than two standard deviations above the mean and median ear width greater than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparent increase in length and width of the pinna (subjective).
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Aggressive behavior
MedGen UID:
1375
Concept ID:
C0001807
Individual Behavior
Behavior or an act aimed at harming a person, animal, or physical property (e.g., acts of physical violence; shouting, swearing, and using harsh language; slashing someone's tires).
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Self-mutilation
MedGen UID:
19925
Concept ID:
C0036601
Injury or Poisoning
Deliberate harm to one's body resulting in tissue damage, without a conscious intent to die.
Intellectual disability, severe
MedGen UID:
48638
Concept ID:
C0036857
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Severe mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 20-34.
Motor stereotypies
MedGen UID:
21318
Concept ID:
C0038271
Individual Behavior
Use of the same abnormal action in response to certain triggers or at random. They may be used as a way to regulate one's internal state but must otherwise have no apparent functional purpose.
Unsteady gait
MedGen UID:
68544
Concept ID:
C0231686
Finding
A shaky or wobbly manner of walking.
Cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120578
Concept ID:
C0266470
Congenital Abnormality
Cerebellar hypoplasia is a descriptive term implying a cerebellum with a reduced volume, but a normal shape and is stable over time.
Stereotypical hand wringing
MedGen UID:
646835
Concept ID:
C0562479
Finding
Habitual clasping and wringing of the hands in the middle of the body, similar to a hand-washing movement.
Severe global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
332436
Concept ID:
C1837397
Finding
A severe delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child.
Factor XII deficiency disease
MedGen UID:
8772
Concept ID:
C0015526
Disease or Syndrome
Decreased activity of coagulation factor XII. Factor XII (fXII) is part of the intrinsic coagulation pathway and binds to exposed collagen at site of vessel wall injury, activated by high-MW kininogen and kallikrein, thereby initiating the coagulation cascade.
Hereditary antithrombin deficiency
MedGen UID:
75781
Concept ID:
C0272375
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of antithrombin III is a major risk factor for venous thromboembolic disease. Two categories of AT-III deficiency have been defined on the basis of AT-III antigen levels in the plasma of affected individuals. The majority of AT-III deficiency families belong in the type I (classic) deficiency group and have a quantitatively abnormal phenotype in which antigen and heparin cofactor levels are both reduced to about 50% of normal. The second category of AT-III deficiency has been termed type II (functional) deficiency. Affected individuals from these kindreds produce dysfunctional AT-III molecules; they have reduced heparin cofactor activity levels (about 50% of normal) but levels of AT-III antigen are often normal or nearly normal (summary by Bock and Prochownik, 1987). The 2 categories of antithrombmin III deficiency have been classified further. Type I (low functional and immunologic antithrombin) has been subdivided into subtype Ia (reduced levels of normal antithrombin), and type Ib (reduced levels of antithrombin and the presence of low levels of a variant). Type II (low functional but normal immunologic antithrombin) has been subdivided into subtype IIa (functional abnormalities affecting both the reactive site and the heparin-binding site of AT3); subtype IIb (functional abnormalities limited to the reactive site); and subtype IIc (functional abnormalities limited to the heparin-binding site) (summary by Lane et al., 1992).
Reduced factor IX activity
MedGen UID:
868754
Concept ID:
C4023159
Finding
Decreased activity of coagulation factor IX. Factor IX, which itself is activated by factor Xa or factor VIIa to form factor IXa, activates factor X into factor Xa.
Reduced factor XI activity
MedGen UID:
1368629
Concept ID:
C4317093
Finding
Decreased activity of coagulation factor XI. Factor XI, also known as plasma thromboplastin antecedent, is a serine proteinase that activates factor IX.
Hypertonia
MedGen UID:
10132
Concept ID:
C0026826
Finding
A condition in which there is increased muscle tone so that arms or legs, for example, are stiff and difficult to move.
Osteopenia
MedGen UID:
18222
Concept ID:
C0029453
Disease or Syndrome
Osteopenia is a term to define bone density that is not normal but also not as low as osteoporosis. By definition from the World Health Organization osteopenia is defined by bone densitometry as a T score -1 to -2.5.
Retrognathia
MedGen UID:
19766
Concept ID:
C0035353
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality in which the mandible is mislocalised posteriorly.
Brachycephaly
MedGen UID:
113165
Concept ID:
C0221356
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a decreased anterior-posterior diameter. That is, a cephalic index greater than 81%. Alternatively, an apparently shortened anteroposterior dimension (length) of the head compared to width.
Slender long bone
MedGen UID:
331446
Concept ID:
C1833144
Finding
Reduced diameter of a long bone.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis
MedGen UID:
347124
Concept ID:
C1859335
Finding
Pectus excavatum
MedGen UID:
781174
Concept ID:
C2051831
Finding
A defect of the chest wall characterized by a depression of the sternum, giving the chest ("pectus") a caved-in ("excavatum") appearance.
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium.
Abnormal rib cage morphology
MedGen UID:
871275
Concept ID:
C4025763
