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Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis(FSGS)

MedGen UID:
4904
Concept ID:
C0017668
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Focal sclerosis with hyalinosis; FSGS; Glomerulosclerosis, focal
SNOMED CT: FGS - Focal glomerulosclerosis (25821008); FSGS - Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (236403004); Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (236403004); Focal glomerular sclerosis (25821008); Focal glomerulosclerosis (25821008)
 
Related genes: CRB2, INF2, ANLN, CD2AP, APOL1, TRPC6, PAX2, MYO1E, LMX1B, ACTN4
 
HPO: HP:0000097
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0100313

Definition

Segmental accumulation of scar tissue in individual (but not all) glomeruli. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Glucose-6-phosphate transport defect
MedGen UID:
78644
Concept ID:
C0268146
Disease or Syndrome
Glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI) is characterized by accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver and kidneys resulting in hepatomegaly and nephromegaly. Severely affected infants present in the neonatal period with severe hypoglycemia due to fasting intolerance. More commonly, untreated infants present at age three to four months with hepatomegaly, severe hypoglycemia with or without seizures, lactic acidosis, hyperuricemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Affected children typically have doll-like faces with full cheeks, relatively thin extremities, short stature, and a protuberant abdomen. Xanthoma and diarrhea may be present. Impaired platelet function and development of reduced or dysfunctional von Willebrand factor can lead to a bleeding tendency with frequent epistaxis and menorrhagia in females. Individuals with untreated GSDIb are more likely to develop impaired neutrophil and monocyte function as well as chronic neutropenia resulting in recurrent bacterial infections, gingivitis, periodontitis, and genital and intestinal ulcers. Long-term complications of untreated GSDI include short stature, osteoporosis, delayed puberty, renal disease (including proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, renal stones, and renal failure), gout, systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, hepatic adenomas with potential for malignancy, pancreatitis, and polycystic ovaries. Seizures and cognitive impairment may occur in individuals with prolonged periods of hypoglycemia. Normal growth and puberty are expected in treated children. Most affected individuals live into adulthood.
Phosphate transport defect
MedGen UID:
87455
Concept ID:
C0342749
Disease or Syndrome
Glycogenosis due to glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P) type b, or glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1b, is a type of glycogenosis due to G6P deficiency (see this term).
Nail-patella-like renal disease
MedGen UID:
140789
Concept ID:
C0403548
Disease or Syndrome
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis-10 (FSGS10) is an autosomal dominant kidney disease characterized by isolated glomerulopathy without extrarenal manifestations. In particular, affected individuals do not have other signs of NPS. The renal disease is highly variable in severity and pathology, even within the same family. Most patients present in the first decades of life with proteinuria and hematuria, although onset of symptoms can manifest at any age, including late adulthood. Some patients progress to end-stage renal disease, whereas others have a stable disease course. Light microscopic analysis of renal biopsies shows a constellation of glomerular abnormalities, including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), minimal change disease (MCD), and, rarely, immune complex nephropathy. Electron microscopy characteristically shows an irregular thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) with electron-lucent areas containing accumulated bundles of type III collagen fibrils. The collagen deposition usually occurs in endothelial cells of the GBM; partial effacement of podocyte foot processes may also be present. These specific pathologic findings are similar to those observed in NPS patients with nephropathy. However, these findings may not always be present, which may make the diagnosis challenging (summary by Hall et al., 2017, Lei et al., 2020; review by Harita et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FSGS, see FSGS1 (603278).
Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome
MedGen UID:
155629
Concept ID:
C0751779
Disease or Syndrome
The action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome, also known as progressive myclonic epilepsy-4 with or without renal failure (EPM4), is an autosomal recessive progressive myoclonic epilepsy associated with renal failure. Cognitive function is preserved (Badhwar et al., 2004). Some patients do not develop renal failure (Dibbens et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive myoclonic epilepsy, see EPM1A (254800).
Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia
MedGen UID:
164078
Concept ID:
C0877024
Congenital Abnormality
Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SIOD) is characterized by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) resulting in short stature, nephropathy, and T-cell deficiency. Radiographic manifestations of SED include ovoid and mildly flattened vertebral bodies, small ilia with shallow dysplastic acetabular fossae, and small deformed capital femoral epiphyses. Nearly all affected individuals have progressive steroid-resistant nephropathy, usually developing within five years of the diagnosis of growth failure and terminating with end-stage renal disease. The majority of tested individuals have T-cell deficiency and an associated risk for opportunistic infection, a common cause of death. SIOD involves a spectrum that ranges from an infantile or severe early-onset form with a greater risk of death during childhood to a juvenile or milder later-onset form with likely survival into adulthood if renal disease is appropriately treated.
