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Seckel syndrome 5(SCKL5)

MedGen UID:
462537
Concept ID:
C3151187
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: SCKL5
 
Gene (location): CEP152 (15q21.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0013443
OMIM®: 613823

Definition

Seckel syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by proportionate short stature, severe microcephaly, mental retardation, and a typical 'bird-head' facial appearance (summary by Kalay et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Seckel syndrome, see 210600. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Clitoral hypertrophy
MedGen UID:
57848
Concept ID:
C0156394
Finding
Hypertrophy of the clitoris.
Hypospadias
MedGen UID:
163083
Concept ID:
C0848558
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormal position of urethral meatus on the ventral penile shaft (underside) characterized by displacement of the urethral meatus from the tip of the glans penis to the ventral surface of the penis, scrotum, or perineum.
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Short middle phalanx of finger
MedGen UID:
337690
Concept ID:
C1846950
Finding
Short (hypoplastic) middle phalanx of finger, affecting one or more fingers.
Clinodactyly of the 5th finger
MedGen UID:
340456
Concept ID:
C1850049
Congenital Abnormality
Clinodactyly refers to a bending or curvature of the fifth finger in the radial direction (i.e., towards the 4th finger).
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Abnormal cortical gyration
MedGen UID:
343457
Concept ID:
C1856019
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of the gyri (i.e., the ridges) of the cerebral cortex of the brain.
Simplified gyral pattern
MedGen UID:
413664
Concept ID:
C2749675
Finding
An abnormality of the cerebral cortex with fewer gyri but with normal cortical thickness. This pattern is usually often associated with congenital microcephaly.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Retrognathia
MedGen UID:
19766
Concept ID:
C0035353
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality in which the mandible is mislocalised posteriorly.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Delayed skeletal maturation
MedGen UID:
108148
Concept ID:
C0541764
Finding
A decreased rate of skeletal maturation. Delayed skeletal maturation can be diagnosed on the basis of an estimation of the bone age from radiographs of specific bones in the human body.
11 pairs of ribs
MedGen UID:
326950
Concept ID:
C1839731
Finding
Presence of only 11 pairs of ribs.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Blepharophimosis
MedGen UID:
2670
Concept ID:
C0005744
Congenital Abnormality
A fixed reduction in the vertical distance between the upper and lower eyelids with short palpebral fissures.
Enamel hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
3730
Concept ID:
C0011351
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental hypoplasia of the dental enamel.
Partial congenital absence of teeth
MedGen UID:
43794
Concept ID:
C0020608
Congenital Abnormality
Tooth agenesis in some form is a common human anomaly that affects approximately 20% of the population. Although tooth agenesis is associated with numerous syndromes, several case reports describe nonsyndromic forms that are either sporadic or familial in nature, as reviewed by Gorlin et al. (1990). The incidence of familial tooth agenesis varies with each class of teeth. Most commonly affected are third molars (wisdom teeth), followed by either upper lateral incisors or lower second premolars; agenesis involving first and second molars is very rare. Also see 114600 and 302400. Selective tooth agenesis without associated systemic disorders has sometimes been divided into 2 types: oligodontia, defined as agenesis of 6 or more permanent teeth, and hypodontia, defined as agenesis of less than 6 teeth. The number in both cases does not include absence of third molars (wisdom teeth). Faulty use of the terms, however, have confounded their use. The term 'partial anodontia' is obsolete (Salinas, 1978). Genetic Heterogeneity of Selective Tooth Agenesis Other forms of selective tooth agenesis include STHAG2 (602639), mapped to chromosome 16q12; STHAG3 (604625), caused by mutation in the PAX9 gene (167416) on chromosome 14q12; STHAG4 (150400), caused by mutation in the WNT10A gene (606268) on chromosome 2q35; STHAG5 (610926), mapped to chromosome 10q11; STHAG7 (616724), caused by mutation in the LRP6 gene (603507) on chromosome 12p13; STHAG8 (617073), caused by mutation in the WNT10B gene (601906) on chromosome 12q13; STHAG9 (617275), caused by mutation in the GREM2 gene (608832) on chromosome 1q43; STHAG10 (620173), caused by mutation in the TSPEAR gene (612920) on chromosome 21q22; and STHAGX1 (313500), caused by mutation in the EDA gene (300451) on chromosome Xq13. A type of selective tooth agenesis that was formerly designated STHAG6 has been incorporated into the dental anomalies and short stature syndrome (DASS; 601216). Of 34 unrelated patients with nonsyndromic tooth agenesis, van den Boogaard et al. (2012) found that 56% (19 patients) had mutations in the WNT10A gene (STHAG4), whereas only 3% and 9% had mutations in the MSX1 (STHAG1) and PAX9 (STHAG3) genes, respectively. The authors concluded that WNT10A is a major gene in the etiology of isolated hypodontia. Genotype-Phenotype Correlations Yu et al. (2016) observed that the most frequently missing permanent teeth in WNT10B-associated oligodontia were the lateral incisors (83.3%), whereas premolars were missing only 51.4% of the time, which they noted was a pattern 'clearly different' from the oligodontia patterns resulting from WNT10A mutations. They also stated that the selective pattern in WNT10B mutants was different from that associated with mutations in other genes, such as MSX1, in which second premolars are missing, and PAX9, in which there is agenesis of molars.
Convex nasal ridge
MedGen UID:
66809
Concept ID:
C0240538
Finding
Nasal ridge curving anteriorly to an imaginary line that connects the nasal root and tip. The nose appears often also prominent, and the columella low.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Facial asymmetry
MedGen UID:
266298
Concept ID:
C1306710
Finding
An abnormal difference between the left and right sides of the face.
Prominent nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
343051
Concept ID:
C1854113
Finding
Anterior positioning of the nasal root in comparison to the usual positioning for age.
Sloping forehead
MedGen UID:
346640
Concept ID:
C1857679
Finding
Inclination of the anterior surface of the forehead from the vertical more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently excessive posterior sloping of the forehead in a lateral view.
Selective tooth agenesis
MedGen UID:
370882
Concept ID:
C1970308
Congenital Abnormality
Agenesis specifically affecting one of the classes incisor, premolar, or molar.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Oligodontia
MedGen UID:
904670
Concept ID:
C4082304
Congenital Abnormality
The absence of six or more teeth from the normal series by a failure to develop.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Faienza MF, Acquafredda A, D'Aniello M, Soldano L, Marzano F, Ventura A, Cavallo L
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2013;26(7-8):771-4. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2012-0397. PMID: 23612698
Birkebaek NH, Wolthers OD, Heuch C, Balslev T, Flyvbjerg A, Frystyk J
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2011;24(11-12):995-1000. doi: 10.1515/jpem.2011.369. PMID: 22308854