Anatomical Abnormality
A morphological anomaly of the rib cage.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Type II transferrin isoform profile
MedGen UID:
892666
Concept ID:
C4021094
Finding
Abnormal transferrin isoform profile consistent with a type II congenital disorder of glycosylation.
Diastema
MedGen UID:
3800
Concept ID:
C0011998
Finding
Increased space between two adjacent teeth in the same dental arch.
Wide mouth
MedGen UID:
44238
Concept ID:
C0024433
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the oral commissures more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
Open mouth
MedGen UID:
116104
Concept ID:
C0240379
Finding
A facial appearance characterized by a permanently or nearly permanently opened mouth.
Convex nasal ridge
MedGen UID:
66809
Concept ID:
C0240538
Finding
Nasal ridge curving anteriorly to an imaginary line that connects the nasal root and tip. The nose appears often also prominent, and the columella low.
Protruding tongue
MedGen UID:
66831
Concept ID:
C0241442
Finding
Tongue extending beyond the alveolar ridges or teeth at rest.
Macrodontia
MedGen UID:
82729
Concept ID:
C0266036
Finding
Increased size of the teeth, which can be defined as a mesiodistal tooth diameter (width) more than 2 SD above mean for age. Alternatively, an apparently increased maximum width of the tooth.
Gingival overgrowth
MedGen UID:
87712
Concept ID:
C0376480
Finding
Hyperplasia of the gingiva (that is, a thickening of the soft tissue overlying the alveolar ridge. The degree of thickening ranges from involvement of the interdental papillae alone to gingival overgrowth covering the entire tooth crown.
Mandibular prognathia
MedGen UID:
98316
Concept ID:
C0399526
Finding
Abnormal prominence of the chin related to increased length of the mandible.
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Short neck
MedGen UID:
99267
Concept ID:
C0521525
Finding
Diminished length of the neck.
Thin vermilion border
MedGen UID:
108294
Concept ID:
C0578038
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the medial part of the lip more than 2 SD below the mean, or apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the lip in the frontal view. The vermilion is the red part of the lips (and confusingly, the vermilion itself is also often referred to as being equivalent the lips).
Everted lower lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
344003
Concept ID:
C1853246
Finding
An abnormal configuration of the lower lip such that it is turned outward i.e., everted, with the Inner aspect of the lower lip vermilion (normally opposing the teeth) being visible in a frontal view.
Thick eyebrow
MedGen UID:
377914
Concept ID:
C1853487
Finding
Increased density/number and/or increased diameter of eyebrow hairs.
Prominent nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
343051
Concept ID:
C1854113
Finding
Anterior positioning of the nasal root in comparison to the usual positioning for age.
Low hanging columella
MedGen UID:
344656
Concept ID:
C1856119
Finding
Columella extending inferior to the level of the nasal base, when viewed from the side.
Long philtrum
MedGen UID:
351278
Concept ID:
C1865014
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Hirsutism
MedGen UID:
42461
Concept ID:
C0019572
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormally increased hair growth referring to a male pattern of body hair (androgenic hair).
Long eyelashes
MedGen UID:
342955
Concept ID:
C1853738
Finding
Mid upper eyelash length >10 mm or increased length of the eyelashes (subjective).
Sparse hair
MedGen UID:
1790211
Concept ID:
C5551005
Finding
Reduced density of hairs.
Wide intermamillary distance
MedGen UID:
473489
Concept ID:
C1827524
Finding
A larger than usual distance between the left and right nipple.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Mueller AL, Payandeh Z, Mohammadkhani N, Mubarak SMH, Zakeri A, Alagheband Bahrami A, Brockmueller A, Shakibaei M
Cells 2021 Nov 4;10(11) doi: 10.3390/cells10113017. PMID: 34831240Free PMC Article
Dashti HM, Mathew TC, Al-Zaid NS
Med Princ Pract 2021;30(3):223-235. Epub 2020 Oct 9 doi: 10.1159/000512142. PMID: 33040057Free PMC Article
Engel AG, Shen XM, Selcen D, Sine SM
Lancet Neurol 2015 Apr;14(4):420-34. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70201-7. PMID: 25792100Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Dashti H, Pabon Porras MA, Mora S
Adv Exp Med Biol 2021;1325:307-319. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-70115-4_15. PMID: 34495542
Luo G, Jin K, Deng S, Cheng H, Fan Z, Gong Y, Qian Y, Huang Q, Ni Q, Liu C, Yu X
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer 2021 Apr;1875(2):188409. Epub 2020 Aug 19 doi: 10.1016/j.bbcan.2020.188409. PMID: 32827580
Mammadova-Bach E, Jaeken J, Gudermann T, Braun A
Int J Mol Sci 2020 Aug 6;21(16) doi: 10.3390/ijms21165630. PMID: 32781578Free PMC Article
Altassan R, Péanne R, Jaeken J, Barone R, Bidet M, Borgel D, Brasil S, Cassiman D, Cechova A, Coman D, Corral J, Correia J, de la Morena-Barrio ME, de Lonlay P, Dos Reis V, Ferreira CR, Fiumara A, Francisco R, Freeze H, Funke S, Gardeitchik T, Gert M, Girad M, Giros M, Grünewald S, Hernández-Caselles T, Honzik T, Hutter M, Krasnewich D, Lam C, Lee J, Lefeber D, Marques-de-Silva D, Martinez AF, Moravej H, Õunap K, Pascoal C, Pascreau T, Patterson M, Quelhas D, Raymond K, Sarkhail P, Schiff M, Seroczyńska M, Serrano M, Seta N, Sykut-Cegielska J, Thiel C, Tort F, Vals MA, Videira P, Witters P, Zeevaert R, Morava E
J Inherit Metab Dis 2019 Jan;42(1):5-28. doi: 10.1002/jimd.12024. PMID: 30740725
Jaeken J, Péanne R
J Inherit Metab Dis 2017 Jul;40(4):569-586. Epub 2017 May 8 doi: 10.1007/s10545-017-0050-6. PMID: 28484880