Drash syndrome
MedGen UID:
181980
Concept ID:
C0950121
Disease or Syndrome
WT1 disorder is characterized by congenital/infantile or childhood onset of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a progressive glomerulopathy that does not respond to standard steroid therapy. Additional common findings can include disorders of testicular development (with or without abnormalities of the external genitalia and/or müllerian structures) and Wilms tumor. Less common findings are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gonadoblastoma. While various combinations of renal and other findings associated with a WT1 pathogenic variant were designated as certain syndromes in the past, those designations are now recognized to be part of a phenotypic continuum and are no longer clinically helpful.
Frasier syndrome
MedGen UID:
215533
Concept ID:
C0950122
Disease or Syndrome
WT1 disorder is characterized by congenital/infantile or childhood onset of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a progressive glomerulopathy that does not respond to standard steroid therapy. Additional common findings can include disorders of testicular development (with or without abnormalities of the external genitalia and/or müllerian structures) and Wilms tumor. Less common findings are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gonadoblastoma. While various combinations of renal and other findings associated with a WT1 pathogenic variant were designated as certain syndromes in the past, those designations are now recognized to be part of a phenotypic continuum and are no longer clinically helpful.
Proteinuria, low molecular weight, with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis
MedGen UID:
333426
Concept ID:
C1839874
Disease or Syndrome
Low molecular weight proteinuria with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is a form of X-linked hypercalciuric nephrocalcinosis, a group of disorders characterized by proximal renal tubular reabsorptive failure, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal insufficiency. These disorders have also been referred to as the 'Dent disease complex' (Scheinman, 1998; Gambaro et al., 2004). For a general discussion of Dent disease, see 300009.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 3, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
335850
Concept ID:
C1842982
Finding
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pathologic entity associated clinically with proteinuria, the nephrotic syndrome (NPHS), and progressive loss of renal function. It is a common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (Meyrier, 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome, see FSGS1 (603278).
Nephrotic syndrome, type 3
MedGen UID:
377831
Concept ID:
C1853124
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome, a malfunction of the glomerular filter, is characterized clinically by proteinuria, edema, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Renal histopathology may show diffuse mesangial sclerosis (DMS) or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (Hinkes et al., 2006). Most patients with NPHS3 show diffuse mesangial sclerosis on renal biopsy, which is a pathologic entity characterized by mesangial matrix expansion with no mesangial hypercellularity, hypertrophy of the podocytes, vacuolized podocytes, thickened basement membranes, and diminished patency of the capillary lumen (Gbadegesin et al., 2008). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome and FSGS, see NPHS1 (256300).
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 2
MedGen UID:
349053
Concept ID:
C1858915
Disease or Syndrome
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pathologic entity associated clinically with proteinuria, the nephrotic syndrome (NPHS), and progressive loss of renal function. It is a common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (review by Meyrier, 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome (NPHS), see FSGS1 (603278).
Spastic paraplegia-nephritis-deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
355816
Concept ID:
C1866853
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-nephritis-deafness syndrome is a complex form of hereditary spastic paraplegia characterized by progressive, variable spastic paraplegia associated with bilateral sensorineural deafness, intellectual disability, and progressive nephropathy. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1988.
Nephrotic syndrome, type 2
MedGen UID:
358380
Concept ID:
C1868672
Disease or Syndrome
Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome type 2 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by childhood onset of proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and edema. Kidney biopsies show nonspecific histologic changes such as minimal change, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and diffuse mesangial proliferation. The disorder is resistant to steroid treatment and progresses to end-stage renal failure in the first or second decades (summary by Fuchshuber et al., 1996). Some patients show later onset of the disorder (Tsukaguchi et al., 2002). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome and FSGS, see NPHS1 (256300).
Alagille syndrome due to a JAG1 point mutation
MedGen UID:
365434
Concept ID:
C1956125
Disease or Syndrome
Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is a multisystem disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical variability; this variability is seen even among individuals from the same family. The major clinical manifestations of ALGS are bile duct paucity on liver biopsy, cholestasis, congenital cardiac defects (primarily involving the pulmonary arteries), butterfly vertebrae, ophthalmologic abnormalities (most commonly posterior embryotoxon), and characteristic facial features. Renal abnormalities, growth failure, developmental delays, splenomegaly, and vascular abnormalities may also occur.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 4, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
390820
Concept ID:
C2675525
Finding
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pathologic entity associated clinically with proteinuria, the nephrotic syndrome (NPHS), and progressive loss of renal function. It is a common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (Meyrier, 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome, see FSGS1 (603278).
