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Dry skin

MedGen UID:
56250
Concept ID:
C0151908
Sign or Symptom
Synonym: Xerosis
SNOMED CT: Anhydrotic skin (16386004); Dry skin (16386004)
 
HPO: HP:0000958

Definition

Skin characterized by the lack of natural or normal moisture. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVDry skin

Conditions with this feature

Anhidrosis
MedGen UID:
1550
Concept ID:
C0003028
Disease or Syndrome
Inability to sweat.
Dermatitis, atopic
MedGen UID:
41502
Concept ID:
C0011615
Disease or Syndrome
Atopic dermatitis (ATOD), also known as eczema, is a common chronic pruritic inflammatory skin disease with a strong genetic component. Onset typically occurs during the first 2 years of life (review by Soderhall et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Atopic Dermatitis Many inflammatory diseases, such as atopic eczema, are genetically complex, with multiple alleles at several loci thought to be involved in their pathogenesis. Several susceptibility loci for atopic dermatitis have been identified: ATOD1 on chromosome 3q21, ATOD2 (605803) on chromosome 1q21, ATOD3 (605804) on chromosome 20p, ATOD4 (605805) on chromosome 17q25.3, ATOD5 (603165) on chromosome 13q12-q14, ATOD6 (605845) on chromosome 5q31-q33, ATOD7 (613064) on chromosome 11q13.5, ATOD8 (613518) on chromosome 4q22.1, and ATOD9 (613519) on chromosome 3p24.
Fucosidosis
MedGen UID:
5288
Concept ID:
C0016788
Disease or Syndrome
Fucosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by defective alpha-L-fucosidase with accumulation of fucose in the tissues. Clinical features include angiokeratoma, progressive psychomotor retardation, neurologic signs, coarse facial features, and dysostosis multiplex. Fucosidosis has been classified into 2 major types. Type 1 is characterized by rapid psychomotor regression and severe neurologic deterioration beginning at about 6 months of age, elevated sweat sodium chloride, and death within the first decade of life. Type 2 is characterized by milder psychomotor retardation and neurologic signs, the development of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum, normal sweat salinity, and longer survival (Kousseff et al., 1976).
Hallermann-Streiff syndrome
MedGen UID:
5414
Concept ID:
C0018522
Disease or Syndrome
Hallermann-Streiff syndrome is characterized by a typical skull shape (brachycephaly with frontal bossing), hypotrichosis, microphthalmia, cataracts, beaked nose, micrognathia, skin atrophy, dental anomalies, and proportionate short stature (Hallermann, 1948; Streiff, 1950; Francois, 1958). Mental retardation is present in a minority of cases (Gorlin et al., 1990).
Myxedema
MedGen UID:
6506
Concept ID:
C0027145
Disease or Syndrome
A condition characterized by severe hypothyroidism that is caused by autoimmune thyroid gland disorders, surgical reduction of thyroid tissue, radiation exposure, and viral infections. Signs and symptoms include generalized fatigue, lethargy, increased body weight, pale, edematous and thickened skin, low blood pressure, constipation and cold intolerance.
Phenylketonuria
MedGen UID:
19244
Concept ID:
C0031485
Disease or Syndrome
Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency results in intolerance to the dietary intake of the essential amino acid phenylalanine and produces a spectrum of disorders. The risk of adverse outcome varies based on the degree of PAH deficiency. Without effective therapy, most individuals with severe PAH deficiency, known as classic PKU, develop profound and irreversible intellectual disability. Affected individuals on an unrestricted diet who have phenylalanine levels above normal but below 1,200 µmol/L (20 mg/dL) are at much lower risk for impaired cognitive development in the absence of treatment.
Tangier disease
MedGen UID:
52644
Concept ID:
C0039292
Disease or Syndrome
Tangier disease is characterized by severe deficiency or absence of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the circulation resulting in tissue accumulation of cholesteryl esters throughout the body, particularly in the reticuloendothelial system. The major clinical signs of Tangier disease include hyperplastic yellow-orange tonsils, hepatosplenomegaly, and peripheral neuropathy, which may be either relapsing-remitting or chronic progressive in nature. Rarer complications may include corneal opacities that typically do not affect vision, premature atherosclerotic coronary artery disease occurring in the sixth and seventh decades of life (not usually before age 40 years), and mild hematologic manifestations, such as mild thrombocytopenia, reticulocytosis, stomatocytosis, or hemolytic anemia. The clinical expression of Tangier disease is variable, with some affected individuals only showing biochemical perturbations.
Ichthyosis vulgaris
MedGen UID:
38217
Concept ID:
C0079584
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic characteristics of ichthyosis vulgaris include palmar hyperlinearity, keratosis pilaris, and a fine scale that is most prominent over the lower abdomen, arms, and legs. Marked presentation includes prominent scaling, whereas mild presentation consists of palmar hyperlinearity, keratosis pilaris, and, in some cases, fine scaling (summary by Smith et al., 2006).
Thyroid hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
57720
Concept ID:
C0151516
Disease or Syndrome
Thyroid hypoplasia is a form of thyroid dysgenesis (see this term) characterized by incomplete development of the thyroid gland that results in primary congenital hypothyroidism (see this term), a permanent thyroid deficiency that is present from birth.
Hypohidrotic X-linked ectodermal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
57890
Concept ID:
C0162359
Disease or Syndrome
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by hypotrichosis (sparseness of scalp and body hair), hypohidrosis (reduced ability to sweat), and hypodontia (congenital absence of teeth). The cardinal features of classic HED become obvious during childhood. The scalp hair is thin, lightly pigmented, and slow-growing. Sweating, although present, is greatly deficient, leading to episodes of hyperthermia until the affected individual or family acquires experience with environmental modifications to control temperature. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupt, and at a later-than-average age. Physical growth and psychomotor development are otherwise within normal limits. Mild HED is characterized by mild manifestations of any or all the characteristic features.
Hypothalamic hypothyroidism
MedGen UID:
113137
Concept ID:
C0220998
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hypothyroidism that results from a defect in thyrotropin-releasing hormone activity.
Ectopic thyroid
MedGen UID:
78591
Concept ID:
C0266283
Congenital Abnormality
Thyroid ectopia is a form of thyroid dysgenesis (see this term) characterized by an ectopic location of the thyroid gland that results in primary congenital hypothyroidism (see this term), a permanent thyroid deficiency that is present from birth.
Pineal hyperplasia AND diabetes mellitus syndrome
MedGen UID:
78783
Concept ID:
C0271695
Disease or Syndrome
