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Microcephaly, epilepsy, and diabetes syndrome(MEDS1)

MedGen UID:
481870
Concept ID:
C3280240
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: MEDS; MEDS1; MICROCEPHALY, EPILEPSY, AND DIABETES SYNDROME 1
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Related genes: YIPF5, IER3IP1
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0100328
OMIM®: 609382; 614231
OMIM® Phenotypic series: PS614231
Orphanet: ORPHA306558

Definition

Primary microcephaly-epilepsy-permanent neonatal diabetes syndrome is a rare, genetic, neurologic disease characterized by congenital microcephaly, severe, early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (manifesting as intractable, myoclonic and/or tonic-clonic seizures), permanent, neonatal, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and severe global developmental delay. Muscular hypotonia, skeletal abnormalities, feeding difficulties, and dysmorphic facial features (including narrow forehead, anteverted nares, small mouth with deep philtrum, tented upper lip vermilion) are frequently associated. Brain MRI reveals cerebral atrophy with cortical gyral simplification and aplasia/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. [from ORDO]

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Small scrotum
MedGen UID:
141577
Concept ID:
C0455792
Finding
Apparently small scrotum for age.
Moderate albuminuria
MedGen UID:
896933
Concept ID:
C1654921
Finding
The presence of moderately increased concentrations of albumin in the urine, defined as and albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) of 30 to 299 mg/gm (3.4 to 34 mg/mmol).
External genital hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
344478
Concept ID:
C1855333
Finding
Underdevelopment of part or all of the external reproductive organs.
Obesity
MedGen UID:
18127
Concept ID:
C0028754
Disease or Syndrome
Accumulation of substantial excess body fat.
Jaundice
MedGen UID:
43987
Concept ID:
C0022346
Sign or Symptom
Yellow pigmentation of the skin due to bilirubin, which in turn is the result of increased bilirubin concentration in the bloodstream.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Generalized-onset seizure
MedGen UID:
115963
Concept ID:
C0234533
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized-onset seizure is a type of seizure originating at some point within, and rapidly engaging, bilaterally distributed networks. The networks may include cortical and subcortical structures but not necessarily the entire cortex.
Cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120578
Concept ID:
C0266470
Congenital Abnormality
Cerebellar hypoplasia is a descriptive term implying a cerebellum with a reduced volume, but a normal shape and is stable over time.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Hypsarrhythmia
MedGen UID:
195766
Concept ID:
C0684276
Finding
Hypsarrhythmia is abnormal interictal high amplitude waves and a background of irregular spikes. There is continuous (during wakefulness), high-amplitude (>200 Hz), generalized polymorphic slowing with no organized background and multifocal spikes demonstrated by electroencephalography (EEG).
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure with focal onset
MedGen UID:
164077
Concept ID:
C0877017
Disease or Syndrome
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure with focal onset is a focal-onset seizure which progresses into a bilateral tonic-clonic phase.
EEG with burst suppression
MedGen UID:
