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Delayed puberty

MedGen UID:
46203
Concept ID:
C0034012
Pathologic Function
Synonyms: Delayed Puberty; Puberty, Delayed
SNOMED CT: Delayed puberty (400003000); Delay in sexual development AND/OR puberty (123526007); Delayed sexual development (123526007)
 
HPO: HP:0000823

Definition

Passing the age when puberty normally occurs with no physical or hormonal signs of the onset of puberty. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum
MedGen UID:
8083
Concept ID:
C0002986
Disease or Syndrome
Fabry disease is the most common of the lysosomal storage disorders and results from deficient activity of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (a-Gal A), leading to progressive lysosomal deposition of globotriaosylceramide and its derivatives in cells throughout the body. The classic form, occurring in males with less than 1% a-Gal A enzyme activity, usually has its onset in childhood or adolescence with periodic crises of severe pain in the extremities (acroparesthesia), the appearance of vascular cutaneous lesions (angiokeratomas), sweating abnormalities (anhidrosis, hypohidrosis, and rarely hyperhidrosis), characteristic corneal and lenticular opacities, and proteinuria. Gradual deterioration of renal function to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) usually occurs in men in the third to fifth decade. In middle age, most males successfully treated for ESRD develop cardiac and/or cerebrovascular disease, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Heterozygous females typically have milder symptoms at a later age of onset than males. Rarely, females may be relatively asymptomatic throughout a normal life span or may have symptoms as severe as those observed in males with the classic phenotype. In contrast, late-onset forms occur in males with greater than 1% a-Gal A activity. Clinical manifestations include cardiac disease, which usually presents in the sixth to eighth decade with left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, and proteinuria; renal failure, associated with ESRD but without the skin lesions or pain; or cerebrovascular disease presenting as stroke or transient ischemic attack.
Ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
439
Concept ID:
C0004135
Disease or Syndrome
Classic ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia beginning between ages one and four years, oculomotor apraxia, choreoathetosis, telangiectasias of the conjunctivae, immunodeficiency, frequent infections, and an increased risk for malignancy, particularly leukemia and lymphoma. Individuals with A-T are unusually sensitive to ionizing radiation. Non-classic forms of A-T have included adult-onset A-T and A-T with early-onset dystonia.
Diaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
4268
Concept ID:
C0011989
Finding
Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED) is characterized by hyperostosis of the long bones and the skull, proximal muscle weakness, limb pain, a wide-based, waddling gait, and joint contractures. Facial features such as macrocephaly, frontal bossing, enlargement of the mandible, proptosis, and cranial nerve impingement resulting in facial palsy are seen in severely affected individuals later in life.
Prader-Willi syndrome
MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Disease or Syndrome
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common (if not treated with growth hormone); characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present.
Aarskog syndrome
MedGen UID:
61234
Concept ID:
C0175701
Disease or Syndrome
Aarskog-Scott syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the development of many parts of the body, most commonly the head and face, the hands and feet, and the genitals and urinary system (genitourinary tract). This condition mainly affects males, although females may have mild features of the syndrome.\n\nPeople with Aarskog-Scott syndrome often have distinctive facial features, such as widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), a small nose, a long area between the nose and mouth (philtrum), and a widow's peak hairline. They frequently have mild to moderate short stature during childhood, but their growth usually catches up with that of their peers during puberty. Hand abnormalities are common in this syndrome and include short fingers (brachydactyly), curved pinky fingers (fifth finger clinodactyly), webbing of the skin between some fingers (cutaneous syndactyly), and a single crease across the palm. Affected individuals can also have wide, flat feet with broad, rounded toes. Other abnormalities in people with Aarskog-Scott syndrome include heart defects and a split in the upper lip (cleft lip) with or without an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate).\n\nMost males with Aarskog-Scott syndrome have a shawl scrotum, in which the scrotum surrounds the penis instead of hanging below. Less often, they have undescended testes (cryptorchidism) or a soft out-pouching around the belly-button (umbilical hernia) or in the lower abdomen (inguinal hernia).\n\nThe intellectual development of people with Aarskog-Scott syndrome varies widely. Most individuals with Aarskog-Scott syndrome have normal intelligence; however, some may have mild learning and behavior problems, and in rare cases, severe intellectual disability has been reported.
Cohen syndrome
MedGen UID:
78539
Concept ID:
C0265223
Congenital Abnormality
Cohen syndrome is characterized by failure to thrive in infancy and childhood; truncal obesity in the teen years; early-onset hypotonia and developmental delays; microcephaly developing during the first year of life; moderate to profound psychomotor retardation; progressive retinochoroidal dystrophy and high myopia; neutropenia in many with recurrent infections and aphthous ulcers in some; a cheerful disposition; joint hypermobility; and characteristic facial features.
Ruvalcaba syndrome
MedGen UID:
120520
Concept ID:
C0265248
Disease or Syndrome
Ruvalcaba syndrome is an extremely rare malformation syndrome, described in less than 10 patients to date, characterized by microcephaly with characteristic facies (downslanting parpebral fissures, microstomia, beaked nose, narrow maxilla), very short stature, narrow thoracic cage with pectus carinatum, hypoplastic genitalia and skeletal anomalies (i.e. characteristic brachydactyly and osteochondritis of the spine) as well as intellectual and developmental delay.
Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome
MedGen UID:
78557
Concept ID:
C0265339
Disease or Syndrome
Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLS) is an uncommon X-linked intellectual developmental disorder that evolves with age. Clinical manifestations in males are quite variable, with the most consistent features being initial hypotonia, mild to moderate impaired intellectual development, large fleshy ears, underdeveloped genitalia, gynecomastia, truncal obesity, tapering fingers, and shortening of the fourth and fifth toes. Heterozygous females may have a milder similar clinical phenotype, which can include hypothyroidism; however, many carrier females appear unaffected (summary by Crawford et al., 2006).