INSR-related severe syndromic insulin resistance comprises a phenotypic spectrum that is a continuum from the severe phenotype Donohue syndrome (DS) (also known as leprechaunism) to the milder phenotype Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome (RMS). DS at the severe end of the spectrum is characterized by severe insulin resistance (hyperinsulinemia with associated fasting hypoglycemia and postprandial hyperglycemia), severe prenatal growth restriction and postnatal growth failure, hypotonia and developmental delay, characteristic facies, and organomegaly involving heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, and ovaries. Death usually occurs before age one year. RMS at the milder end of the spectrum is characterized by severe insulin resistance that, although not as severe as that of DS, is nonetheless accompanied by fluctuations in blood glucose levels, diabetic ketoacidosis, and – in the second decade – microvascular complications. Findings can range from severe growth delay and intellectual disability to normal growth and development. Facial features can be milder than those of DS. Complications of longstanding hyperglycemia are the most common cause of death. While death usually occurs in the second decade, some affected individuals live longer.
Thyroid agenesis
MedGen UID:
155447
Concept ID:
C0749420
Congenital Abnormality
A rare form of thyroid dysgenesis characterized by complete absence of thyroid tissue that results in primary congenital hypothyroidism, a permanent thyroid deficiency that is present from birth.
Cockayne syndrome B
MedGen UID:
155487
Concept ID:
C0751038
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia).
Cockayne syndrome type A
MedGen UID:
155488
Concept ID:
C0751039
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia).
Odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
208666
Concept ID:
C0796093
Disease or Syndrome
Odontoonychodermal dysplasia (OODD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by dry hair, severe hypodontia, smooth tongue with marked reduction of fungiform and filiform papillae, onychodysplasia, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, hypo- and hyperhidrosis of the skin, and atrophic patches on the face (summary by Adaimy et al., 2007; Yu et al., 2019).
Barber-Say syndrome
MedGen UID:
230818
Concept ID:
C1319466
Disease or Syndrome
Barber-Say syndrome is a rare congenital condition characterized by severe hypertrichosis, especially of the back, skin abnormalities such as hyperlaxity and redundancy, and facial dysmorphism, including macrostomia, eyelid deformities, ocular telecanthus, abnormal and low-set ears, bulbous nasal tip with hypoplastic alae nasi, and low frontal hairline (summary by Roche et al., 2010).
Thyroid dysgenesis
MedGen UID:
289647
Concept ID:
C1563716
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital condition characterized by hypoplasia, absence, or ectopic position of the thyroid gland. It is manifested with congenital hypoparathyroidism.
Ectodermal dysplasia with intellectual disability and syndactyly
MedGen UID:
322135
Concept ID:
C1833169
Disease or Syndrome
Tooth agenesis, selective, 4
MedGen UID:
372057
Concept ID:
C1835492
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency type 2
MedGen UID:
324539
Concept ID:
C1836522
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NAGA) deficiency is a very rare lysosomal storage disorder with atypical features. It is clinically heterogeneous with 3 main phenotypes: type I is an infantile-onset neuroaxonal dystrophy (609241); type II, also known as Kanzaki disease, is an adult-onset disorder characterized by angiokeratoma corporis diffusum and mild intellectual impairment; and type III is an intermediate disorder (see 609241) with mild to moderate neurologic manifestations (Desnick and Schindler, 2001).
MPDU1-CDG
MedGen UID:
322968
Concept ID:
C1836669
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are metabolic deficiencies in glycoprotein biosynthesis that usually cause severe mental and psychomotor retardation. Different forms of CDGs can be recognized by altered isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns of serum transferrin. For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG Ia (212065) and CDG Ib (602579).
Neonatal ichthyosis-sclerosing cholangitis syndrome
MedGen UID:
334382
Concept ID:
C1843355
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare complex ichthyosis syndrome with characteristics of scalp hypotrichosis, scarring alopecia, ichthyosis and sclerosing cholangitis. The ichthyosis presents with diffuse white scales sparing the skin folds and is accompanied by scalp hypotrichosis, cicatricial alopecia, and sparse eyelashes/eyebrows. Additional manifestations may include oligodontia, hypodontia and enamel dysplasia. All patients present with neonatal sclerosing cholangitis with jaundice and pruritus, hepatomegaly and biochemical cholestasis. Caused by a mutation in the CLDN1 gene on chromosome 3q28 coding for the tight junction protein claudin-1. Autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.
Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 1
MedGen UID:
336422
Concept ID:
C1848805
Disease or Syndrome
Approximately 10% of patients with congenital hypothyroidism harbor inborn errors of metabolism in one of the steps for thyroid hormone synthesis in thyrocytes (Vono-Toniolo et al., 2005). Dyshormonogenesis can be caused by recessive defects at any of the steps required for normal thyroid hormone synthesis. In untreated patients thyroid dyshormonogenesis is typically associated with goitrous enlargement of the thyroid secondary to long-term thyrotropin (TSH; see 188540) stimulation. Park and Chatterjee (2005) reviewed the genetics of primary congenital hypothyroidism, summarizing the different phenotypes associated with known genetic defects and proposing an algorithm for investigating the genetic basis of the disorder. Genetic Heterogeneity of Thyroid Dyshormonogenesis Other forms of thyroid hormone dysgenesis include TDH2A (274500), caused by mutation in the thyroid peroxidase gene (TPO; 606765) on 2p25; Pendred syndrome, a form of thyroid hormone dysgenesis associated with deafness (TDH2B; 274600) and caused by mutation in the SLC26A4 gene (605646) on 7q31; TDH3 (274700), caused by mutation in the thyroglobulin gene (TG; 188450) on 8q24; TDH4 (274800), caused by mutation in the iodotyrosine deiodinase gene (IYD; 612025) on 6q25; TDH5 (274900), caused by mutation in the DUOXA2 gene (612772) on 15q21; and TDH6 (607200), caused by mutation in the DUOX2 gene (606759) on 15q21.
Retinitis pigmentosa-intellectual disability-deafness-hypogenitalism syndrome
MedGen UID:
340317
Concept ID:
C1849401
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa - intellectual disability - deafness - hypogenitalism is an extremely rare syndromic retinitis pigmentosa characterized by pigmentary retinopathy, diabetes mellitus with hyperinsulinism, acanthosis nigricans, secondary cataracts, neurogenic deafness, short stature mild hypogonadism in males and polycystic ovaries with oligomenorrhea in females. Inheritance is thought to be autosomal recessive. It can be distinguished from Alstrom syndrome (see this term) by the presence of intellectual disability and the absence of renal insufficiency. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1993.
Oculotrichodysplasia
MedGen UID:
340517
Concept ID:
C1850332
Disease or Syndrome
This disease has characteristics of retinitis pigmentosa, trichodysplasia, dental anomalies, and onychodysplasia. It has been described in two siblings (brother and sister) born to first cousin parents. Transmission appears to be autosomal recessive.
Dermo-odonto dysplasia
MedGen UID:
377602
Concept ID:
C1852144
Disease or Syndrome