369943
Concept ID:
C1969156
Finding
The burst suppression pattern in electroencephalography refers to a characteristic periodic pattern of low voltage (<10 microvolts) suppressed background and a relatively shorter pattern of higher amplitude slow, sharp, and spiking complexes.
Brisk reflexes
MedGen UID:
382164
Concept ID:
C2673700
Finding
Tendon reflexes that are noticeably more active than usual (conventionally denoted 3+ on clinical examination). Brisk reflexes may or may not indicate a neurological lesion. They are distinguished from hyperreflexia by the fact that hyerreflexia is characterized by hyperactive repeating (clonic) reflexes, which are considered to be always abnormal.
Simplified gyral pattern
MedGen UID:
413664
Concept ID:
C2749675
Finding
An abnormality of the cerebral cortex with fewer gyri but with normal cortical thickness. This pattern is usually often associated with congenital microcephaly.
Intellectual disability, profound
MedGen UID:
892508
Concept ID:
C3161330
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Profound mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) below 20.
Delayed CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
867393
Concept ID:
C4021758
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed myelination in the central nervous system.
Generalized myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
892704
Concept ID:
C4021759
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized myoclonic seizure is a type of generalized motor seizure characterized by bilateral, sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.
Myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
1385980
Concept ID:
C4317123
Sign or Symptom
A myoclonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.
Pathologic fracture
MedGen UID:
42095
Concept ID:
C0016663
Pathologic Function
A pathologic fracture occurs when a bone breaks in an area that is weakened secondarily to another disease process such as tumor, infection, and certain inherited bone disorders. A pathologic fracture can occur without a degree of trauma required to cause fracture in healthy bone.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Osteopenia
MedGen UID:
18222
Concept ID:
C0029453
Disease or Syndrome
Osteopenia is a term to define bone density that is not normal but also not as low as osteoporosis. By definition from the World Health Organization osteopenia is defined by bone densitometry as a T score -1 to -2.5.
Axial hypotonia
MedGen UID:
342959
Concept ID:
C1853743
Finding
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) affecting the musculature of the trunk.
Neonatal hypotonia
MedGen UID:
412209
Concept ID:
C2267233
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) manifesting in the neonatal period.
Primary microcephaly
MedGen UID:
383046
Concept ID:
C2677180
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender at birth.
Recurrent respiratory infections
MedGen UID:
812812
Concept ID:
C3806482
Finding
An increased susceptibility to respiratory infections as manifested by a history of recurrent respiratory infections.
Diabetes mellitus
MedGen UID:
8350
Concept ID:
C0011849
Disease or Syndrome
A group of abnormalities characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance.
Elevated circulating hepatic transaminase concentration
MedGen UID:
338525
Concept ID:
C1848701
Finding