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Nerakh G, Vineeth VS, Tallapaka K, Nair L, Dalal A, Aggarwal S
Am J Med Genet A 2022 Jul;188(7):2139-2146. Epub 2022 Mar 17 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62725. PMID: 35298084
Makhdoom EUH, Waseem SS, Iqbal M, Abdullah U, Hussain G, Asif M, Budde B, Höhne W, Tinschert S, Saadi SM, Yousaf H, Ali Z, Fatima A, Kaygusuz E, Khan A, Jameel M, Khan S, Tariq M, Anjum I, Altmüller J, Thiele H, Höning S, Baig SM, Nürnberg P, Hussain MS
Genes (Basel) 2021 May 13;12(5) doi: 10.3390/genes12050731. PMID: 34068194Free PMC Article
Monteiro A, Cortez GM, Granja MF, Agnoletto GJ, Kranich J, Padilha MVR, Aldana P, Hanel R
J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Feb;13(2):171-176. Epub 2020 Jun 10 doi: 10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016069. PMID: 32522788
Hopkins TE, Haines SJ
J Neurosurg 2003 May;98(5):1113-5. doi: 10.3171/jns.2003.98.5.1113. PMID: 12744374
Courtens W, Speleman F, Messiaen L, Bormans J, Van Roy N, Vamos E
Am J Med Genet 1997 Sep 5;71(4):479-85. PMID: 9286460

Diagnosis

Khojah O, Alamoudi S, Aldawsari N, Babgi M, Lary A
Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Dec;37(12):3847-3860. Epub 2021 Aug 3 doi: 10.1007/s00381-021-05284-8. PMID: 34345934Free PMC Article
Pachajoa H, Heyne T, Candelo E, Purizaca-Rosillo N, Correa-Trigoso DE, Gayoso G, Rodriguez CA
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2021 Jun;187(2):269-277. Epub 2021 May 13 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31904. PMID: 33982859
Ferreira CR, Niiler T, Duker AL, Jackson AP, Bober MB
Am J Med Genet A 2020 Sep;182(9):2110-2116. Epub 2020 Jul 11 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61754. PMID: 32652690Free PMC Article
Ramieri V, Tarani L, Costantino F, Basile E, Liberati N, Rinna C, Cascone P, Colloridi F
J Craniofac Surg 2011 Nov;22(6):2124-8. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e3182323cdf. PMID: 22067867
Qvist P, Huertas P, Jimeno S, Nyegaard M, Hassan MJ, Jackson SP, Børglum AD
PLoS Genet 2011 Oct;7(10):e1002310. Epub 2011 Oct 6 doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002310. PMID: 21998596Free PMC Article