Dermo-odonto dysplasia belongs to the group of tricho-odonto-onychial dysplasias. It is characterised by signs of variable severity: dry and thin skin, dental anomalies, nail alteration and trichodysplasia. Fourteen cases have been described so far. Autosomal dominant transmission is likely.
Craniosynostosis-mental retardation-clefting syndrome
MedGen UID:
387829
Concept ID:
C1857472
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive palmoplantar keratoderma and congenital alopecia
MedGen UID:
347851
Concept ID:
C1859316
Disease or Syndrome
Palmoplantar keratoderma and congenital alopecia-2 (PPKCA2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital alopecia and progressive hyperkeratosis resulting in sclerodactyly, severe contractures and tapering of the digits, and pseudoainhum formation. Nail changes occur in some patients (Castori et al., 2010). Also see PPKCA1 (104100), a less severe, autosomal dominant disorder.
Osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type 1
MedGen UID:
347149
Concept ID:
C1859452
Congenital Abnormality
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I is a severe autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by dwarfism, microcephaly, and neurologic abnormalities, including mental retardation, brain malformations, and ocular/auditory sensory deficits. Patients often die in early childhood (summary by Pierce and Morse, 2012).
Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome
MedGen UID:
395439
Concept ID:
C1860224
Disease or Syndrome
Ablepharon-macrostomia syndrome (AMS) is a congenital ectodermal dysplasia characterized by absent eyelids, macrostomia, microtia, redundant skin, sparse hair, dysmorphic nose and ears, variable abnormalities of the nipples, genitalia, fingers, and hands, largely normal intellectual and motor development, and poor growth (summary by Marchegiani et al., 2015).
Trichodysplasia-xeroderma
MedGen UID:
349898
Concept ID:
C1860822
Disease or Syndrome
Trichodysplasia-xeroderma syndrome is an extremely rare, syndromic hair shaft anomaly characterized by sparse, coarse, brittle, excessively dry and slow-growing scalp hair, sparse axillary and pubic hair, sparse or absent eyelashes and eyebrows and dry skin. Hair shaft analysis shows pili torti, longitudinal splitting, grooves, peeling and scaling. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1987.
Anonychia with flexural pigmentation
MedGen UID:
400144
Concept ID:
C1862844
Disease or Syndrome
A rare ectodermal dysplasia syndrome characterized by anonychia congenita totalis or rudimentary nails, macular hyper- and/or hypopigmentation (particularly affecting groins, axillae and breasts), coarse scalp hair (that becomes markedly thinned in early adult life), dry palmoplantar skin with distorted epidermal ridges and sore, cracked soles, and hypohidrosis. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1975.
Ameloonychohypohidrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
400184
Concept ID:
C1863006
Disease or Syndrome
A rare syndrome comprising hypocalcified-hypoplastic tooth enamel, onycholysis with subungual hyperkeratosis, and hypohidrosis.
ADULT syndrome
MedGen UID:
400232
Concept ID:
C1863204
Disease or Syndrome
The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples, and hypospadias. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring, and alopecia, trismus, and excessive freckling.
Dermatitis, Atopic, 1
MedGen UID:
350353
Concept ID:
C1864155
Disease or Syndrome
Koolen-de Vries syndrome
MedGen UID:
355853
Concept ID:
C1864871
Disease or Syndrome
Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS) is characterized by developmental delay / intellectual disability, neonatal/childhood hypotonia, dysmorphisms, congenital malformations, and behavioral features. Psychomotor developmental delay is noted in all individuals from an early age. The majority of individuals with KdVS function in the mild-to-moderate range of intellectual disability. Other findings include speech and language delay (100%), epilepsy (~33%), congenital heart defects (25%-50%), renal and urologic anomalies (25%-50%), and cryptorchidism (71% of males). Behavior in most is described as friendly, amiable, and cooperative.
Arthrogryposis and ectodermal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
355714
Concept ID:
C1866427
Disease or Syndrome
Trichothiodystrophy 1, photosensitive
MedGen UID:
355730
Concept ID:
C1866504
Disease or Syndrome
Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in which patients have brittle, sulfur-deficient hair that displays a diagnostic alternating light and dark banding pattern, called 'tiger tail banding,' under polarizing microscopy. TTD patients display a wide variety of clinical features, including cutaneous, neurologic, and growth abnormalities. Common additional clinical features are ichthyosis, intellectual/developmental disabilities, decreased fertility, abnormal characteristics at birth, ocular abnormalities, short stature, and infections. There are both photosensitive and nonphotosensitive forms of the disorder. TTD patients have not been reported to have a predisposition to cancer (summary by Faghri et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Trichothiodystrophy Also see TTD2 (616390), caused by mutation in the ERCC3/XPB gene (133510); TTD3 (616395), caused by mutation in the GTF2H5 gene (608780); TTD4 (234050), caused by mutation in the MPLKIP gene (609188); TTD5 (300953), caused by mutation in the RNF113A gene (300951); TTD6 (616943), caused by mutation in the GTF2E2 gene (189964); and TTD7 (618546), caused by mutation in the TARS gene (187790).
Hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous
MedGen UID:
358389
Concept ID:
C1869118
Congenital Abnormality
LEOPARD syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
370588
Concept ID:
C1969056
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features, including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth retardation resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25th percentile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20%, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML.
XFE progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
410064
Concept ID:
C1970416
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive condition caused by mutation(s) in the ERCC4 gene, encoding DNA repair endonuclease XPF. it is characterized by characterized by cutaneous photosensitivity and progeroid features in multiple organ systems.
Riddle syndrome
MedGen UID:
394368
Concept ID:
C2677792
Disease or Syndrome
RIDDLE is an acronym for the major features of this syndrome: radiosensitivity, immunodeficiency, dysmorphic facies, and learning difficulties (Stewart et al., 2007).
Aicardi Goutieres syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
413116
Concept ID:
C2749659
Disease or Syndrome
Most characteristically, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) manifests as an early-onset encephalopathy that usually, but not always, results in severe intellectual and physical disability. A subgroup of infants with AGS present at birth with abnormal neurologic findings, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia, a picture highly suggestive of congenital infection. Otherwise, most affected infants present at variable times after the first few weeks of life, frequently after a period of apparently normal development. Typically, they demonstrate the subacute onset of a severe encephalopathy characterized by extreme irritability, intermittent sterile pyrexias, loss of skills, and slowing of head growth. Over time, as many as 40% develop chilblain skin lesions on the fingers, toes, and ears. It is becoming apparent that atypical, sometimes milder, cases of AGS exist, and thus the true extent of the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the AGS-related genes is not yet known.