CHARGE association
MedGen UID:
75567
Concept ID:
C0265354
Disease or Syndrome
CHD7 disorder encompasses the entire phenotypic spectrum of heterozygous CHD7 pathogenic variants that includes CHARGE syndrome as well as subsets of features that comprise the CHARGE syndrome phenotype. The mnemonic CHARGE syndrome, introduced in the premolecular era, stands for coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies (including deafness). Following the identification of the genetic cause of CHD7 disorder, the phenotypic spectrum expanded to include cranial nerve anomalies, vestibular defects, cleft lip and/or palate, hypothyroidism, tracheoesophageal anomalies, brain anomalies, seizures, and renal anomalies. Life expectancy highly depends on the severity of manifestations; mortality can be high in the first few years when severe birth defects (particularly complex heart defects) are present and often complicated by airway and feeding issues. In childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, decreased life expectancy is likely related to a combination of residual heart defects, infections, aspiration or choking, respiratory issues including obstructive and central apnea, and possibly seizures. Despite these complications, the life expectancy for many individuals can be normal.
Glucose-6-phosphate transport defect
MedGen UID:
78644
Concept ID:
C0268146
Disease or Syndrome
Glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI) is characterized by accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver and kidneys resulting in hepatomegaly and nephromegaly. Severely affected infants present in the neonatal period with severe hypoglycemia due to fasting intolerance. More commonly, untreated infants present at age three to four months with hepatomegaly, severe hypoglycemia with or without seizures, lactic acidosis, hyperuricemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Affected children typically have doll-like faces with full cheeks, relatively thin extremities, short stature, and a protuberant abdomen. Xanthoma and diarrhea may be present. Impaired platelet function and development of reduced or dysfunctional von Willebrand factor can lead to a bleeding tendency with frequent epistaxis and menorrhagia in females. Individuals with untreated GSDIb are more likely to develop impaired neutrophil and monocyte function as well as chronic neutropenia resulting in recurrent bacterial infections, gingivitis, periodontitis, and genital and intestinal ulcers. Long-term complications of untreated GSDI include short stature, osteoporosis, delayed puberty, renal disease (including proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, renal stones, and renal failure), gout, systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, hepatic adenomas with potential for malignancy, pancreatitis, and polycystic ovaries. Seizures and cognitive impairment may occur in individuals with prolonged periods of hypoglycemia. Normal growth and puberty are expected in treated children. Most affected individuals live into adulthood.
Familial hypokalemia-hypomagnesemia
MedGen UID:
75681
Concept ID:
C0268450
Disease or Syndrome
Gitelman syndrome is an autosomal recessive renal tubular salt-wasting disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. It is the most common renal tubular disorder among Caucasians (prevalence of 1 in 40,000). Most patients have onset of symptoms as adults, but some can present in childhood. Clinical features include transient periods of muscle weakness and tetany, abdominal pains, and chondrocalcinosis (summary by Glaudemans et al., 2012). Gitelman syndrome is sometimes referred to as a mild variant of classic Bartter syndrome (607364). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
Isolated lutropin deficiency
MedGen UID:
82881
Concept ID:
C0271582
Disease or Syndrome
Male patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to isolated luteinizing hormone (LH) deficiency have normal sexual differentiation but fail to develop spontaneous puberty. Absence of LH alters Leydig cell proliferation and maturation and impairs the onset of normal spermatogenesis, which requires high levels of intratesticular testosterone. Infertility and very low levels of spermatogenesis generally persist in affected men despite long-term exposure to gonadotropin therapy. Female patients exhibit normal pubertal development and menarche, followed by oligomenorrhea and anovulatory secondary amenorrhea (summary by Basciani et al., 2012). Congenital idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a disorder characterized by absent or incomplete sexual maturation by the age of 18 years, in conjunction with low levels of circulating gonadotropins and testosterone and no other abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism can be caused by an isolated defect in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH; 152760) release, action, or both. Other associated nonreproductive phenotypes, such as anosmia, cleft palate, and sensorineural hearing loss, occur with variable frequency. In the presence of anosmia, idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism has been called 'Kallmann syndrome (KS),' whereas in the presence of a normal sense of smell, it has been termed 'normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH)' (summary by Raivio et al., 2007). Because families have been found to segregate both KS and nIHH, the disorder is here referred to as 'hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with or without anosmia (HH).' For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, see 147950. Reviews Arnhold et al. (2009) noted that the clinical manifestations of female patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to mutations in LHB are very similar to those of women with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism due to inactivating mutations of the LH receptor (see 238320): all have female external genitalia, spontaneous development of normal pubic hair and breasts at puberty, and normal to late menarche followed by oligoamenorrhea and infertility. Pelvic ultrasound shows a small or normal uterus and normal or enlarged ovaries with cysts. However, women with LHB mutations can be treated with luteinizing hormone or chorionic gonadotropin (CG; 118860) replacement therapy; women with LH receptor mutations are resistant to LH, and no treatment is effective in recovering their fertility.
HNSHA due to aldolase A deficiency
MedGen UID:
82895
Concept ID:
C0272066
Disease or Syndrome
Aldolase A deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia (Kishi et al., 1987).
