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Radial head subluxation

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Injury or Poisoning
Synonyms: Radial subluxation; Subluxation of the radial heads
SNOMED CT: Subluxation of radial head (417109008); Pulled elbow (417109008); Goyrand's injury (417109008); Nursemaids' elbow (417109008)
HPO: HP:0003048


Partial dislocation of the head of the radius. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Pallister-Hall syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
GLI3-related Pallister-Hall syndrome (GLI3-PHS) is characterized by a spectrum of anomalies ranging from polydactyly, asymptomatic bifid epiglottis, and hypothalamic hamartoma at the mild end to laryngotracheal cleft with neonatal lethality at the severe end. Individuals with mild GLI3-PHS may be incorrectly diagnosed as having isolated postaxial polydactyly type A. Individuals with GLI3-PHS can have pituitary insufficiency and may die as neonates from undiagnosed and untreated adrenal insufficiency.
CHARGE association
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
CHD7 disorder encompasses the entire phenotypic spectrum of heterozygous CHD7 pathogenic variants that includes CHARGE syndrome as well as subsets of features that comprise the CHARGE syndrome phenotype. The mnemonic CHARGE syndrome, introduced in the premolecular era, stands for coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies (including deafness). Following the identification of the genetic cause of CHD7 disorder, the phenotypic spectrum expanded to include cranial nerve anomalies, vestibular defects, cleft lip and/or palate, hypothyroidism, tracheoesophageal anomalies, brain anomalies, seizures, and renal anomalies. Life expectancy highly depends on the severity of manifestations; mortality can be high in the first few years when severe birth defects (particularly complex heart defects) are present and often complicated by airway and feeding issues. In childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, decreased life expectancy is likely related to a combination of residual heart defects, infections, aspiration or choking, respiratory issues including obstructive and central apnea, and possibly seizures. Despite these complications, the life expectancy for many individuals can be normal.
Mesomelic dwarfism, Nievergelt type
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
A rare primary bone dysplasia characterized by severe mesomelic shortness particularly of the lower limbs with distinctive triangular or rhomboid-shaped tibiae and fibulae, accompanied by bony protuberances and skin dimples. Additional manifestations include radioulnar synostosis, dislocation of the radial head, abnormalities of the hands (such as oligosyndactyly or fusiform-shaped fingers) and feet (pes equinovarus, synostoses of tarsals/metatarsals and phalanges), and dysmorphic facial features.
Calcaneonavicular coalition
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Anatomical Abnormality
A synostosis characterized by the fusion of carpal and tarsal bones, which causes stiffness and immobility of the hands and the feet.
Desbuquois dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Desbuquois dysplasia, which belongs to the multiple dislocation group of disorders, is characterized by dislocations of large joints, severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation, joint laxity, and flat face with prominent eyes. Radiologic features include short long bones with an exaggerated trochanter that gives a 'monkey wrench' appearance to the proximal femur, and advanced carpal and tarsal ossification (summary by Bui et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Desbuquois dysplasia, see DBQD1 (251450).
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity, type 1, with or without fractures
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity type 1 (SEMDJL1) is characterized by vertebral abnormalities and ligamentous laxity that result in spinal misalignment and progressive severe kyphoscoliosis, thoracic asymmetry, and respiratory compromise resulting in early death. Nonaxial skeletal involvement includes elbow deformities with radial head dislocation, dislocated hips, clubfeet, and tapered fingers with spatulate distal phalanges. Many affected children have an oval face, flat midface, prominent eyes with blue sclerae, and a long philtrum. Palatal abnormalities and congenital heart disease are also observed (summary by Smith et al., 1999). Patients with a similar phenotype and fractures have been described (Malfait et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Spondyloepimetaphyseal Dysplasia with Joint Laxity Also see SEMDJL2 (603546), caused by mutation in the KIF22 gene (603213) on chromosome 16p11, and SEMDJL3 (618395), caused by mutation in the EXOC6B gene (607880) on chromosome 2p13.

Recent systematic reviews

Alvara CA, Biedron G, Dunn JC
Hand (N Y) 2022 Jul;17(4):734-739. Epub 2020 Oct 14 doi: 10.1177/1558944720944261. PMID: 35815367Free PMC Article
Bexkens R, Washburn FJ, Eygendaal D, van den Bekerom MP, Oh LS
Am J Emerg Med 2017 Jan;35(1):159-163. Epub 2016 Nov 2 doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2016.10.059. PMID: 27836316

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