Congenital stationary night blindness, type 1C
MedGen UID:
416373
Concept ID:
C2750747
Disease or Syndrome
The vision problems associated with this condition are congenital, which means they are present from birth. They tend to remain stable (stationary) over time.\n\nAutosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina, which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this condition typically have difficulty seeing and distinguishing objects in low light (night blindness). For example, they may not be able to identify road signs at night or see stars in the night sky. They also often have other vision problems, including loss of sharpness (reduced acuity), nearsightedness (myopia), involuntary movements of the eyes (nystagmus), and eyes that do not look in the same direction (strabismus).
Microcephaly, growth retardation, cataract, hearing loss, and unusual appearance
MedGen UID:
416652
Concept ID:
C2751870
Disease or Syndrome
Thyroid hormone resistance, generalized, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
424846
Concept ID:
C2937288
Disease or Syndrome
Thyroid hormone resistance syndrome
MedGen UID:
424854
Concept ID:
C2940786
Disease or Syndrome
Reduced sensitivity of end organs to thyroid hormone characterized by elevated serum levels of free thyroid hormone with nonsuppressed thyroid stimulating hormone.
LEOPARD syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
462321
Concept ID:
C3150971
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features, including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth retardation resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25th percentile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20%, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML.
Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant, 3
MedGen UID:
462795
Concept ID:
C3151445
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a telomere biology disorder, is characterized by a classic triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia. The classic triad may not be present in all individuals. People with DC are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include: abnormal pigmentation changes not restricted to the upper chest and neck, eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), and dental abnormalities (caries, periodontal disease, taurodauntism). Although most persons with DC have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in the two variants in which additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Syndromic mental retardation, Nascimento type, X-linked
MedGen UID:
477095
Concept ID:
C3275464
Disease or Syndrome
The Nascimento type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSN) is characterized by dysmorphic features, including large head, synophrys, prominent supraorbital ridges, almond-shaped and deep-set eyes, large ears, wide mouth, myxedematous appearance, hirsutism, abnormal hair whorls, micropenis, and onychodystrophy. Female carriers have normal cognition, but may show subtle facial features (summary by Budny et al., 2010).
Cranioectodermal dysplasia 3
MedGen UID:
481437
Concept ID:
C3279807
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur.
Hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous, 6
MedGen UID:
482447
Concept ID:
C3280817
Disease or Syndrome
Any hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the THRA gene.
Ichthyosis, spastic quadriplegia, and mental retardation
MedGen UID:
482486
Concept ID:
C3280856
Disease or Syndrome
ISQMR is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by ichthyosis apparent from birth, profound psychomotor retardation with essentially no development, spastic quadriplegia, and seizures (summary by Aldahmesh et al., 2011).
Ectodermal dysplasia 11b, hypohidrotic/hair/tooth type, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
761671
Concept ID:
C3539920
Disease or Syndrome
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by hypotrichosis (sparseness of scalp and body hair), hypohidrosis (reduced ability to sweat), and hypodontia (congenital absence of teeth). The cardinal features of classic HED become obvious during childhood. The scalp hair is thin, lightly pigmented, and slow-growing. Sweating, although present, is greatly deficient, leading to episodes of hyperthermia until the affected individual or family acquires experience with environmental modifications to control temperature. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupt, and at a later-than-average age. Physical growth and psychomotor development are otherwise within normal limits. Mild HED is characterized by mild manifestations of any or all the characteristic features.
Ectodermal dysplasia 11a, hypohidrotic/hair/tooth type, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
762105
Concept ID:
C3541517
Disease or Syndrome
Some ectodermal dysplasias are here classified as congenital disorders characterized by abnormal development in 2 or more ectodermal structures (hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands) without other systemic findings. Hypohidrotic, or anhidrotic, ectodermal dysplasia (HED/EDA) is characterized by a triad of signs comprising sparse hair (hypotrichosis), abnormal or missing teeth (anodontia or hypodontia), and inability to sweat (anhidrosis or hypohidrosis). Typical clinical manifestations also include dryness of the skin, eyes, airways, and mucous membranes presumably due to the defective development of several exocrine glands. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia can be associated with dysmorphic features (forehead bumps, rings under the eyes, everted nose, and prominent lips) and occasionally with absent nipples (summary by Cluzeau et al., 2011).
UV-sensitive syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
764087
Concept ID:
C3551173
Disease or Syndrome
UV-sensitive syndrome-1 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cutaneous photosensitivity and mild freckling, without an increased risk of skin tumors. Patient cells show impaired recovery of RNA synthesis (RRS) after UV irradiation due to defective preferential repair of DNA damage in actively transcribing genes, although unscheduled DNA repair is normal. The cellular findings are consistent with a defect in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) of UV damage (summary by Horibata et al., 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of UV-Sensitive Syndrome See also UVSS2 (614621), caused by mutation in the ERCC8 gene (609412) on chromosome 5q12, and UVSS3 (614640), caused by mutation in the UVSSA gene (614632) on chromosome 4p16.
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 2L
MedGen UID:
766144
Concept ID:
C3553230
Disease or Syndrome
CDG2L is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder apparent from birth or early infancy. It is characterized by poor growth, gastrointestinal and liver abnormalities, delayed psychomotor development, hypotonia, recurrent infections, hematologic abnormalities, increased bleeding tendency, and hyperhidrosis or hyperkeratosis. More variable features include nonspecific dysmorphic facial features and cardiac septal defects. The disorder often results in death in infancy or the first years of life (summary by Rymen et al., 2015). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066).