Diagnosis

Qing L, Li Q, Dong Z
Bull Cancer 2022 Nov;109(11):1202-1216. Epub 2022 Sep 30 doi: 10.1016/j.bulcan.2022.08.001. PMID: 36184332
Luo G, Jin K, Deng S, Cheng H, Fan Z, Gong Y, Qian Y, Huang Q, Ni Q, Liu C, Yu X
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer 2021 Apr;1875(2):188409. Epub 2020 Aug 19 doi: 10.1016/j.bbcan.2020.188409. PMID: 32827580
Altassan R, Péanne R, Jaeken J, Barone R, Bidet M, Borgel D, Brasil S, Cassiman D, Cechova A, Coman D, Corral J, Correia J, de la Morena-Barrio ME, de Lonlay P, Dos Reis V, Ferreira CR, Fiumara A, Francisco R, Freeze H, Funke S, Gardeitchik T, Gert M, Girad M, Giros M, Grünewald S, Hernández-Caselles T, Honzik T, Hutter M, Krasnewich D, Lam C, Lee J, Lefeber D, Marques-de-Silva D, Martinez AF, Moravej H, Õunap K, Pascoal C, Pascreau T, Patterson M, Quelhas D, Raymond K, Sarkhail P, Schiff M, Seroczyńska M, Serrano M, Seta N, Sykut-Cegielska J, Thiel C, Tort F, Vals MA, Videira P, Witters P, Zeevaert R, Morava E
J Inherit Metab Dis 2019 Jan;42(1):5-28. doi: 10.1002/jimd.12024. PMID: 30740725
Jaeken J, Péanne R
J Inherit Metab Dis 2017 Jul;40(4):569-586. Epub 2017 May 8 doi: 10.1007/s10545-017-0050-6. PMID: 28484880
Stowell SR, Ju T, Cummings RD
Annu Rev Pathol 2015;10:473-510. doi: 10.1146/annurev-pathol-012414-040438. PMID: 25621663Free PMC Article

Therapy

Zheng W, Li H, Go Y, Chan XHF, Huang Q, Wu J
Nutrients 2022 Nov 1;14(21) doi: 10.3390/nu14214588. PMID: 36364850Free PMC Article
Aggarwal A, Bhatt M
Curr Opin Neurol 2020 Aug;33(4):534-542. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000837. PMID: 32657896
Mereiter S, Balmaña M, Campos D, Gomes J, Reis CA
Cancer Cell 2019 Jul 8;36(1):6-16. doi: 10.1016/j.ccell.2019.06.006. PMID: 31287993
Pereira NA, Chan KF, Lin PC, Song Z
MAbs 2018 Jul;10(5):693-711. doi: 10.1080/19420862.2018.1466767. PMID: 29733746Free PMC Article
Lünemann JD, Nimmerjahn F, Dalakas MC
Nat Rev Neurol 2015 Feb;11(2):80-9. Epub 2015 Jan 6 doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2014.253. PMID: 25561275

