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X-linked cone dysfunction syndrome with myopia(BED)

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Bornholm eye disease; High myopia with nonprogressive cone dysfunction
SNOMED CT: Bornholm eye disease (718718009); X-linked cone dysfunction syndrome with myopia (718718009)
Modes of inheritance:
X-linked recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for recessive traits related to a gene encoded on the X chromosome. In the context of medical genetics, X-linked recessive disorders manifest in males (who have one copy of the X chromosome and are thus hemizygotes), but generally not in female heterozygotes who have one mutant and one normal allele.
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0010446
OMIM®: 300843
Orphanet: ORPHA90001


Bornholm eye disease consists of X-linked high myopia, amblyopia, and deuteranopia. Associated signs include optic nerve hypoplasia, reduced electroretinographic (ERG) flicker, and nonspecific retinal pigment abnormalities (Schwartz et al., 1990). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Reduced visual acuity that is uncorrectable by lenses in the absence of detectable anatomic defects in the eye or visual pathways.
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Astigmatism (from the Greek 'a' meaning absence and 'stigma' meaning point) is a condition in which the parallel rays of light entering the eye through the refractive media are not focused on a single point. Both corneal and noncorneal factors contribute to refractive astigmatism. Corneal astigmatism is mainly the result of an aspheric anterior surface of the cornea, which can be measured readily by means of a keratometer; in a small fraction of cases (approximately 1 in 10) the effect is neutralized by the back surface. The curvature of the back surface of the cornea is not considered in most studies, because it is more difficult to measure; moreover, in the case of severe corneal astigmatism, there is evidence that both surfaces have the same configuration. Noncorneal factors are errors in the curvature of the 2 surfaces of the crystalline lens, irregularity in the refractive index of the lens, and an eccentric lens position. Since the cornea is the dominant component of the eye's refracting system, a highly astigmatic cornea is likely to result in a similarly astigmatic ocular refraction (summary by Clementi et al., 1998).
High myopia
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
A severe form of myopia with greater than -6.00 diopters.
Optic nerve hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Underdevelopment of the optic nerve.
Decreased light- and dark-adapted electroretinogram amplitude
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Descreased amplitude of eletrical response upon electroretinography.
Abnormality of retinal pigmentation
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Complete lack of the M photopigment, which is replaced with the L photopigment. Affected individuals tend to confuse red and green.
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Blue and green cones only; no functional red cones.

Recent clinical studies


McClements M, Davies WI, Michaelides M, Young T, Neitz M, MacLaren RE, Moore AT, Hunt DM
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013 Feb 15;54(2):1361-9. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-11156. PMID: 23322568Free PMC Article
Michaelides M, Johnson S, Bradshaw K, Holder GE, Simunovic MP, Mollon JD, Moore AT, Hunt DM
Ophthalmology 2005 Aug;112(8):1448-54. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2005.02.021. PMID: 15953640

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