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 5
MedGen UID:
413315
Concept ID:
C2750475
Disease or Syndrome
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pathologic entity associated clinically with proteinuria, the nephrotic syndrome (NPHS), and progressive loss of renal function. It is a common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (Meyrier, 2005). Dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease E and focal segmental glomerulonephritis (CMTDIE; 614455) is also caused by heterozygous mutation in the INF2 gene. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome, see FSGS1 (603278).
Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy type 2
MedGen UID:
414347
Concept ID:
C2751310
Disease or Syndrome
The two clinical presentations observed in autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease – REN (ADTKD-REN) correlate with the renin protein domains affected by the causative REN variants. Childhood/adolescent onset, the more common presentation (caused by REN variants encoding the signal peptide or prosegment domains), is characterized by decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate, acidosis, hyperkalemia, and anemia early in life, followed by slowly progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) and gout. Adult onset, the less common presentation (caused by REN variants encoding the mature renin peptide), is characterized by gout or mild slowly progressive CKD, beginning in the third decade. Anemia, hyperkalemia, and acidemia do not occur.
Glycogen storage disease due to glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency type IA
MedGen UID:
415885
Concept ID:
C2919796
Disease or Syndrome
Glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI) is characterized by accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver and kidneys resulting in hepatomegaly and nephromegaly. Severely affected infants present in the neonatal period with severe hypoglycemia due to fasting intolerance. More commonly, untreated infants present at age three to four months with hepatomegaly, severe hypoglycemia with or without seizures, lactic acidosis, hyperuricemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Affected children typically have doll-like faces with full cheeks, relatively thin extremities, short stature, and a protuberant abdomen. Xanthoma and diarrhea may be present. Impaired platelet function and development of reduced or dysfunctional von Willebrand factor can lead to a bleeding tendency with frequent epistaxis and menorrhagia in females. Individuals with untreated GSDIb are more likely to develop impaired neutrophil and monocyte function as well as chronic neutropenia resulting in recurrent bacterial infections, gingivitis, periodontitis, and genital and intestinal ulcers. Long-term complications of untreated GSDI include short stature, osteoporosis, delayed puberty, renal disease (including proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, renal stones, and renal failure), gout, systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, hepatic adenomas with potential for malignancy, pancreatitis, and polycystic ovaries. Seizures and cognitive impairment may occur in individuals with prolonged periods of hypoglycemia. Normal growth and puberty are expected in treated children. Most affected individuals live into adulthood.
Nephrotic syndrome, type 4
MedGen UID:
462918
Concept ID:
C3151568
Disease or Syndrome
WT1 disorder is characterized by congenital/infantile or childhood onset of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a progressive glomerulopathy that does not respond to standard steroid therapy. Additional common findings can include disorders of testicular development (with or without abnormalities of the external genitalia and/or müllerian structures) and Wilms tumor. Less common findings are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gonadoblastoma. While various combinations of renal and other findings associated with a WT1 pathogenic variant were designated as certain syndromes in the past, those designations are now recognized to be part of a phenotypic continuum and are no longer clinically helpful.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 6
MedGen UID:
481535
Concept ID:
C3279905
Disease or Syndrome
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis-6 is an autosomal recessive childhood-onset kidney disorder manifest clinically by the nephrotic syndrome, which is characterized by proteinuria, hematuria, hypoalbuminemia, and progressive renal failure. It is a disease of the glomerular podocyte (summary by Mele et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome, see FSGS1 (603278).
Nephrotic syndrome, type 6
MedGen UID:
481730
Concept ID:
C3280100
Disease or Syndrome
The nephrotic syndrome refers to a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema, resulting in end-stage kidney disease if untreated. Inherited defects in podocyte structure and function have been observed in some children with the steroid-resistant subtype of nephrotic syndrome (summary by Ozaltin et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300).
Coenzyme Q10 deficiency, primary, 1
MedGen UID:
764868
Concept ID:
C3551954
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Familial steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome with sensorineural deafness
MedGen UID:
766263
Concept ID:
C3553349
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Nephrotic syndrome, type 9
MedGen UID:
816295
Concept ID:
C3809965
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome type 9 (NPHS9) is an autosomal recessive chronic kidney disorder characterized by significant proteinuria resulting in hypoalbuminemia and edema. Onset is in the first or second decade of life. The disorder is steroid treatment-resistant and usually progresses to end-stage renal disease requiring transplantation. Renal biopsy shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) or collapsing FSGS (summary by Ashraf et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome and FSGS, see NPHS1 (256300).