Congenital adrenal hypoplasia, X-linked
MedGen UID:
87442
Concept ID:
C0342482
Disease or Syndrome
NR0B1-related adrenal hypoplasia congenita includes both X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (X-linked AHC) and Xp21 deletion (previously called complex glycerol kinase deficiency). X-linked AHC is characterized by primary adrenal insufficiency and/or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Adrenal insufficiency is acute infantile onset (average age 3 weeks) in approximately 60% of affected males and childhood onset (ages 1-9 years) in approximately 40%. HH typically manifests in a male with adrenal insufficiency as delayed puberty (i.e., onset age >14 years) and less commonly as arrested puberty at about Tanner Stage 3. Rarely, X-linked AHC manifests initially in early adulthood as delayed-onset adrenal insufficiency, partial HH, and/or infertility. Heterozygous females very occasionally have manifestations of adrenal insufficiency or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Xp21 deletion includes deletion of NR0B1 (causing X-linked AHC) and GK (causing glycerol kinase deficiency), and in some cases deletion of DMD (causing Duchenne muscular dystrophy). Developmental delay has been reported in males with Xp21 deletion when the deletion extends proximally to include DMD or when larger deletions extend distally to include IL1RAPL1 and DMD.
Phosphate transport defect
MedGen UID:
87455
Concept ID:
C0342749
Disease or Syndrome
Glycogenosis due to glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P) type b, or glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1b, is a type of glycogenosis due to G6P deficiency (see this term).
X-linked agammaglobulinemia with growth hormone deficiency
MedGen UID:
141630
Concept ID:
C0472813
Disease or Syndrome
IGHD3 is characterized by agammaglobulinemia and markedly reduced numbers of B cells, short stature, delayed bone age, and good response to treatment with growth hormone (summary by Conley et al., 1991). For general phenotypic information and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of IGHD, see 262400.
Intellectual disability-cataracts-calcified pinnae-myopathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
162911
Concept ID:
C0796121
Disease or Syndrome
Primrose syndrome is characterized by macrocephaly, hypotonia, developmental delay, intellectual disability with expressive speech delay, behavioral issues, a recognizable facial phenotype, radiographic features, and altered glucose metabolism. Additional features seen in adults: sparse body hair, distal muscle wasting, and contractures. Characteristic craniofacial features include brachycephaly, high anterior hairline, deeply set eyes, ptosis, downslanted palpebral fissures, high palate with torus palatinus, broad jaw, and large ears with small or absent lobes. Radiographic features include calcification of the external ear cartilage, multiple Wormian bones, platybasia, bathrocephaly, slender bones with exaggerated metaphyseal flaring, mild epiphyseal dysplasia, and spondylar dysplasia. Additional features include hearing impairment, ocular anomalies, cryptorchidism, and nonspecific findings on brain MRI.
Progeroid short stature with pigmented nevi
MedGen UID:
224702
Concept ID:
C1261128
Disease or Syndrome
Mulvihill-Smith syndrome is characterized by premature aging, multiple pigmented nevi, lack of facial subcutaneous fat, microcephaly, short stature, sensorineural hearing loss, and mental retardation. Immunodeficiency may also be a feature. Adult manifestations include the development of tumors, a sleep disorder with severe insomnia, and cognitive decline (summary by Yagihashi et al., 2009).
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 2 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
289648
Concept ID:
C1563720
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Premature ovarian failure 2B
MedGen UID:
337159
Concept ID:
C1845105
Disease or Syndrome
Any primary ovarian failure in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the POF1B gene.
Ovarian dysgenesis 2
MedGen UID:
336903
Concept ID:
C1845294
Disease or Syndrome
Hypergonadotropic ovarian failure is a heterogeneous disorder that, in the most severe forms, is a result of ovarian dysgenesis. Ovarian dysgenesis accounts for about half the cases of primary amenorrhea (Timmreck and Reindollar, 2003). Most cases are associated with major X chromosome abnormalities. Accordingly, genetic studies have identified several loci at Xq and Xp11.2-p.22.1 whose functions are relevant for ovarian development (Zinn et al., 1998; Simpson and Rajkovic, 1999; Marozzi et al., 2000).
X-linked intellectual disability Cabezas type
MedGen UID:
337334
Concept ID:
C1845861
Disease or Syndrome
The Cabezas type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder is characterized primarily by short stature, hypogonadism, and abnormal gait, with other more variable features such as speech delay, prominent lower lip, and tremor (Cabezas et al., 2000).
MEHMO syndrome
MedGen UID:
375855
Concept ID:
C1846278
Disease or Syndrome
MEHMO syndrome is a rare intellectual disability disorder that exhibits phenotypic heterogeneity and is variably characterized by mental retardation, epileptic seizures, hypogonadism with hypogenitalism, microcephaly, and obesity. Life expectancy ranges from less than 1 year to adulthood, and the condition is associated with significant morbidity and mortality (summary by Gregory et al., 2019).
Trichomegaly-retina pigmentary degeneration-dwarfism syndrome
MedGen UID:
338532
Concept ID:
C1848745
Disease or Syndrome
PNPLA6 disorders span a phenotypic continuum characterized by variable combinations of cerebellar ataxia; upper motor neuron involvement manifesting as spasticity and/or brisk reflexes; chorioretinal dystrophy associated with variable degrees of reduced visual function; and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (delayed puberty and lack of secondary sex characteristics). The hypogonadotropic hypogonadism occurs either in isolation or as part of anterior hypopituitarism (growth hormone, thyroid hormone, or gonadotropin deficiencies). Common but less frequent features are peripheral neuropathy (usually of axonal type manifesting as reduced distal reflexes, diminished vibratory sensation, and/or distal muscle wasting); hair anomalies (long eyelashes, bushy eyebrows, or scalp alopecia); short stature; and impaired cognitive functioning (learning disabilities in children; deficits in attention, visuospatial abilities, and recall in adults). Some of these features can occur in distinct clusters on the phenotypic continuum: Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, chorioretinal dystrophy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism); Gordon Holmes syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and – to a variable degree – brisk reflexes); Oliver-McFarlane syndrome (trichomegaly, chorioretinal dystrophy, short stature, intellectual disability, and hypopituitarism); Laurence-Moon syndrome; and spastic paraplegia type 39 (SPG39) (upper motor neuron involvement, peripheral neuropathy, and sometimes reduced cognitive functioning and/or cerebellar ataxia).