UV-sensitive syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
766242
Concept ID:
C3553328
Disease or Syndrome
UV-sensitive syndrome-3 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cutaneous photosensitivity and slight dyspigmentation, without an increased risk of skin tumors. Patient cells show impaired recovery of RNA synthesis (RRS) after UV irradiation due to defective preferential repair of DNA damage in actively transcribing genes, although unscheduled DNA repair is normal. The cellular findings are consistent with a defect in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) of UV damage (summary by Itoh et al., 1994 and Nakazawa et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of UVSS, see UVSS1 (600630).
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 14B
MedGen UID:
766969
Concept ID:
C3554055
Disease or Syndrome
PBD14B is an autosomal recessive peroxisome biogenesis disorder characterized clinically by mild intellectual disability, congenital cataracts, progressive hearing loss, and polyneuropathy (Ebberink et al., 2012), all of which had been observed in patients with mild peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (e.g., Kelley et al., 1986; Poll-The et al., 1987). Additionally, recurrent migraine-like episodes following mental stress or physical exertion, not a common feature in peroxisome disorders, was reported. Thoms and Gartner (2012) classified the disorder described by Ebberink et al. (2012) in their patient as a mild 'Zellweger syndrome (214100) spectrum' (ZSS) disorder. See PBD1B (601539) for a phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of less severe phenotypes on the Zellweger syndrome spectrum. See PBD9B (614879) for another atypical peroxisome biogenesis disorder.
Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans, X-linked
MedGen UID:
854384
Concept ID:
C3887525
Congenital Abnormality
Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans is an uncommon genodermatosis chiefly characterized by widespread keratosis pilaris, progressive cicatricial alopecia of the scalp, eyebrows, and eyelashes, and an excess of affected males. Photophobia, blepharitis/conjunctivitis, and corneal dystrophy are characteristic ancillary findings. It is most often inherited as an X-linked trait (summary by Castori et al., 2009). Autosomal dominant inheritance has also been reported (KFSD; 612843). The term 'cum ophiasi' means 'with ophiasis,' i.e., baldness in 1 or more winding streaks about the head, which comes from the Greek for snake. Decalvans refers to the loss of hair.
Ectodermal dysplasia 10A, hypohidrotic/hair/nail type, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
854747
Concept ID:
C3888065
Disease or Syndrome
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by hypotrichosis (sparseness of scalp and body hair), hypohidrosis (reduced ability to sweat), and hypodontia (congenital absence of teeth). The cardinal features of classic HED become obvious during childhood. The scalp hair is thin, lightly pigmented, and slow-growing. Sweating, although present, is greatly deficient, leading to episodes of hyperthermia until the affected individual or family acquires experience with environmental modifications to control temperature. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupt, and at a later-than-average age. Physical growth and psychomotor development are otherwise within normal limits. Mild HED is characterized by mild manifestations of any or all the characteristic features.
Anhidrosis, familial generalized, with abnormal or absent sweat glands
MedGen UID:
895862
Concept ID:
C4225670
Disease or Syndrome
Tooth agenesis, selective, 8
MedGen UID:
934697
Concept ID:
C4310730
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular dystrophy, congenital, davignon-chauveau type
MedGen UID:
934703
Concept ID:
C4310736
Disease or Syndrome
Trichothiodystrophy 6, nonphotosensitive
MedGen UID:
934752
Concept ID:
C4310785
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 19q13.11 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
935015
Concept ID:
C4311048
Disease or Syndrome
Distal chromosome 19q13.11 deletion syndrome is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by poor overall growth, slender habitus, microcephaly, delayed development, intellectual disability with poor or absent speech, and feeding difficulties. Additional features include dysmorphic facies, signs of ectodermal dysplasia, hand and foot anomalies, and genitourinary anomalies, particularly in males (summary by Chowdhury et al., 2014).
Congenital heart defects and ectodermal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
1387409
Concept ID:
C4479250
Disease or Syndrome
Autoinflammation with arthritis and dyskeratosis
MedGen UID:
1380109
Concept ID:
C4479278
Disease or Syndrome
Autoinflammation with arthritis and dyskeratosis is characterized by recurrent fever, widespread skin dyskeratosis, arthritis, elevated biologic markers of inflammation, and mild autoimmunity with a high transitional B-cell level (summary by Grandemange et al., 2016).
HELIX syndrome
MedGen UID:
1621482
Concept ID:
C4522164
Disease or Syndrome
HELIX syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by Hypohidrosis, Electrolyte imbalance, Lacrimal gland dysfunction, Ichthyosis, and Xerostomia (summary by Hadj-Rabia et al., 2018).
Primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis 1
MedGen UID:
1639046
Concept ID:
C4551501
Disease or Syndrome
In all forms of PLCA, the abnormal patches of skin usually arise in mid-adulthood. They can remain for months to years and may recur after disappearing, either at the same location or elsewhere. Very rarely, nodular amyloidosis progresses to a life-threatening condition called systemic amyloidosis, in which amyloid deposits accumulate in tissues and organs throughout the body.\n\nIn some affected individuals, the patches have characteristics of both lichen and macular amyloidosis. These cases are called biphasic amyloidosis.\n\nNodular amyloidosis is characterized by firm, raised bumps (nodules) that are pink, red, or brown. These nodules often occur on the face, torso, limbs, or genitals and are typically not itchy.\n\nIn macular amyloidosis, the patches are flat and dark brown. The coloring can have a lacy (reticulated) or rippled appearance, although it is often uniform. Macular amyloidosis patches are most commonly found on the upper back, but they can also occur on other parts of the torso or on the limbs. These patches are mildly itchy.\n\nLichen amyloidosis is characterized by severely itchy patches of thickened skin with multiple small bumps. The patches are scaly and reddish brown in color. These patches usually occur on the shins but can also occur on the forearms, other parts of the legs, and elsewhere on the body.\n\nPrimary localized cutaneous amyloidosis (PLCA) is a condition in which clumps of abnormal proteins called amyloids build up in the skin, specifically in the wave-like projections (dermal papillae) between the top two layers of skin (the dermis and the epidermis). The primary feature of PLCA is patches of skin with abnormal texture or color. The appearance of these patches defines three forms of the condition: lichen amyloidosis, macular amyloidosis, and nodular amyloidosis.
Amyloidosis, primary localized cutaneous, 3