Elevations of the levels of SGOT and SGPT in the serum. SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase) and SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) are transaminases primarily found in the liver and heart and are released into the bloodstream as the result of liver or heart damage. SGOT and SGPT are used clinically mainly as markers of liver damage.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Gingival overgrowth
MedGen UID:
87712
Concept ID:
C0376480
Finding
Hyperplasia of the gingiva (that is, a thickening of the soft tissue overlying the alveolar ridge. The degree of thickening ranges from involvement of the interdental papillae alone to gingival overgrowth covering the entire tooth crown.
Narrow forehead
MedGen UID:
326956
Concept ID:
C1839758
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations below the mean (objective); or apparently narrow intertemporal region (subjective).
Tented upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
326574
Concept ID:
C1839767
Finding
Triangular appearance of the oral aperture with the apex in the midpoint of the upper vermilion and the lower vermilion forming the base.
Anteverted nares
MedGen UID:
326648
Concept ID:
C1840077
Finding
Anteriorly-facing nostrils viewed with the head in the Frankfurt horizontal and the eyes of the observer level with the eyes of the subject. This gives the appearance of an upturned nose (upturned nasal tip).
Full cheeks
MedGen UID:
355661
Concept ID:
C1866231
Finding
Increased prominence or roundness of soft tissues between zygomata and mandible.
Hypogonadism
MedGen UID:
5711
Concept ID:
C0020619
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased functionality of the gonad.
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
Follow this link to review classifications for Microcephaly, epilepsy, and diabetes syndrome in Orphanet.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Manole A, Efthymiou S, O'Connor E, Mendes MI, Jennings M, Maroofian R, Davagnanam I, Mankad K, Lopez MR, Salpietro V, Harripaul R, Badalato L, Walia J, Francklyn CS, Athanasiou-Fragkouli A, Sullivan R, Desai S, Baranano K, Zafar F, Rana N, Ilyas M, Horga A, Kara M, Mattioli F, Goldenberg A, Griffin H, Piton A, Henderson LB, Kara B, Aslanger AD, Raaphorst J, Pfundt R, Portier R, Shinawi M, Kirby A, Christensen KM, Wang L, Rosti RO, Paracha SA, Sarwar MT, Jenkins D; SYNAPS Study Group, Ahmed J, Santoni FA, Ranza E, Iwaszkiewicz J, Cytrynbaum C, Weksberg R, Wentzensen IM, Guillen Sacoto MJ, Si Y, Telegrafi A, Andrews MV, Baldridge D, Gabriel H, Mohr J, Oehl-Jaschkowitz B, Debard S, Senger B, Fischer F, van Ravenwaaij C, Fock AJM, Stevens SJC, Bähler J, Nasar A, Mantovani JF, Manzur A, Sarkozy A, Smith DEC, Salomons GS, Ahmed ZM, Riazuddin S, Riazuddin S, Usmani MA, Seibt A, Ansar M, Antonarakis SE, Vincent JB, Ayub M, Grimmel M, Jelsig AM, Hjortshøj TD, Karstensen HG, Hummel M, Haack TB, Jamshidi Y, Distelmaier F, Horvath R, Gleeson JG, Becker H, Mandel JL, Koolen DA, Houlden H
Am J Hum Genet 2020 Aug 6;107(2):311-324. Epub 2020 Jul 31 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.06.016. PMID: 32738225Free PMC Article
Perenthaler E, Nikoncuk A, Yousefi S, Berdowski WM, Alsagob M, Capo I, van der Linde HC, van den Berg P, Jacobs EH, Putar D, Ghazvini M, Aronica E, van IJcken WFJ, de Valk WG, Medici-van den Herik E, van Slegtenhorst M, Brick L, Kozenko M, Kohler JN, Bernstein JA, Monaghan KG, Begtrup A, Torene R, Al Futaisi A, Al Murshedi F, Mani R, Al Azri F, Kamsteeg EJ, Mojarrad M, Eslahi A, Khazaei Z, Darmiyan FM, Doosti M, Karimiani EG, Vandrovcova J, Zafar F, Rana N, Kandaswamy KK, Hertecant J, Bauer P, AlMuhaizea MA, Salih MA, Aldosary M, Almass R, Al-Quait L, Qubbaj W, Coskun S, Alahmadi KO, Hamad MHA, Alwadaee S, Awartani K, Dababo AM, Almohanna F, Colak D, Dehghani M, Mehrjardi MYV, Gunel M, Ercan-Sencicek AG, Passi GR, Cheema HA, Efthymiou S, Houlden H, Bertoli-Avella AM, Brooks AS, Retterer K, Maroofian R, Kaya N, van Ham TJ, Barakat TS