Absent thumb-short stature-immunodeficiency syndrome
MedGen UID:
338553
Concept ID:
C1848818
Disease or Syndrome
An exceedingly rare, autosomal recessive immune disease characterized by thumb aplasia, short stature with skeletal abnormalities, and combined immunodeficiency described in three sibships from two possibly related families. The skeletal abnormalities included unfused olecranon and the immunodeficiency manifested with severe chickenpox and chronic candidiasis. No new cases have been reported since 1978.
GOMBO syndrome
MedGen UID:
343515
Concept ID:
C1856274
Disease or Syndrome
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 12 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
347328
Concept ID:
C1856897
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Celiac disease, susceptibility to, 1
MedGen UID:
395227
Concept ID:
C1859310
Finding
Celiac disease is a systemic autoimmune disease that can be associated with gastrointestinal findings (diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain and distension, bloating, vomiting, and weight loss) and/or highly variable non-gastrointestinal findings (dermatitis herpetiformis, chronic fatigue, joint pain/inflammation, iron deficiency anemia, migraines, depression, attention-deficit disorder, epilepsy, osteoporosis/osteopenia, infertility and/or recurrent fetal loss, vitamin deficiencies, short stature, failure to thrive, delayed puberty, dental enamel defects, and autoimmune disorders). Classic celiac disease, characterized by mild to severe gastrointestinal symptoms, is less common than non-classic celiac disease, characterized by absence of gastrointestinal symptoms.
Arteriosclerosis, severe juvenile
MedGen UID:
395330
Concept ID:
C1859725
Disease or Syndrome
Majeed syndrome
MedGen UID:
351273
Concept ID:
C1864997
Disease or Syndrome
Majeed syndrome is a rare condition characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation in the bones and skin.\n\nOne of the major features of Majeed syndrome is an inflammatory bone condition known as chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO). This condition causes recurrent episodes of pain and joint swelling beginning in infancy or early childhood. These symptoms persist into adulthood, although they may improve for short periods. CRMO can lead to complications such as slow growth and the development of joint deformities called contractures, which restrict the movement of certain joints.\n\nAnother feature of Majeed syndrome is a blood disorder called congenital dyserythropoietic anemia. This disorder is one of many types of anemia, all of which involve a shortage of red blood cells. Without enough of these cells, the blood cannot carry an adequate supply of oxygen to the body's tissues. The resulting symptoms can include tiredness (fatigue), weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath. Complications of congenital dyserythropoietic anemia can range from mild to severe.\n\nMost people with Majeed syndrome also develop inflammatory disorders of the skin, most often a condition known as Sweet syndrome. The symptoms of Sweet syndrome include fever and the development of painful bumps or blisters on the face, neck, back, and arms.
Ulnar-mammary syndrome
MedGen UID:
357886
Concept ID:
C1866994
Disease or Syndrome
Ulnar-mammary syndrome (UMS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by posterior limb deficiencies or duplications, apocrine/mammary gland hypoplasia and/or dysfunction, abnormal dentition, delayed puberty in males, and genital anomalies (Bamshad et al., 1996).
Leukoencephalopathy-ataxia-hypodontia-hypomyelination syndrome
MedGen UID:
390993
Concept ID:
C2676243
Disease or Syndrome
POLR3-related leukodystrophy, a hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with specific features on brain MRI, is characterized by varying combinations of four major clinical findings: Neurologic dysfunction, typically predominated by motor dysfunction (progressive cerebellar dysfunction, and to a lesser extent extrapyramidal [i.e., dystonia], pyramidal [i.e., spasticity] and cognitive dysfunctions). Abnormal dentition (delayed dentition, hypodontia, oligodontia, and abnormally placed or shaped teeth). Endocrine abnormalities such as short stature (in ~50% of individuals) with or without growth hormone deficiency, and more commonly, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism manifesting as delayed, arrested, or absent puberty. Ocular abnormality in the form of myopia, typically progressing over several years and becoming severe. POLR3-related leukodystrophy and 4H leukodystrophy are the two recognized terms for five previously described overlapping clinical phenotypes (initially described as distinct entities before their molecular basis was known). These include: Hypomyelination, hypodontia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (4H syndrome); Ataxia, delayed dentition, and hypomyelination (ADDH); Tremor-ataxia with central hypomyelination (TACH); Leukodystrophy with oligodontia (LO); Hypomyelination with cerebellar atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (HCAHC). Age of onset is typically in early childhood but later-onset cases have also been reported. An infant with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (neonatal progeroid syndrome) was recently reported to have pathogenic variants in POLR3A on exome sequencing. Confirmation of this as a very severe form of POLR3-related leukodystrophy awaits replication in other individuals with a clinical diagnosis of Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome.
ANE syndrome
MedGen UID:
394313
Concept ID:
C2677535
Disease or Syndrome
Alopecia, neurologic defects, and endocrinopathy syndrome (ANES) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by alopecia with skin involvement including multiple facial nevi and flexural hyperpigmentation; moderately to severely impaired intellectual development; progressive motor decline; and endocrine deficiency (summary by Spiegel et al., 2010).