MedGen UID:
1640641
Concept ID:
C4554421
Disease or Syndrome
Amyloidosis cutis dyschromica (ACD), a rare form of primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis, is a pigmentary disorder in which keratinocyte-derived amyloid is deposited in the skin. Onset occurs before puberty and involves macular or reticulate hyperpigmentation admixed with symmetrically distributed guttate hypopigmented and hyperpigmented lesions. ACD can be distinguished from other conditions with similar clinical findings by a skin biopsy in which amyloid deposition in the papillary dermis is seen. Specific features that set ACD apart from the more common macular and lichenoid variants of primary cutaneous amyloidosis include dotted, reticular, or diffuse hyperpigmentation admixed with lentil-sized hypopigmented macules; mild or no associated pruritus; and, on histologic examination of skin from both hyper- and hypopigmented lesions, amyloid deposition confined to the papillary dermis, in close proximity to the epidermis (Huang et al. (2009); Mahon et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis, see 105250.
Combined immunodeficiency due to GINS1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
1646485
Concept ID:
C4693356
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-55 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, natural killer (NK) cell deficiency, and chronic neutropenia. Most patients also have postnatal growth retardation. Other clinical manifestations include mild facial dysmorphism, dry or eczematous skin, and recurrent infections with both viruses and bacteria. The disorder appears to result from a defect in DNA replication causing blockade of immune cell differentiation in the bone marrow, particularly affecting NK cells (summary by Cottineau et al., 2017).
Impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone
MedGen UID:
1654700
Concept ID:
C4722330
Disease or Syndrome
Decreased response to thyroid hormones in peripheral tissues and in the pituitary gland.
Bone marrow failure syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1648485
Concept ID:
C4748257
Disease or Syndrome
BMFS4 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset anemia, leukopenia, and decreased B cells, resulting in the necessity for red cell transfusion and sometimes causing an increased susceptibility to infection. Some patients may have thrombocytopenia or variable additional nonhematologic features, such as facial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, and mild developmental delay. Bone marrow transplantation is curative (summary by Bahrami et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of BMFS, see BMFS1 (614675).
Squalene synthase deficiency
MedGen UID:
1648421
Concept ID:
C4748427
Disease or Syndrome
Squalene synthase deficiency (SQSD) is a rare inborn error of cholesterol biosynthesis with multisystem clinical manifestations similar to Smith-Lemli-Optiz syndrome. Key clinical features include facial dysmorphism, a generalized seizure disorder presenting in the neonatal period, nonspecific structural brain malformations, cortical visual impairment, optic nerve hypoplasia, profound developmental delay / intellectual disability, dry skin with photosensitivity, and genital malformations in males.
Gonadal dysgenesis, dysmorphic facies, retinal dystrophy, and myopathy
MedGen UID:
1679397
Concept ID:
C5193085
Disease or Syndrome
GDRM is characterized by 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis in association with extragonadal anomalies, including low birth weight, typical facial gestalt, rod and cone dystrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, omphalocele, anal atresia, renal agenesis, skeletal abnormalities, dry and scaly skin, severe myopathy, and neuromotor delay (Guran et al., 2019).
Ectodermal dysplasia 15, hypohidrotic/hair type
MedGen UID:
1680605
Concept ID:
C5193145
Disease or Syndrome
Some ectodermal dysplasias are here classified as congenital disorders characterized by abnormal development in 2 or more ectodermal structures (hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands) without other systemic findings. Ectodermal dysplasia-15 (ECTD15) is characterized by hypotrichosis that develops in early childhood and absence of sweating except with extreme exercise. Skin is dry from birth and eczematous lesions may develop in adulthood. Other features include blepharitis and photophobia (van den Bogaard et al., 2019).
Ichthyotic keratoderma, spasticity, hypomyelination, and dysmorphic facial features
MedGen UID:
1682428
Concept ID:
C5193147
Disease or Syndrome
Ichthyotic keratoderma, spasticity, hypomyelination, and dysmorphic features (IKSHD) is characterized by epidermal hyperproliferation and increased keratinization, resulting in ichthyosis; hypomyelination of central white matter, causing spastic paraplegia and central nystagmus; and optic atrophy, resulting in reduction of peripheral vision and visual acuity (Mueller et al., 2019). In addition, patients exhibit mild facial dysmorphism (Kutkowska-Kazmierczak et al., 2018).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, neonatal respiratory insufficiency, and thermodysregulation
MedGen UID:
1716098
Concept ID:
C5394091
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, neonatal respiratory insufficiency, and thermodysregulation (NEDHRIT) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal respiratory distress, poor feeding, and impaired global development. Affected individuals are unable to walk or speak and have poor or absent eye contact. Some patients may develop seizures (summary by Wagner et al., 2020).
IFAP syndrome with or without BRESHECK syndrome
MedGen UID:
1746744
Concept ID:
C5399971
Disease or Syndrome
The IFAP/BRESHECK syndrome is an X-linked multiple congenital anomaly disorder with variable severity. The classic triad, which defines IFAP, is ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia, and photophobia. Some patients have additional features, including mental retardation, brain anomalies, Hirschsprung disease, corneal opacifications, kidney dysplasia, cryptorchidism, cleft palate, and skeletal malformations, particularly of the vertebrae, which constitutes BRESHECK syndrome (summary by Naiki et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of IFAP Syndrome IFAP syndrome-2 (IFAP2; 619016) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the SREBF1 gene (184756) on chromosome 17p11.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with alopecia and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1775930
Concept ID:
C5436741
Disease or Syndrome
Bachmann-Bupp syndrome (BABS) is a neurometabolic disorder associated with global developmental delay, ectodermal abnormalities including alopecia, absolute or relative macrocephaly, dysmorphic features, and characteristic neuroimaging features (summary by Rodan et al., 2018).
Noonan syndrome 13
MedGen UID:
1761918
Concept ID:
C5436773
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-13 (NS13) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay and impaired intellectual development of variable severity, associated with behavioral problems. Affected individuals also exhibit reduced postnatal growth and craniofacial anomalies, including ptosis, hypertelorism, low-set posteriorly rotated ears, and short webbed neck. Other features include congenital heart defects and mild skeletal defects (Motta et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Noonan syndrome, see NS1 (163950).