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 7
MedGen UID:
863362
Concept ID:
C4014925
Disease or Syndrome
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is a form of kidney injury defined by partial sclerosis of some, but not all, glomeruli. It is characterized clinically by significant proteinuria with or without features of nephrotic syndrome. Some patients develop end-stage renal disease (summary by Barua et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome, see FSGS1 (603278).
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 8
MedGen UID:
863430
Concept ID:
C4014993
Disease or Syndrome
Any focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ANLN gene.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 9
MedGen UID:
863992
Concept ID:
C4015555
Disease or Syndrome
Any focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CRB2 gene.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 24
MedGen UID:
864080
Concept ID:
C4015643
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-24 (COXPD24) is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder with wide phenotypic variability. Most patients present in infancy with delayed neurodevelopment, refractory seizures, hypotonia, and hearing impairment due to auditory neuropathy. Less common features may include cortical blindness, renal dysfunction, and/or liver involvement, suggestive of Alpers syndrome (MTDPS4A; 203700). Patients with the severe phenotype tend to have brain abnormalities on imaging, including cerebral atrophy and hyperintensities in the basal ganglia and brainstem, consistent with Leigh syndrome. Laboratory values may be normal or show increased lactate and evidence of mitochondrial respiratory chain defects, particularly in muscle. Some patients achieve little developmental milestones and may die in infancy or early childhood. However, some patients have a less severe phenotype manifest only by myopathy (summary by Sofou et al., 2015, Vanlander et al., 2015, and Mizuguchi et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Nephrotic syndrome, type 13
MedGen UID:
900240
Concept ID:
C4225165
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome type 13 is a steroid-resistant form of nephrotic syndrome with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (Braun et al., 2016).
Nephrotic syndrome, type 12
MedGen UID:
904365
Concept ID:
C4225166
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome type 12 (NPHS12) is an autosomal recessive renal disorder caused by defects in the renal glomerular filter. Affected individuals have onset of progressive renal failure in the first years of life. Renal biopsy typically shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (summary by Braun et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300).
Nephrotic syndrome, type 11
MedGen UID:
898622
Concept ID:
C4225228
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome type 11 (NPHS11) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the kidney with onset in the first decade of life. The disorder is progressive and usually results in end-stage renal disease necessitating renal transplantation, although some patients may have a slightly milder phenotype (Miyake et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease dominant intermediate E
MedGen UID:
928336
Concept ID:
C4302667
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease E with focal segmental glomerulonephritis is characterized by the neurologic features of CMT, including distal muscle weakness and atrophy and distal sensory loss, and the features of FSGS, including proteinuria, progression to end-stage renal disease, and a characteristic histologic pattern on renal biopsy (summary by Boyer et al., 2011). Isolated focal segmental glomerulosclerosis-5 (FSGS5; 613237) is also caused by heterozygous mutation in the INF2 gene. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMTDI, see 606482.
Mucopolysaccharidosis-plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
934594
Concept ID:
C4310627
Disease or Syndrome
MPSPS is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism resulting in a multisystem disorder with features of the mucopolysaccharidosis lysosomal storage diseases (see, e.g., 607016). Patients present in infancy or early childhood with respiratory difficulties, cardiac problems, anemia, dysostosis multiplex, renal involvement, coarse facies, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients die of cardiorespiratory failure in the first years of life (summary by Kondo et al., 2017).
Hyperuricemic nephropathy, familial juvenile type 4
MedGen UID:
934708
Concept ID:
C4310741
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease-5 (ADTKD5) is characterized by the onset of progressive chronic renal disease in the first decades of life. Mild hyperuricemia may be present, but gout, hypertension, and proteinuria are usually absent. The disease may be associated with anemia or neutropenia. Some patients may have additional findings, including poor overall growth and impaired cognitive function. Renal biopsy shows tubulointerstitial abnormalities with atrophic tubules and fibrosis; secondary glomerular abnormalities and simple cysts may also be present (summary by Bolar et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity and revised nomenclature of ADTKD, see ADTKD1 (162000).