PGM1-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
414536
Concept ID:
C2752015
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type It (CDG1T) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations and severity. The most common features include cleft lip and bifid uvula, apparent at birth, followed by hepatopathy, intermittent hypoglycemia, short stature, and exercise intolerance, often accompanied by increased serum creatine kinase. Less common features include rhabdomyolysis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (summary by Tegtmeyer et al., 2014). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
DELAYED PUBERTY, SELF-LIMITED
MedGen UID:
1789612
Concept ID:
C2874202
Disease or Syndrome
Self-limited delayed puberty (DPSL) is characterized by delayed development of Tanner stage G2 accompanied by low serum gonadotropins. Affected individuals experience spontaneous attainment of Tanner stage G4 by 18 years of age, with normalization of gonadotropins, which excludes a diagnosis of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (see 147950) (Mancini et al., 2020).
Glycogen storage disease due to glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency type IA
MedGen UID:
415885
Concept ID:
C2919796
Disease or Syndrome
Glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI) is characterized by accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver and kidneys resulting in hepatomegaly and nephromegaly. Severely affected infants present in the neonatal period with severe hypoglycemia due to fasting intolerance. More commonly, untreated infants present at age three to four months with hepatomegaly, severe hypoglycemia with or without seizures, lactic acidosis, hyperuricemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Affected children typically have doll-like faces with full cheeks, relatively thin extremities, short stature, and a protuberant abdomen. Xanthoma and diarrhea may be present. Impaired platelet function and development of reduced or dysfunctional von Willebrand factor can lead to a bleeding tendency with frequent epistaxis and menorrhagia in females. Individuals with untreated GSDIb are more likely to develop impaired neutrophil and monocyte function as well as chronic neutropenia resulting in recurrent bacterial infections, gingivitis, periodontitis, and genital and intestinal ulcers. Long-term complications of untreated GSDI include short stature, osteoporosis, delayed puberty, renal disease (including proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, renal stones, and renal failure), gout, systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, hepatic adenomas with potential for malignancy, pancreatitis, and polycystic ovaries. Seizures and cognitive impairment may occur in individuals with prolonged periods of hypoglycemia. Normal growth and puberty are expected in treated children. Most affected individuals live into adulthood.
Nephropathic cystinosis
MedGen UID:
419735
Concept ID:
C2931187
Disease or Syndrome
Cystinosis comprises three allelic phenotypes: Nephropathic cystinosis in untreated children is characterized by renal Fanconi syndrome, poor growth, hypophosphatemic/calcipenic rickets, impaired glomerular function resulting in complete glomerular failure, and accumulation of cystine in almost all cells, leading to cellular dysfunction with tissue and organ impairment. The typical untreated child has short stature, rickets, and photophobia. Failure to thrive is generally noticed after approximately age six months; signs of renal tubular Fanconi syndrome (polyuria, polydipsia, dehydration, and acidosis) appear as early as age six months; corneal crystals can be present before age one year and are always present after age 16 months. Prior to the use of renal transplantation and cystine-depleting therapy, the life span in nephropathic cystinosis was no longer than ten years. With these interventions, affected individuals can survive at least into the mid-forties or fifties with satisfactory quality of life. Intermediate cystinosis is characterized by all the typical manifestations of nephropathic cystinosis, but onset is at a later age. Renal glomerular failure occurs in all untreated affected individuals, usually between ages 15 and 25 years. The non-nephropathic (ocular) form of cystinosis is characterized clinically only by photophobia resulting from corneal cystine crystal accumulation.
Camurati-Engelmann disease, type 2
MedGen UID:
419470
Concept ID:
C2931683
Disease or Syndrome
Camurati-Engelmann Disease not associated with TGFB1. This is an n-of-1 use case where only one patient or family has been described with this disorder.
Autoimmune enteropathy and endocrinopathy - susceptibility to chronic infections syndrome
MedGen UID:
481620
Concept ID:
C3279990
Disease or Syndrome
IMD31C is a disorder of immunologic dysregulation with highly variable manifestations resulting from autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in STAT1 (600555). Most patients present in infancy or early childhood with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Other highly variable features include recurrent bacterial, viral, fungal, and mycoplasmal infections, disseminated dimorphic fungal infections, enteropathy with villous atrophy, and autoimmune disorders, such as hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus. A subset of patients show apparently nonimmunologic features, including osteopenia, delayed puberty, and intracranial aneurysms. Laboratory studies show increased activation of gamma-interferon (IFNG; 147570)-mediated inflammation (summary by Uzel et al., 2013 and Sampaio et al., 2013).
Ovarian dysgenesis 3
MedGen UID:
482101
Concept ID:
C3280471
Disease or Syndrome
Any 46 XX gonadal dysgenesis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PSMC3IP gene.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 6 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
765488
Concept ID:
C3552574
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Obesity due to leptin receptor gene deficiency
MedGen UID:
767139
Concept ID:
C3554225
Disease or Syndrome
Leptin receptor deficiency is characterized by severe early-onset obesity, major hyperphagia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and neuroendocrine/metabolic dysfunction (summary by Dehghani et al., 2018).
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 20 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
815313
Concept ID:
C3808983
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 21 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
815316
Concept ID:
C3808986
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 64
MedGen UID:
816619
Concept ID:
C3810289
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-64 (SPG64) is a neurologic disorder characterized by childhood onset of progressive spastic paraplegia with impaired intellectual development, gait impairment, dysarthria, and white matter abnormalities on brain imaging. Some individuals show neurocognitive regression (Calame et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive SPG, see SPG5A (270800).
Hereditary sclerosing poikiloderma with tendon and pulmonary involvement
MedGen UID:
816655
Concept ID:
C3810325
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary fibrosing poikiloderma with tendon contractures, myopathy, and pulmonary fibrosis (POIKTMP) is characterized by the skin findings of poikiloderma (typically beginning in the first six months and mainly localized to the face), hypohidrosis with heat intolerance, mild lymphedema of the extremities, chronic erythematous and scaly skin lesions on the extremities, sclerosis of the digits, and mild palmoplantar keratoderma. Scalp hair, eyelashes, and/or eyebrows are typically sparse. Muscle contractures are usually seen in childhood and can be present as early as age two years. The majority of affected individuals develop progressive weakness of the proximal and distal muscles of all four limbs. Some adults develop progressive interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, which can be life threatening within three to four years after respiratory symptoms appear. Other features are exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, liver impairment, hematologic abnormalities, relative short stature, and cataract.