Acta Neuropathol 2020 Mar;139(3):415-442. Epub 2019 Dec 9 doi: 10.1007/s00401-019-02109-6. PMID: 31820119Free PMC Article
Hawks ZW, Constantino JN
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2020 Feb;59(2):229-235. Epub 2019 Jul 22 doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2019.07.008. PMID: 31344460Free PMC Article
Skopkova M, Hennig F, Shin BS, Turner CE, Stanikova D, Brennerova K, Stanik J, Fischer U, Henden L, Müller U, Steinberger D, Leshinsky-Silver E, Bottani A, Kurdiova T, Ukropec J, Nyitrayova O, Kolnikova M, Klimes I, Borck G, Bahlo M, Haas SA, Kim JR, Lotspeich-Cole LE, Gasperikova D, Dever TE, Kalscheuer VM
Hum Mutat 2017 Apr;38(4):409-425. Epub 2017 Jan 23 doi: 10.1002/humu.23170. PMID: 28055140Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Maroofian R, Kaiyrzhanov R, Cali E, Zamani M, Zaki MS, Ferla M, Tortora D, Sadeghian S, Saadi SM, Abdullah U, Karimiani EG, Efthymiou S, Yeşil G, Alavi S, Al Shamsi AM, Tajsharghi H, Abdel-Hamid MS, Saadi NW, Al Mutairi F, Alabdi L, Beetz C, Ali Z, Toosi MB, Rudnik-Schöneborn S, Babaei M, Isohanni P, Muhammad J, Khan S, Al Shalan M, Hickey SE, Marom D, Elhanan E, Kurian MA, Marafi D, Saberi A, Hamid M, Spaull R, Meng L, Lalani S, Maqbool S, Rahman F, Seeger J, Palculict TB, Lau T, Murphy D, Mencacci NE, Steindl K, Begemann A, Rauch A, Akbas S, Aslanger AD, Salpietro V, Yousaf H, Ben-Shachar S, Ejeskär K, Al Aqeel AI, High FA, Armstrong-Javors AE, Zahraei SM, Seifi T, Zeighami J, Shariati G, Sedaghat A, Asl SN, Shahrooei M, Zifarelli G, Burglen L, Ravelli C, Zschocke J, Schatz UA, Ghavideldarestani M, Kamel WA, Van Esch H, Hackenberg A, Taylor JC, Al-Gazali L, Bauer P, Gleeson JJ, Alkuraya FS, Lupski JR, Galehdari H, Azizimalamiri R, Chung WK, Baig SM, Houlden H, Severino M
Brain 2023 Dec 1;146(12):5031-5043. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad257. PMID: 37517035Free PMC Article
Cuddapah VA, Dubbs HA, Adang L, Kugler SL, McCormick EM, Zolkipli-Cunningham Z, Ortiz-González XR, McCormack S, Zackai E, Licht DJ, Falk MJ, Marsh ED
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Jun;185(6):1700-1711. Epub 2021 Mar 10 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62156. PMID: 33751773Free PMC Article
De Franco E, Lytrivi M, Ibrahim H, Montaser H, Wakeling MN, Fantuzzi F, Patel K, Demarez C, Cai Y, Igoillo-Esteve M, Cosentino C, Lithovius V, Vihinen H, Jokitalo E, Laver TW, Johnson MB, Sawatani T, Shakeri H, Pachera N, Haliloglu B, Ozbek MN, Unal E, Yıldırım R, Godbole T, Yildiz M, Aydin B, Bilheu A, Suzuki I, Flanagan SE, Vanderhaeghen P, Senée V, Julier C, Marchetti P, Eizirik DL, Ellard S, Saarimäki-Vire J, Otonkoski T, Cnop M, Hattersley AT
J Clin Invest 2020 Dec 1;130(12):6338-6353. doi: 10.1172/JCI141455. PMID: 33164986Free PMC Article
Cnop M, Toivonen S, Igoillo-Esteve M, Salpea P
Mol Metab 2017 Sep;6(9):1024-1039. Epub 2017 Jul 12 doi: 10.1016/j.molmet.2017.06.001. PMID: 28951826Free PMC Article
Valenzuela I, Boronat S, Martínez-Sáez E, Clemente M, Sánchez-Montañez Á, Munell F, Carrascosa A, Macaya A
Eur J Med Genet 2017 Oct;60(10):517-520. Epub 2017 Jul 12 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2017.07.007. PMID: 28711742