Pidermolysis bullosa, junctional 7, with interstitial lung disease and nephrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
1388385
Concept ID:
C4518785
Disease or Syndrome
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa-7 with interstitial lung disease and nephrotic syndrome (JEB7), also known as ILNEB, is an autosomal recessive multiorgan disorder that includes congenital interstitial lung disease, nephrotic syndrome, and epidermolysis bullosa. The respiratory and renal features predominate, and lung involvement accounts for the lethal course of the disease (summary by Has et al., 2012).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 2, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1625619
Concept ID:
C4538784
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a renal-neurologic disease characterized by early-onset nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly, gyral abnormalities of the brain, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients have dysmorphic facial features, often including hypertelorism, ear abnormalities, and micrognathia. Other features, such as arachnodactyly and visual impairment, are more variable. Most patients die in the first years of life (summary by Braun et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1613511
Concept ID:
C4540270
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a renal-neurologic disease characterized by early-onset nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly, gyral abnormalities, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients have dysmorphic facial features, often including hypertelorism, ear abnormalities, and micrognathia. Other features, such as arachnodactyly and visual impairment, are more variable. Most patients die in the first years of life (summary by Braun et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
1617227
Concept ID:
C4540274
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a renal-neurologic disease characterized by early-onset nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly, gyral abnormalities, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients have dysmorphic facial features, often including hypertelorism and ear abnormalities. Other features, such as arachnodactyly and visual or hearing impairment, are more variable. Most patients die in the first years of life (summary by Braun et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Nephrotic syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
1617660
Concept ID:
C4540559
Disease or Syndrome
Sphingosine phosphate lyase insufficiency syndrome (SPLIS) is characterized by varying combinations of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (ranging from nonimmune fetal hydrops to adolescent onset), primary adrenal insufficiency (with or without mineralocorticoid deficiency), testicular insufficiency, hypothyroidism, ichthyosis, lymphopenia/immunodeficiency, and neurologic abnormalities that can include developmental delay, regression / progressive neurologic involvement, cranial nerve deficits, and peripheral motor and sensory neuropathy.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 1
MedGen UID:
1636833
Concept ID:
C4551527
Disease or Syndrome
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pathologic finding in several renal disorders that manifest clinically as proteinuria and progressive decline in renal function. Some patients with FSGS develop the clinical entity called 'nephrotic syndrome' (see NPHS1; 256300), which includes massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and edema. However, patients with FSGS may have proteinuria in the nephrotic range without other features of the nephrotic syndrome (summary by D'Agati et al., 2004; Mathis et al., 1998). D'Agati et al. (2011) provided a detailed review of FSGS, emphasizing that the disorder results from defects of the podocyte. Because of confusion in the literature regarding use of the terms 'nephrotic syndrome' and 'focal segmental glomerulosclerosis' (see NOMENCLATURE section), these disorders in OMIM are classified as NPHS or FSGS according to how they were first designated in the literature. Genetic Heterogeneity of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Nephrotic Syndrome Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome are genetically heterogeneous disorders representing a spectrum of hereditary renal diseases. See also FSGS2 (603965), caused by mutation in the TRPC6 gene (603652); FSGS3 (607832), associated with variation in the CD2AP gene (604241); FSGS4 (612551), mapped to chromosome 22q12; FSGS5 (613237), caused by mutation in the INF2 gene (610982); FSGS6 (614131), caused by mutation in the MYO1E gene (601479); FSGS7 (616002), caused by mutation in the PAX2 gene (167409); FSGS8 (616032), caused by mutation in the ANLN gene (616027); FSGS9 (616220), caused by mutation in the CRB2 gene (609720); and FSGS10 (256020), caused by mutation in the LMX1B gene (602575). See also NPHS1 (256300), caused by mutation in the NPHS1 gene (602716); NPHS2 (600995), caused by mutation in the podocin gene (604766); NPHS3 (610725), caused by mutation in the PLCE1 gene (608414); NPHS4 (256370), caused by mutation in the WT1 gene (607102); NPHS5 (614199), caused by mutation in the LAMB2 gene (150325); NPHS6 (614196), caused by mutation in the PTPRO gene (600579); NPHS7 (615008), caused by mutation in the DGKE gene (601440); NPHS8 (615244), caused by mutation in the ARHGDIA gene (601925); NPHS9 (615573), caused by mutation in the COQ8B gene (615567); NPHS10 (615861), caused by mutation in the EMP2 gene (602334); NPHS11 (616730), caused by mutation in the NUP107 gene (607617); NPHS12 (616892), caused by mutation in the NUP93 gene (614351); NPHS13 (616893), caused by mutation in the NUP205 gene (614352); NPHS14 (617575), caused by mutation in the SGPL1 gene (603729); NPHS15 (617609), caused by mutation in the MAGI2 gene (606382); NPHS16 (617783), caused by mutation in the KANK2 gene (614610), NPHS17 (618176), caused by mutation in the NUP85 gene (170285); NPHS18 (618177), caused by mutation in the NUP133 gene (607613); NPHS19 (618178), caused by mutation in the NUP160 gene (607614); NPHS20 (301028), caused by mutation in the TBC1D8B gene (301027); and NPHS21 (618594) caused by mutation in the AVIL gene (613397).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1634188
Concept ID:
C4551772
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome, type 17
MedGen UID:
1648294
Concept ID:
C4748545
Disease or Syndrome
NPHS17, a disease of the renal glomerular filter, is characterized by proteinuria, edema, and hypoalbuminemia. It does not respond to drug treatment and inevitably progresses to end-stage renal disease, thus requiring dialysis or renal transplantation for survival. Renal histology shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (Braun et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300).