Short stature due to primary acid-labile subunit deficiency
MedGen UID:
859716
Concept ID:
C3900122
Laboratory or Test Result
Acid-labile subunit deficiency is characterized by severely reduced serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF1; 147440) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3; 146732) concentrations that are incongruent with an associated mild growth retardation (height, -2 to -3 SD before and during puberty). Pubertal delay in boys and insulin insensitivity are common findings (summary by Domene et al., 2011).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 27
MedGen UID:
862965
Concept ID:
C4014528
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome-9 (CSS9) is characterized by mildly impaired intellectual development, dysmorphic facial features, hypertrichosis, microcephaly, growth deficiency, and hypoplastic fifth toenails (Tsurusaki et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900).
STAT3-related early-onset multisystem autoimmune disease
MedGen UID:
863232
Concept ID:
C4014795
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset multisystem autoimmune disease-1 is characterized by early childhood onset of a spectrum of autoimmune disorders affecting multiple organs. Common manifestations include insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and autoimmune enteropathy, or celiac disease, and autoimmune hematologic disorders. Other features include short stature and nonspecific dermatitis. More variable features include hypothyroidism, autoimmune arthritis, and delayed puberty. Some patients may show recurrent infections. The disorder results from an inborn error of cytokine signaling (summary by Flanagan et al., 2014 and Milner et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Infantile-Onset Multisystem Autoimmune Disease See also ADMIO2 (617006), caused by mutation in the ZAP70 gene (176947) on chromosome 2q12.
Microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism 1
MedGen UID:
863434
Concept ID:
C4014997
Disease or Syndrome
Meier-Gorlin syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
905079
Concept ID:
C4225188
Disease or Syndrome
Any Meier-Gorlin syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the GMNN gene.
Microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism 2
MedGen UID:
906140
Concept ID:
C4225195
Disease or Syndrome
Any microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PPP1R15B gene.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability 34
MedGen UID:
902184
Concept ID:
C4225417
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder-34 (MRXS34) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability with poor speech, dysmorphic facial features, and mild structural brain abnormalities, including thickening of the corpus callosum (summary by Mircsof et al., 2015).
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
934664
Concept ID:
C4310697
Disease or Syndrome
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD) is a progressive sclerosing skeletal dysplasia characterized by supraorbital hyperostosis, undermodeling of the small bones, and small and large joint contractures, as well as extraskeletal developmental abnormalities, primarily of the cardiorespiratory system and genitourinary tract. Patients with FMD2 appear to have a propensity for keloid formation (summary by Wade et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of frontometaphyseal dysplasia, see FMD1 (305620).
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 60
MedGen UID:
1373351
Concept ID:
C4479476
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
LEOPARD syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1631694
Concept ID:
C4551484
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck, and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth restriction resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25th centile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20% of affected individuals, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML.
Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia 1
MedGen UID:
1634824
Concept ID:
C4551958
Disease or Syndrome
Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA) is a rare autosomal recessive oxidative phosphorylation disorder specific to skeletal muscle and bone marrow (Bykhovskaya et al., 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Myopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Sideroblastic Anemia MLASA2 (613561) is caused by mutation in the YARS2 gene (610957) on chromosome 12p11. MLASA3 (500011) is caused by heteroplasmic mutation in the mitochondrially-encoded MTATP6 gene (516060).
Ovarian dysgenesis 7
MedGen UID:
1648458
Concept ID:
C4748263
Disease or Syndrome
Ovarian dysgenesis-7 (ODG7) is characterized by primary amenorrhea, delayed puberty, elevated gonadotropic hormones, and small uterus and ovaries. Ovarian histology shows fibrotic ovaries without follicles (Chen et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ovarian dysgenesis, see ODG1 (233300).
Short stature and microcephaly with genital anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684791
Concept ID:
C5231467
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature and microcephaly with genital anomalies (SSMGA) is characterized by severe growth failure, with extreme short stature, microcephaly, and delayed and dissociated bone age. Global psychomotor developmental delay may be present, although the brain appears structurally normal. Pubertal delay and genital anomalies have been observed (Hung et al., 2017).
Microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair syndrome
MedGen UID:
1718781
Concept ID:
C5394425
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair syndrome (MDBH) is a multisystem disorder with clinical variability. Affected individuals show cognitive and motor disabilities, as well as some degree of fine, brittle hair with microscopic shaft abnormalities. Other shared features include failure to thrive in early childhood and short stature, with some patients exhibiting feeding difficulties and hepatic steatosis (Kuo et al., 2019).
Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome with immune dysregulation 2, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1723138
Concept ID:
C5436546
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant growth hormone insensitivity syndrome with immune dysregulation-2 (GHISID2) is a congenital disorder characterized by short stature due to insensitivity to growth hormone (GH1; 139250). Affected individuals usually have delayed bone age, delayed puberty, and decreased serum IGF1 (147440). Some patients may have features of mild immune dysregulation, such as eczema, increased serum IgE, asthma, or celiac disease (summary by Klammt et al., 2018).
Short stature, oligodontia, dysmorphic facies, and motor delay
MedGen UID:
1787876
Concept ID:
C5543206
Disease or Syndrome
SOFM is characterized by marked short stature, oligodontia, mild facial dysmorphism, and motor delay. Endosteal hyperostosis has also been observed, and patients may exhibit some features of progeria (Terhal et al., 2020; Beauregard-Lacroix et al., 2020).