Therapy

Mori M, Kumada T, Inoue K, Nozaki F, Matsui K, Maruo Y, Yamada M, Suzuki H, Kosaki K, Shibata M
Brain Dev 2021 Jun;43(6):724-728. Epub 2021 Mar 11 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2021.02.002. PMID: 33714664
al Rajeh S, Bademosi O, Ismail H, Awada A, Dawodu A, al-Freihi H, Assuhaimi S, Borollosi M, al-Shammasi S
Neuroepidemiology 1993;12(3):164-78. doi: 10.1159/000110316. PMID: 8272177

Prognosis

Rjiba K, Soyah N, Kammoun M, Hadj Hmida I, Saad A, Mcelreavey K, Mougou-Zerelli S
Eur J Med Genet 2021 Sep;64(9):104285. Epub 2021 Jul 3 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2021.104285. PMID: 34229114
Mori M, Kumada T, Inoue K, Nozaki F, Matsui K, Maruo Y, Yamada M, Suzuki H, Kosaki K, Shibata M
Brain Dev 2021 Jun;43(6):724-728. Epub 2021 Mar 11 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2021.02.002. PMID: 33714664
Stanik J, Skopkova M, Stanikova D, Brennerova K, Barak L, Ticha L, Hornova J, Klimes I, Gasperikova D
Physiol Res 2018 May 4;67(2):331-337. Epub 2018 Jan 5 doi: 10.33549/physiolres.933689. PMID: 29303605
Shalev SA, Tenenbaum-Rakover Y, Horovitz Y, Paz VP, Ye H, Carmody D, Highland HM, Boerwinkle E, Hanis CL, Muzny DM, Gibbs RA, Bell GI, Philipson LH, Greeley SA
Pediatr Diabetes 2014 May;15(3):252-6. Epub 2013 Oct 21 doi: 10.1111/pedi.12086. PMID: 24138066Free PMC Article
Poulton CJ, Schot R, Kia SK, Jones M, Verheijen FW, Venselaar H, de Wit MC, de Graaff E, Bertoli-Avella AM, Mancini GM
Am J Hum Genet 2011 Aug 12;89(2):265-76. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.07.006. PMID: 21835305Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Maroofian R, Kaiyrzhanov R, Cali E, Zamani M, Zaki MS, Ferla M, Tortora D, Sadeghian S, Saadi SM, Abdullah U, Karimiani EG, Efthymiou S, Yeşil G, Alavi S, Al Shamsi AM, Tajsharghi H, Abdel-Hamid MS, Saadi NW, Al Mutairi F, Alabdi L, Beetz C, Ali Z, Toosi MB, Rudnik-Schöneborn S, Babaei M, Isohanni P, Muhammad J, Khan S, Al Shalan M, Hickey SE, Marom D, Elhanan E, Kurian MA, Marafi D, Saberi A, Hamid M, Spaull R, Meng L, Lalani S, Maqbool S, Rahman F, Seeger J, Palculict TB, Lau T, Murphy D, Mencacci NE, Steindl K, Begemann A, Rauch A, Akbas S, Aslanger AD, Salpietro V, Yousaf H, Ben-Shachar S, Ejeskär K, Al Aqeel AI, High FA, Armstrong-Javors AE, Zahraei SM, Seifi T, Zeighami J, Shariati G, Sedaghat A, Asl SN, Shahrooei M, Zifarelli G, Burglen L, Ravelli C, Zschocke J, Schatz UA, Ghavideldarestani M, Kamel WA, Van Esch H, Hackenberg A, Taylor JC, Al-Gazali L, Bauer P, Gleeson JJ, Alkuraya FS, Lupski JR, Galehdari H, Azizimalamiri R, Chung WK, Baig SM, Houlden H, Severino M
Brain 2023 Dec 1;146(12):5031-5043. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad257. PMID: 37517035Free PMC Article
Rjiba K, Soyah N, Kammoun M, Hadj Hmida I, Saad A, Mcelreavey K, Mougou-Zerelli S
Eur J Med Genet 2021 Sep;64(9):104285. Epub 2021 Jul 3 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2021.104285. PMID: 34229114
Ghosh SG, Scala M, Beetz C, Helman G, Stanley V, Yang X, Breuss MW, Mazaheri N, Selim L, Hadipour F, Pais L, Stutterd CA, Karageorgou V, Begtrup A, Crunk A, Juusola J, Willaert R, Flore LA, Kennelly K, Spencer C, Brown M, Trapane P, Hurst ACE, Lane Rutledge S, Goodloe DH, McDonald MT, Shashi V, Schoch K; Undiagnosed Diseases Network, Tomoum H, Zaitoun R, Hadipour Z, Galehdari H, Pagnamenta AT, Mojarrad M, Sedaghat A, Dias P, Quintas S, Eslahi A, Shariati G, Bauer P, Simons C, Houlden H, Issa MY, Zaki MS, Maroofian R, Gleeson JG
Eur J Hum Genet 2021 Feb;29(2):271-279. Epub 2020 Sep 8 doi: 10.1038/s41431-020-00717-5. PMID: 32901138Free PMC Article
Kotzaeridou U, Young-Baird SK, Suckow V, Thornburg AG, Wagner M, Harting I, Christ S, Strom T, Dever TE, Kalscheuer VM
Clin Genet 2020 Nov;98(5):507-514. Epub 2020 Sep 4 doi: 10.1111/cge.13831. PMID: 32799315Free PMC Article
Poulton CJ, Schot R, Kia SK, Jones M, Verheijen FW, Venselaar H, de Wit MC, de Graaff E, Bertoli-Avella AM, Mancini GM
Am J Hum Genet 2011 Aug 12;89(2):265-76. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.07.006. PMID: 21835305Free PMC Article

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