Nephrotic syndrome, type 18
MedGen UID:
1648464
Concept ID:
C4748549
Disease or Syndrome
NPHS18, a disease of the renal glomerular filter, is characterized by proteinuria, edema, and hypoalbuminemia. It does not respond to drug treatment and inevitably progresses to end-stage renal disease, thus requiring dialysis or renal transplantation for survival. Renal histology shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (Braun et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300).
Nephrotic syndrome, type 19
MedGen UID:
1648305
Concept ID:
C4748552
Disease or Syndrome
NPHS19, a disease of the renal glomerular filter, is characterized by proteinuria, edema, and hypoalbuminemia. It does not respond to drug treatment and inevitably progresses to end-stage renal disease, thus requiring dialysis or renal transplantation for survival. Renal histology shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (summary by Braun et al., 2018).
Nephrotic syndrome, type 20
MedGen UID:
1678854
Concept ID:
C5193011
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome type 20 (NPHS20) is an X-linked renal disorder characterized by onset of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and proteinuria in the first decade of life in affected males. The course of the disorder is highly variable: some patients progress to end-stage kidney disease and may die in childhood without renal transplantation, whereas others have milder symptoms and maintain normal renal function. Carrier females may have a milder disorder with proteinuria or may be unaffected. Renal biopsy typically shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and effacement of podocyte foot processes (summary by Dorval et al., 2019 and Kampf et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
1674560
Concept ID:
C5193043
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder characterized by neurodevelopmental defects combined with renal-glomerular disease manifest as nephrotic syndrome and proteinuria. Most patients with GAMOS6 also have growth deficiency with variable microcephaly, and the renal disease may be age-dependent. Additional variable endocrine abnormalities have also been reported (summary by Braun et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
1679283
Concept ID:
C5193044
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome-7 (GAMOS7) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by developmental delay, microcephaly, and early-onset nephrotic syndrome (summary by Rosti et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
1675829
Concept ID:
C5193045
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome-8 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired psychomotor development, poor overall growth with microcephaly, and early-onset progressive nephrotic syndrome associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on renal biopsy. Some patients may have seizures, and some may die in childhood (summary by Fujita et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Mandibuloacral dysplasia progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
1741713
Concept ID:
C5436867
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibuloacral dysplasia progeroid syndrome (MDPS) is an autosomal recessive severe laminopathy-like disorder characterized by growth retardation, bone resorption, arterial calcification, renal glomerulosclerosis, and hypertension (Elouej et al., 2020).
Nephrotic syndrome, type 23
MedGen UID:
1787011
Concept ID:
C5543092
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome type 23 (NPHS23) is an autosomal recessive renal disorder characterized by the onset of proteinuria in the first or second decade of life. The outcome is variable: some patients have normal renal function after many years, whereas others may progress to chronic kidney disease. Renal biopsy shows mesangial hypercellularity, consistent with minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and effacement of podocyte foot processes (summary by Solanki et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome and FSGS, see NPHS1 (256300).
Nephrotic syndrome, type 24
MedGen UID:
1781068
Concept ID:
C5543267
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome type 24 (NPHS24) is an autosomal recessive renal disorder characterized by onset of proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia in early childhood, although onset in the second decade has been reported. Additional features include edema and hyperlipidemia. The disorder is slowly progressive, and most patients eventually develop end-stage renal disease. Renal biopsy shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (summary by Schneider et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
1794226
Concept ID:
C5562016
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome-9 (GAMOS9) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of nephrotic syndrome with proteinuria in infancy or early childhood. The renal disease is slowly progressive, but some affected individuals may develop end-stage renal disease in the first decade. Renal biopsy shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) or diffuse mesangial sclerosis (DMS). Affected individuals also have developmental delay and secondary microcephaly. Additional features may include facial dysmorphism and gastroesophageal reflux. Early death may occur (Arrondel et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Nephrotic syndrome, IIa 26
MedGen UID:
1823994
Concept ID:
C5774221
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome type 26 (NPHS26) is an autosomal recessive renal disorder characterized by onset of proteinuria in the first months or years of life. Other features may include edema and hypoalbuminemia. Renal biopsy shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), diffuse mesangial sclerosis (DMS), abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane, and effacement of podocyte foot processes. There is variability in disease progression and response to treatment: some patients respond to steroids, whereas others show steroid resistance and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (Braun et al., 2019; Taniguchi et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300).