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Ikarashi N, Kaneko M, Watanabe T, Kon R, Yoshino M, Yokoyama T, Tanaka R, Takayama N, Sakai H, Kamei J
Biomolecules 2020 Apr 3;10(4) doi: 10.3390/biom10040545. PMID: 32260143Free PMC Article
Moniaga CS, Tominaga M, Takamori K
Acta Derm Venereol 2020 Jan 15;100(2):adv00024. doi: 10.2340/00015555-3344. PMID: 31940044
Proksch E, Berardesca E, Misery L, Engblom J, Bouwstra J
J Dermatolog Treat 2020 Nov;31(7):716-722. Epub 2019 Jun 19 doi: 10.1080/09546634.2019.1607024. PMID: 30998081
Lichterfeld-Kottner A, Lahmann N, Blume-Peytavi U, Mueller-Werdan U, Kottner J
J Tissue Viability 2018 Nov;27(4):226-231. Epub 2018 Jul 4 doi: 10.1016/j.jtv.2018.07.001. PMID: 30487067
Kottner J, Kanti V, Dobos G, Hahnel E, Lichterfeld-Kottner A, Richter C, Hillmann K, Vogt A, Blume-Peytavi U
Int J Nurs Stud 2017 Jan;65:17-24. Epub 2016 Oct 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2016.10.010. PMID: 27815985