Prognosis

Stanczak MA, Rodrigues Mantuano N, Kirchhammer N, Sanin DE, Jacob F, Coelho R, Everest-Dass AV, Wang J, Trefny MP, Monaco G, Bärenwaldt A, Gray MA, Petrone A, Kashyap AS, Glatz K, Kasenda B, Normington K, Broderick J, Peng L, Pearce OMT, Pearce EL, Bertozzi CR, Zippelius A, Läubli H
Sci Transl Med 2022 Nov 2;14(669):eabj1270. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abj1270. PMID: 36322632Free PMC Article
Qing L, Li Q, Dong Z
Bull Cancer 2022 Nov;109(11):1202-1216. Epub 2022 Sep 30 doi: 10.1016/j.bulcan.2022.08.001. PMID: 36184332
Mueller AL, Payandeh Z, Mohammadkhani N, Mubarak SMH, Zakeri A, Alagheband Bahrami A, Brockmueller A, Shakibaei M
Cells 2021 Nov 4;10(11) doi: 10.3390/cells10113017. PMID: 34831240Free PMC Article
Luo G, Jin K, Deng S, Cheng H, Fan Z, Gong Y, Qian Y, Huang Q, Ni Q, Liu C, Yu X
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer 2021 Apr;1875(2):188409. Epub 2020 Aug 19 doi: 10.1016/j.bbcan.2020.188409. PMID: 32827580
Altassan R, Péanne R, Jaeken J, Barone R, Bidet M, Borgel D, Brasil S, Cassiman D, Cechova A, Coman D, Corral J, Correia J, de la Morena-Barrio ME, de Lonlay P, Dos Reis V, Ferreira CR, Fiumara A, Francisco R, Freeze H, Funke S, Gardeitchik T, Gert M, Girad M, Giros M, Grünewald S, Hernández-Caselles T, Honzik T, Hutter M, Krasnewich D, Lam C, Lee J, Lefeber D, Marques-de-Silva D, Martinez AF, Moravej H, Õunap K, Pascoal C, Pascreau T, Patterson M, Quelhas D, Raymond K, Sarkhail P, Schiff M, Seroczyńska M, Serrano M, Seta N, Sykut-Cegielska J, Thiel C, Tort F, Vals MA, Videira P, Witters P, Zeevaert R, Morava E
J Inherit Metab Dis 2019 Jan;42(1):5-28. doi: 10.1002/jimd.12024. PMID: 30740725

Clinical prediction guides

Radovani B, Gudelj I
Front Immunol 2022;13:893365. Epub 2022 Jun 27 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.893365. PMID: 35833138Free PMC Article
Dashti H, Pabon Porras MA, Mora S
Adv Exp Med Biol 2021;1325:307-319. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-70115-4_15. PMID: 34495542
Luo G, Jin K, Deng S, Cheng H, Fan Z, Gong Y, Qian Y, Huang Q, Ni Q, Liu C, Yu X
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer 2021 Apr;1875(2):188409. Epub 2020 Aug 19 doi: 10.1016/j.bbcan.2020.188409. PMID: 32827580
Groux-Degroote S, Cavdarli S, Uchimura K, Allain F, Delannoy P
Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol 2020;119:111-156. Epub 2019 Nov 26 doi: 10.1016/bs.apcsb.2019.08.008. PMID: 31997767
Vogt G, Vogt B, Chuzhanova N, Julenius K, Cooper DN, Casanova JL
Curr Opin Genet Dev 2007 Jun;17(3):245-51. Epub 2007 Apr 30 doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2007.04.008. PMID: 17467977

Recent systematic reviews

Conte F, Sam JE, Lefeber DJ, Passier R
Int J Mol Sci 2023 May 11;24(10) doi: 10.3390/ijms24108632. PMID: 37239976Free PMC Article
Simpson TC, Clarkson JE, Worthington HV, MacDonald L, Weldon JC, Needleman I, Iheozor-Ejiofor Z, Wild SH, Qureshi A, Walker A, Patel VA, Boyers D, Twigg J
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Apr 14;4(4):CD004714. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004714.pub4. PMID: 35420698Free PMC Article
Peer N, Balakrishna Y, Durao S
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 May 29;5(5):CD005266. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005266.pub2. PMID: 32470201Free PMC Article
Lin X, Zhang X, Guo J, Roberts CK, McKenzie S, Wu WC, Liu S, Song Y
J Am Heart Assoc 2015 Jun 26;4(7) doi: 10.1161/JAHA.115.002014. PMID: 26116691Free PMC Article
Yang Z, Scott CA, Mao C, Tang J, Farmer AJ
Sports Med 2014 Apr;44(4):487-99. doi: 10.1007/s40279-013-0128-8. PMID: 24297743

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