BDV SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
1785671
Concept ID:
C5543403
Disease or Syndrome
BDV syndrome (BDVS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset profound obesity, hyperphagia, and moderately impaired intellectual development accompanied by infantile hypotonia and other endocrine disorders including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, and insulin resistance (summary by Bosch et al., 2021).
FAUNDES-BANKA SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
1782083
Concept ID:
C5543554
Disease or Syndrome
Faundes-Banka syndrome (FABAS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by variable combinations of developmental delay and microcephaly, as well as micrognathia and other dysmorphic features (Faundes et al., 2021).
DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY, IMPAIRED SPEECH, AND BEHAVIORAL ABNORMALITIES
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
Ovarian dysgenesis 9
MedGen UID:
1794256
Concept ID:
C5562046
Disease or Syndrome
Ovarian dysgenesis-9 (ODG9) is characterized by severe nonsyndromic primary ovarian insufficiency with primary amenorrhea, hypoplastic or absent ovaries, and delayed bone age. Patient cells show evidence of chromosomal instability (Smirin-Yosef et al., 2017; Heddar et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ovarian dysgenesis, see ODG1 (233300).
Microcephaly-congenital cataract-psoriasiform dermatitis syndrome
MedGen UID:
1798933
Concept ID:
C5567510
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, congenital cataract, and psoriasiform dermatitis (MCCPD) represents an inborn error of cholesterol metabolism that is characterized by accumulation of a large amount of methylsterols, particularly dimethylsterols, in affected patients. The associated features of immune dysregulation, skin disease, and growth delay can be at least partially corrected with cholesterol and statin supplements (He et al., 2014).
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 26 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
1811919
Concept ID:
C5676903
Disease or Syndrome
HH26 is characterized by micropenis and cryptorchidism at birth in male patients, and absent puberty and anosmia in male or female patients. Some affected individuals also exhibit craniosynostosis (Davis et al., 2020). Congenital idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a disorder characterized by absent or incomplete sexual maturation by the age of 18 years, in conjunction with low levels of circulating gonadotropins and testosterone and no other abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism can be caused by an isolated defect in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH; 152760) release, action, or both. Other associated nonreproductive phenotypes, such as anosmia, cleft palate, and sensorineural hearing loss, occur with variable frequency. In the presence of anosmia, idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism has been called 'Kallmann syndrome (KS),' whereas in the presence of a normal sense of smell, it has been termed 'normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH)' (summary by Raivio et al., 2007). Because families have been found to segregate both KS and nIHH, the disorder is here referred to as 'hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with or without anosmia (HH).' For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with or without anosmia as well as a discussion of oligogenicity of this disorder, see 147950.
Cerebellar dysfunction, impaired intellectual development, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
MedGen UID:
1808634
Concept ID:
C5676924
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar dysfunction, impaired intellectual development, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CDIDHH) is characterized by delayed motor development, ataxia, severe progressive scoliosis, moderate to severe intellectual disability, and delayed sexual development. Cerebellar hypoplasia has been observed in some patients (Whittaker et al., 2021).
Ovarian dysgenesis 10
MedGen UID:
1801078
Concept ID:
C5676966
Disease or Syndrome
Ovarian dysgenesis-10 (ODG10) is characterized by primary amenorrhea and absent puberty. The uterus is small and prepubertal, and ovaries are streak or not visualized on ultrasound (McGlacken-Byrne et al., 2022). Mutation in the ZSWIM7 gene also causes male infertility due to spermatogenic failure (SPGF71; 619831). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ovarian dysgenesis, see ODG1 (233300).
Neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease, multisystem, infantile-onset 1
MedGen UID:
986206
Concept ID:
CN305357
Disease or Syndrome
A rare multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome with intellectual disability characterized by global developmental delay, postnatal microcephaly, intellectual disability, ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. More variable manifestations include hypotonia, growth retardation, peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, dysmorphic facial features, and additional endocrine abnormalities. Brain imaging may show progressive cerebellar atrophy in some patients.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Abbara A, Koysombat K, Phylactou M, Eng PC, Clarke S, Comninos AN, Yang L, Izzi-Engbeaya C, Hanassab S, Smith N, Jayasena CN, Xu C, Quinton R, Pitteloud N, Binder G, Anand-Ivell R, Ivell R, Dhillo WS