Diagnosis

Moniaga CS, Tominaga M, Takamori K
Acta Derm Venereol 2020 Jan 15;100(2):adv00024. doi: 10.2340/00015555-3344. PMID: 31940044
Zhang X, Zeng W, Liu H, Xie S, Liang Y
J Cosmet Sci 2019 Mar/Apr;70(2):107-109. PMID: 31125309
Katayama I
Allergol Int 2018 Oct;67(4):448-454. Epub 2018 Aug 10 doi: 10.1016/j.alit.2018.07.001. PMID: 30104151
Kang BC, Kim YE, Kim YJ, Chang MJ, Choi HD, Li K, Shin WG
Skin Res Technol 2014 Feb;20(1):87-91. Epub 2013 Jul 2 doi: 10.1111/srt.12089. PMID: 23815476
Andriessen A
Br J Nurs 2013 Jan 10-23;22(1):26-30. doi: 10.12968/bjon.2013.22.1.26. PMID: 23299208

Therapy

Uchino T, Fujino H, Kamiya D, Suzuki T, Miyazaki Y, Asada K, Shirai T, Yagi H, Sano Y, Moriki M, Mizuno H, Todoroki K, Kimura M, Kagawa Y
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2020 Aug;86(2):233-243. Epub 2020 Jul 15 doi: 10.1007/s00280-020-04095-z. PMID: 32666159
Ikarashi N, Kaneko M, Watanabe T, Kon R, Yoshino M, Yokoyama T, Tanaka R, Takayama N, Sakai H, Kamei J
Biomolecules 2020 Apr 3;10(4) doi: 10.3390/biom10040545. PMID: 32260143Free PMC Article
Moniaga CS, Tominaga M, Takamori K
Acta Derm Venereol 2020 Jan 15;100(2):adv00024. doi: 10.2340/00015555-3344. PMID: 31940044
Proksch E, Berardesca E, Misery L, Engblom J, Bouwstra J
J Dermatolog Treat 2020 Nov;31(7):716-722. Epub 2019 Jun 19 doi: 10.1080/09546634.2019.1607024. PMID: 30998081
Kottner J, Kanti V, Dobos G, Hahnel E, Lichterfeld-Kottner A, Richter C, Hillmann K, Vogt A, Blume-Peytavi U
Int J Nurs Stud 2017 Jan;65:17-24. Epub 2016 Oct 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2016.10.010. PMID: 27815985

Prognosis

Uchino T, Fujino H, Kamiya D, Suzuki T, Miyazaki Y, Asada K, Shirai T, Yagi H, Sano Y, Moriki M, Mizuno H, Todoroki K, Kimura M, Kagawa Y
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2020 Aug;86(2):233-243. Epub 2020 Jul 15 doi: 10.1007/s00280-020-04095-z. PMID: 32666159
Lee W, Jeong Y, Park JH, Lee CH, Yun N, Lee DS, Nam IJ, Kim JD, Yoon KD, Son M, Kim S
Nutrients 2019 Jun 18;11(6) doi: 10.3390/nu11061366. PMID: 31216667Free PMC Article
Augustin M, Kirsten N, Körber A, Wilsmann-Theis D, Itschert G, Staubach-Renz P, Maul JT, Zander N
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2019 Jan;33(1):147-150. Epub 2018 Jul 24 doi: 10.1111/jdv.15157. PMID: 29953684
Lechner A, Lahmann N, Neumann K, Blume-Peytavi U, Kottner J
Int J Nurs Stud 2017 Aug;73:63-69. Epub 2017 May 18 doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2017.05.011. PMID: 28535399
Lichterfeld A, Lahmann N, Blume-Peytavi U, Kottner J
Int J Nurs Stud 2016 Apr;56:37-44. Epub 2016 Jan 14 doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2016.01.003. PMID: 26810458

Clinical prediction guides

Uchino T, Fujino H, Kamiya D, Suzuki T, Miyazaki Y, Asada K, Shirai T, Yagi H, Sano Y, Moriki M, Mizuno H, Todoroki K, Kimura M, Kagawa Y
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2020 Aug;86(2):233-243. Epub 2020 Jul 15 doi: 10.1007/s00280-020-04095-z. PMID: 32666159
Lee W, Jeong Y, Park JH, Lee CH, Yun N, Lee DS, Nam IJ, Kim JD, Yoon KD, Son M, Kim S
Nutrients 2019 Jun 18;11(6) doi: 10.3390/nu11061366. PMID: 31216667Free PMC Article
Lechner A, Lahmann N, Neumann K, Blume-Peytavi U, Kottner J
Int J Nurs Stud 2017 Aug;73:63-69. Epub 2017 May 18 doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2017.05.011. PMID: 28535399
Kottner J, Kanti V, Dobos G, Hahnel E, Lichterfeld-Kottner A, Richter C, Hillmann K, Vogt A, Blume-Peytavi U
Int J Nurs Stud 2017 Jan;65:17-24. Epub 2016 Oct 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2016.10.010. PMID: 27815985
Lichterfeld A, Lahmann N, Blume-Peytavi U, Kottner J
Int J Nurs Stud 2016 Apr;56:37-44. Epub 2016 Jan 14 doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2016.01.003. PMID: 26810458

Recent systematic reviews

Ju Y, Yang J
Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2020 Aug;16(8):739-743. Epub 2020 Aug 9 doi: 10.1080/1744666X.2020.1801421. PMID: 32707005
Foley K, Gupta AK, Versteeg S, Mays R, Villanueva E, John D
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Jan 16;1:CD012093. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012093.pub2. PMID: 31978269Free PMC Article
Lichterfeld-Kottner A, El Genedy M, Lahmann N, Blume-Peytavi U, Büscher A, Kottner J
Int J Nurs Stud 2020 Mar;103:103509. Epub 2019 Dec 23 doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2019.103509. PMID: 31945604
Sun W, Li J
Cancer Invest 2019;37(6):253-264. Epub 2019 Jul 15 doi: 10.1080/07357907.2019.1634089. PMID: 31303065
Cooke A, Bedwell C, Campbell M, McGowan L, Ersser SJ, Lavender T
Midwifery 2018 Jan;56:29-43. Epub 2017 Oct 6 doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2017.10.001. PMID: 29055852

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