Therapy

Scalet D, Balestra D, Rohban S, Bovolenta M, Perrone D, Bernardi F, Campaner S, Pinotti M
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2017 Jan;1863(1):15-20. Epub 2016 Sep 14 doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2016.09.011. PMID: 27639833
Faienza MF, Acquafredda A, D'Aniello M, Soldano L, Marzano F, Ventura A, Cavallo L
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2013;26(7-8):771-4. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2012-0397. PMID: 23612698
Birkebaek NH, Wolthers OD, Heuch C, Balslev T, Flyvbjerg A, Frystyk J
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2011;24(11-12):995-1000. doi: 10.1515/jpem.2011.369. PMID: 22308854
Murthy J, Seshadri KG, Ramanan PV, Rajamani A, Hussain A
Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2004 Mar;41(2):202-5. doi: 10.1597/02-087. PMID: 14989682
Hayani A, Suarez CR, Molnar Z, LeBeau M, Godwin J
J Med Genet 1994 Feb;31(2):148-9. doi: 10.1136/jmg.31.2.148. PMID: 8182723Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Scalet D, Balestra D, Rohban S, Bovolenta M, Perrone D, Bernardi F, Campaner S, Pinotti M
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2017 Jan;1863(1):15-20. Epub 2016 Sep 14 doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2016.09.011. PMID: 27639833
Ramieri V, Tarani L, Costantino F, Basile E, Liberati N, Rinna C, Cascone P, Colloridi F
J Craniofac Surg 2011 Nov;22(6):2124-8. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e3182323cdf. PMID: 22067867
Willems M, Geneviève D, Borck G, Baumann C, Baujat G, Bieth E, Edery P, Farra C, Gerard M, Héron D, Leheup B, Le Merrer M, Lyonnet S, Martin-Coignard D, Mathieu M, Thauvin-Robinet C, Verloes A, Colleaux L, Munnich A, Cormier-Daire V
J Med Genet 2010 Dec;47(12):797-802. Epub 2009 Jul 29 doi: 10.1136/jmg.2009.067298. PMID: 19643772
Gruhn B, Seidel J, Zintl F, Varon R, Tönnies H, Neitzel H, Bechtold A, Hoehn H, Schindler D
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Jan 15;2:5. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-5. PMID: 17224058Free PMC Article
Hopkins TE, Haines SJ
J Neurosurg 2003 May;98(5):1113-5. doi: 10.3171/jns.2003.98.5.1113. PMID: 12744374

Clinical prediction guides

Yadav N, Kirola L, Geetha TS, Mittal K, Kadandale J, Yogev Y, Birk OS, Gupta N, Balakrishnan P, Jana M, Gupta M, Kabra M, Thelma BK
Ann Hum Genet 2022 Sep;86(5):245-256. Epub 2022 Apr 22 doi: 10.1111/ahg.12469. PMID: 35451063
Scalet D, Balestra D, Rohban S, Bovolenta M, Perrone D, Bernardi F, Campaner S, Pinotti M
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2017 Jan;1863(1):15-20. Epub 2016 Sep 14 doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2016.09.011. PMID: 27639833
Birkebaek NH, Wolthers OD, Heuch C, Balslev T, Flyvbjerg A, Frystyk J
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2011;24(11-12):995-1000. doi: 10.1515/jpem.2011.369. PMID: 22308854
Qvist P, Huertas P, Jimeno S, Nyegaard M, Hassan MJ, Jackson SP, Børglum AD
PLoS Genet 2011 Oct;7(10):e1002310. Epub 2011 Oct 6 doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002310. PMID: 21998596Free PMC Article
Kjaer I, Hansen N, Becktor KB, Birkebaek N, Balslev T
Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2001 Nov;38(6):645-51. doi: 10.1597/1545-1569_2001_038_0645_cmdasm_2.0.co_2. PMID: 11681999

Recent systematic reviews

Khojah O, Alamoudi S, Aldawsari N, Babgi M, Lary A
Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Dec;37(12):3847-3860. Epub 2021 Aug 3 doi: 10.1007/s00381-021-05284-8. PMID: 34345934Free PMC Article
Monteiro A, Cortez GM, Granja MF, Agnoletto GJ, Kranich J, Padilha MVR, Aldana P, Hanel R
J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Feb;13(2):171-176. Epub 2020 Jun 10 doi: 10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016069. PMID: 32522788

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