Cataracts, hearing impairment, nephrotic syndrome, and enterocolitis 1
MedGen UID:
1840207
Concept ID:
C5829571
Disease or Syndrome
Cataracts, hearing impairment, nephrotic syndrome, and enterocolitis-1 (CHINE1) is an X-linked syndromic disorder that is phenotypically more severe in males than females. Affected males present with the full constellation of symptoms in early infancy, resulting in death in early childhood. Affected females develop early-onset hearing impairment, often with early-onset cataracts, but only rarely have nephrotic syndrome or proteinuria; they do not have enterocolitis. The variable manifestations in females may be influenced by skewed X-inactivation. Telomeres are shortened, but classic mucocutaneous features of DKCX are not typically observed. CHINE1 is due to a ribosomal pseudouridylation defect (Balogh et al., 2020). See also CHINE2 (620425), caused by mutation in the NOP10 gene (606471).
Cataracts, hearing impairment, nephrotic syndrome, and enterocolitis 2
MedGen UID:
1841226
Concept ID:
C5830590
Disease or Syndrome
Cataracts, hearing impairment, nephrotic syndrome, and enterocolitis-2 (CHINE2) is an autosomal recessive syndromic disorder characterized by onset of this constellation of features in infancy, resulting in death in early childhood. Telomeres are shortened, but classic mucocutaneous features of DKCB1 are not typically observed. CHINE2 is due to a ribosomal pseudouridylation defect (Balogh et al., 2020). See also CHINE1 (301108), caused by mutation in the DKC1 gene (300126).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Rovin BH, Adler SG, Barratt J, Bridoux F, Burdge KA, Chan TM, Cook HT, Fervenza FC, Gibson KL, Glassock RJ, Jayne DRW, Jha V, Liew A, Liu ZH, Mejía-Vilet JM, Nester CM, Radhakrishnan J, Rave EM, Reich HN, Ronco P, Sanders JF, Sethi S, Suzuki Y, Tang SCW, Tesar V, Vivarelli M, Wetzels JFM, Lytvyn L, Craig JC, Tunnicliffe DJ, Howell M, Tonelli MA, Cheung M, Earley A, Floege J
Kidney Int 2021 Oct;100(4):753-779. doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2021.05.015. PMID: 34556300
Downie ML, Gallibois C, Parekh RS, Noone DG
Paediatr Int Child Health 2017 Nov;37(4):248-258. Epub 2017 Sep 15 doi: 10.1080/20469047.2017.1374003. PMID: 28914167
Kodner C
Am Fam Physician 2016 Mar 15;93(6):479-85. PMID: 26977832

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Politano SA, Colbert GB, Hamiduzzaman N
Prim Care 2020 Dec;47(4):597-613. Epub 2020 Sep 26 doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2020.08.002. PMID: 33121631
Shabaka A, Tato Ribera A, Fernández-Juárez G
Nephron 2020;144(9):413-427. Epub 2020 Jul 28 doi: 10.1159/000508099. PMID: 32721952
Wang CS, Greenbaum LA
Pediatr Clin North Am 2019 Feb;66(1):73-85. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2018.08.006. PMID: 30454752
Rosenberg AZ, Kopp JB
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2017 Mar 7;12(3):502-517. Epub 2017 Feb 27 doi: 10.2215/CJN.05960616. PMID: 28242845Free PMC Article
Fogo AB
Nat Rev Nephrol 2015 Feb;11(2):76-87. Epub 2014 Dec 2 doi: 10.1038/nrneph.2014.216. PMID: 25447132Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Politano SA, Colbert GB, Hamiduzzaman N
Prim Care 2020 Dec;47(4):597-613. Epub 2020 Sep 26 doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2020.08.002. PMID: 33121631
Shabaka A, Tato Ribera A, Fernández-Juárez G
Nephron 2020;144(9):413-427. Epub 2020 Jul 28 doi: 10.1159/000508099. PMID: 32721952
Oliva-Damaso N, Payan J, Oliva-Damaso E, Pereda T, Bomback AS
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2019 Sep;26(5):369-375. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2019.08.011. PMID: 31733721Free PMC Article
Wang CS, Greenbaum LA
Pediatr Clin North Am 2019 Feb;66(1):73-85. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2018.08.006. PMID: 30454752
Downie ML, Gallibois C, Parekh RS, Noone DG
Paediatr Int Child Health 2017 Nov;37(4):248-258. Epub 2017 Sep 15 doi: 10.1080/20469047.2017.1374003. PMID: 28914167

Therapy

Hodson EM, Sinha A, Cooper TE