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022;13:1076984. Epub 2022 Nov 29 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2022.1076984. PMID: 36523592Free PMC Article
Chaudhary S, Walia R, Bhansali A, Dayal D, Sachdeva N, Singh T, Bhadada SK
J Endocrinol Invest 2022 Dec;45(12):2265-2273. Epub 2022 Jul 16 doi: 10.1007/s40618-022-01858-8. PMID: 35841519
Galal MS, Musa SA, Babiker OO, Hamdan HZ, Abdullah MA
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2022 Jul 26;35(7):938-945. Epub 2022 Jun 8 doi: 10.1515/jpem-2022-0243. PMID: 35671155
Saengkaew T, Patel HR, Banerjee K, Butler G, Dattani MT, McGuigan M, Storr HL, Willemsen RH, Dunkel L, Howard SR
Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Oct 8;185(5):617-627. doi: 10.1530/EJE-21-0387. PMID: 34403359Free PMC Article
Howard SR, Dunkel L
Endocr Rev 2019 Oct 1;40(5):1285-1317. doi: 10.1210/er.2018-00248. PMID: 31220230Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Chaudhary S, Walia R, Bhansali A, Dayal D, Sachdeva N, Singh T, Bhadada SK
J Endocrinol Invest 2022 Dec;45(12):2265-2273. Epub 2022 Jul 16 doi: 10.1007/s40618-022-01858-8. PMID: 35841519
Galal MS, Musa SA, Babiker OO, Hamdan HZ, Abdullah MA
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2022 Jul 26;35(7):938-945. Epub 2022 Jun 8 doi: 10.1515/jpem-2022-0243. PMID: 35671155
Harrington J, Palmert MR
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 May 17;107(6):1739-1750. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgac054. PMID: 35100608
Beştaş A, Bolu S, Unal E, Aktar Karakaya A, Eröz R, Tekin M, Haspolat YK
Endocrine 2022 Mar;75(3):927-933. Epub 2021 Nov 1 doi: 10.1007/s12020-021-02914-8. PMID: 34724156
Festa A, Umano GR, Miraglia Del Giudice E, Grandone A
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020;11:253. Epub 2020 May 19 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2020.00253. PMID: 32508745Free PMC Article

Therapy

Rodanaki M, Rask E, Lodefalk M
BMJ Open 2022 Feb 3;12(2):e057088. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-057088. PMID: 35115358Free PMC Article
Weinhard S, Wiedemann A, Leheup B, Dalle JH, Lebon Labich B, Pochon C
Pediatr Transplant 2020 Sep;24(6):e13773. Epub 2020 Jul 23 doi: 10.1111/petr.13773. PMID: 32701220
Lee SL, Lim A, Munns C, Simm PJ, Zacharin M
Horm Res Paediatr 2020;93(2):108-118. Epub 2020 Jul 1 doi: 10.1159/000508290. PMID: 32610327
Zhou Z, Liu TH, Zhang ZK
Clin Exp Dermatol 2018 Aug;43(6):746-748. Epub 2018 May 8 doi: 10.1111/ced.13564. PMID: 29740861
Chan YM, Lippincott MF, Kusa TO, Seminara SB
JCI Insight 2018 Apr 19;3(8) doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.99109. PMID: 29669934Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Chaudhary S, Walia R, Bhansali A, Dayal D, Sachdeva N, Singh T, Bhadada SK
J Endocrinol Invest 2022 Dec;45(12):2265-2273. Epub 2022 Jul 16 doi: 10.1007/s40618-022-01858-8. PMID: 35841519
Saengkaew T, Patel HR, Banerjee K, Butler G, Dattani MT, McGuigan M, Storr HL, Willemsen RH, Dunkel L, Howard SR
Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Oct 8;185(5):617-627. doi: 10.1530/EJE-21-0387. PMID: 34403359Free PMC Article
Chaudhary S, Walia R, Bhansali A, Dayal D, Sachdeva N, Singh T, Bhadada SK
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Aug 18;106(9):e3495-e3505. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgab357. PMID: 34010394
Mancini A, Howard SR, Marelli F, Cabrera CP, Barnes MR, Sternberg MJ, Leprovots M, Hadjidemetriou I, Monti E, David A, Wehkalampi K, Oleari R, Lettieri A, Vezzoli V, Vassart G, Cariboni A, Bonomi M, Garcia MI, Guasti L, Dunkel L
JCI Insight 2020 Jun 4;5(11) doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.133434. PMID: 32493844Free PMC Article
Howard SR, Dunkel L
Endocr Rev 2019 Oct 1;40(5):1285-1317. doi: 10.1210/er.2018-00248. PMID: 31220230Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Wasserman H, Dumenigo A, Hornung L, Augsburger B, Marathe K, Lucky AW
Pediatr Dermatol 2023 Jan;40(1):100-106. Epub 2022 Sep 25 doi: 10.1111/pde.15136. PMID: 36161732
Chaudhary S, Walia R, Bhansali A, Dayal D, Sachdeva N, Singh T, Bhadada SK
J Endocrinol Invest 2022 Dec;45(12):2265-2273. Epub 2022 Jul 16 doi: 10.1007/s40618-022-01858-8. PMID: 35841519
Saengkaew T, Patel HR, Banerjee K, Butler G, Dattani MT, McGuigan M, Storr HL, Willemsen RH, Dunkel L, Howard SR
Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Oct 8;185(5):617-627. doi: 10.1530/EJE-21-0387. PMID: 34403359Free PMC Article
Chaudhary S, Walia R, Bhansali A, Dayal D, Sachdeva N, Singh T, Bhadada SK
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Aug 18;106(9):e3495-e3505. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgab357. PMID: 34010394
Menon SC, Al-Dulaimi R, McCrindle BW, Goldberg DJ, Sachdeva R, Goldstein BH, Seery T, Uzark KC, Chelliah A, Butts R, Henderson H, Johnson T, Williams RV
Congenit Heart Dis 2018 May;13(3):463-469. Epub 2018 Mar 9 doi: 10.1111/chd.12597. PMID: 29521004

Recent systematic reviews

Castiello F, Freire C
Eur J Endocrinol 2021 May 4;184(6):733-749. doi: 10.1530/EJE-20-1038. PMID: 33769962
Gao Y, Du Q, Liu L, Liao Z
Endocrine 2021 Jun;72(3):633-643. Epub 2021 Jan 19 doi: 10.1007/s12020-020-02582-0. PMID: 33464540Free PMC Article
Golestanzadeh M, Riahi R, Kelishadi R
Environ Sci Process Impacts 2020 Apr 29;22(4):873-894. doi: 10.1039/c9em00512a. PMID: 32091510
Olivo G, Gaudio S, Schiöth HB
Nutrients 2019 Aug 15;11(8) doi: 10.3390/nu11081907. PMID: 31443192Free PMC Article
Chen JS, Yang A, Murrell DF
Exp Dermatol 2019 Oct;28(10):1122-1130. Epub 2018 Oct 17 doi: 10.1111/exd.13771. PMID: 30118182

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