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Feb 28;2(2):CD003233. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003233.pub3. PMID: 35224732Free PMC Article
Troost JP, Trachtman H, Spino C, Kaskel FJ, Friedman A, Moxey-Mims MM, Fine RN, Gassman JJ, Kopp JB, Walsh L, Wang R, Gipson DS
Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Feb;77(2):216-225. Epub 2020 Aug 10 doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2020.04.014. PMID: 32791086Free PMC Article
Shabaka A, Tato Ribera A, Fernández-Juárez G
Nephron 2020;144(9):413-427. Epub 2020 Jul 28 doi: 10.1159/000508099. PMID: 32721952
Wang CS, Greenbaum LA
Pediatr Clin North Am 2019 Feb;66(1):73-85. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2018.08.006. PMID: 30454752
D'Agati VD, Kaskel FJ, Falk RJ
N Engl J Med 2011 Dec 22;365(25):2398-411. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1106556. PMID: 22187987

Prognosis

Troost JP, Trachtman H, Spino C, Kaskel FJ, Friedman A, Moxey-Mims MM, Fine RN, Gassman JJ, Kopp JB, Walsh L, Wang R, Gipson DS
Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Feb;77(2):216-225. Epub 2020 Aug 10 doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2020.04.014. PMID: 32791086Free PMC Article
Karp AM, Gbadegesin RA
Pediatr Nephrol 2017 Sep;32(9):1481-1488. Epub 2016 Jul 29 doi: 10.1007/s00467-016-3456-8. PMID: 27470160Free PMC Article
Caliskan Y, Kiryluk K
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2014 Mar;21(2):205-16. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2013.12.002. PMID: 24602470Free PMC Article
McGrogan A, Franssen CF, de Vries CS
Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011 Feb;26(2):414-30. Epub 2010 Nov 10 doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfq665. PMID: 21068142
Schwimmer JA, Markowitz GS, Valeri A, Appel GB
Semin Nephrol 2003 Mar;23(2):209-18. doi: 10.1053/snep.2003.50019. PMID: 12704581

Clinical prediction guides

Campbell RE, Thurman JM
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2022 Dec;17(12):1823-1834. Epub 2022 Oct 5 doi: 10.2215/CJN.07180622. PMID: 36198505Free PMC Article
Hansrivijit P, Cheungpasitporn W, Thongprayoon C, Ghahramani N
BMC Nephrol 2020 Apr 15;21(1):134. doi: 10.1186/s12882-020-01797-7. PMID: 32293308Free PMC Article
Swanepoel CR, Atta MG, D'Agati VD, Estrella MM, Fogo AB, Naicker S, Post FA, Wearne N, Winkler CA, Cheung M, Wheeler DC, Winkelmayer WC, Wyatt CM; Conference Participants
Kidney Int 2018 Mar;93(3):545-559. Epub 2018 Feb 3 doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2017.11.007. PMID: 29398134Free PMC Article
Trimarchi H, Barratt J, Cattran DC, Cook HT, Coppo R, Haas M, Liu ZH, Roberts IS, Yuzawa Y, Zhang H, Feehally J; IgAN Classification Working Group of the International IgA Nephropathy Network and the Renal Pathology Society; Conference Participants
Kidney Int 2017 May;91(5):1014-1021. Epub 2017 Mar 22 doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2017.02.003. PMID: 28341274
Bose B, Cattran D; Toronto Glomerulonephritis Registry
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2014 Mar;9(3):626-32. Epub 2013 Aug 29 doi: 10.2215/CJN.05810513. PMID: 23990165Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Hodson EM, Sinha A, Cooper TE
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Feb 28;2(2):CD003233. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003233.pub3. PMID: 35224732Free PMC Article
Hansrivijit P, Cheungpasitporn W, Thongprayoon C, Ghahramani N
BMC Nephrol 2020 Apr 15;21(1):134. doi: 10.1186/s12882-020-01797-7. PMID: 32293308Free PMC Article
Liu Y, Shi Y, Ren R, Xie J, Wang W, Chen N
Nephrology (Carlton) 2018 Oct;23 Suppl 4:57-61. doi: 10.1111/nep.13463. PMID: 30298667
Lau EW, Ma PH, Wu X, Chung VC, Wong SY
Ren Fail 2013 Jul;35(6):914-29. Epub 2013 May 28 doi: 10.3109/0886022X.2013.794687. PMID: 23751146
McGrogan A, Franssen CF, de Vries CS
Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011 Feb;26(2):414-30. Epub 2010 Nov 10 doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfq665. PMID: 21068142

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