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Hypercholesterolemia

MedGen UID:
5687
Concept ID:
C0020443
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Hypercholesterolaemia; Primary hypercholesterolemia
SNOMED CT: Hypercholesterolemia (13644009); High cholesterol (13644009)
 
HPO: HP:0003124

Definition

An increased concentration of cholesterol in the blood. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Cholesteryl ester storage disease
MedGen UID:
40266
Concept ID:
C0008384
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of lysosomal acid lipase causes 2 distinct phenotypes in humans: Wolman disease (WOLD; 620151) and cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). WOLD is an early-onset fulminant disorder of infancy with massive infiltration of the liver, spleen, and other organs by macrophages filled with cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Death occurs early in life. CESD is a milder, later-onset disorder with primary hepatic involvement by macrophages engorged with cholesteryl esters. This slowly progressive visceral disease has a wide spectrum of involvement ranging from early onset with severe cirrhosis to later onset of more slowly progressive hepatic disease with survival into adulthood (summary by Du et al., 2001).
Glycogen storage disease, type VI
MedGen UID:
6643
Concept ID:
C0017925
Disease or Syndrome
Glycogen storage disease type VI (GSD VI) is a disorder of glycogenolysis caused by deficiency of hepatic glycogen phosphorylase. This critical enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycogen degradation, and deficiency of the enzyme in the untreated child is characterized by hepatomegaly, poor growth, ketotic hypoglycemia, elevated hepatic transaminases, hyperlipidemia, and low prealbumin level. GSD VI is usually a relatively mild disorder that presents in infancy and childhood; rare cases of more severe disease manifesting with recurrent hypoglycemia and marked hepatomegaly have been described. More common complications in the setting of suboptimal metabolic control include short stature, delayed puberty, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Hepatic fibrosis commonly develops in GSD VI, but cirrhosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are rare. Clinical and biochemical abnormalities may decrease with age, but ketosis and hypoglycemia can continue to occur.
Hyperlipidemia, familial combined, LPL related
MedGen UID:
6965
Concept ID:
C0020474
Disease or Syndrome
Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is characterized by fluctuations in serum lipid concentrations and may present as mixed hyperlipidemia, isolated hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, or as a normal serum lipid profile in combination with abnormally elevated levels of apolipoprotein B (APOB; 107730). Patients with FCHL are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality and have a high frequency of comorbidity with other metabolic conditions such as type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome (summary by Bello-Chavolla et al., 2018). Goldstein et al. (1973) gave the designation 'familial combined hyperlipidemia' to the most common genetic form of hyperlipidemia identified in a study of survivors of myocardial infarction. Affected persons characteristically showed elevation of both cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. The combined disorder was shown to be distinct from familial hypercholesterolemia (143890) and from familial hypertriglyceridemia (145750) for the following reasons: (1) lipid distributions in relatives were unique; (2) unlike familial hypercholesterolemia, children of affected persons did not express hypercholesterolemia; and (3) informative matings suggested that variable expression of a single gene rather than segregation for 2 separate genes was responsible. This disorder leads to elevated levels of VLDL, LDL, or both in plasma. From time to time the pattern can change in a given person. Unlike familial hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia appears in only 10 to 20% of patients in childhood, usually in the form of hypertriglyceridemia. Xanthomas are rare. Increased production of VLDL may be a common underlying metabolic characteristic in this disorder, which may be heterogeneous. The disorder may be 5 times as frequent as familial hypercholesterolemia, occurring in 1% of the U.S. population. Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia Also see FCHL1 (602491), associated with variation in the USF1 gene (191523) on chromosome 1q23, and FCHL2 (604499), mapped to chromosome 11.
Hyperlipoproteinemia, type I
MedGen UID:
7352
Concept ID:
C0023817
Disease or Syndrome
Familial lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency usually presents in childhood and is characterized by very severe hypertriglyceridemia with episodes of abdominal pain, recurrent acute pancreatitis, eruptive cutaneous xanthomata, and hepatosplenomegaly. Clearance of chylomicrons from the plasma is impaired, causing triglycerides to accumulate in plasma and the plasma to have a milky (lactescent or lipemic) appearance. Symptoms usually resolve with restriction of total dietary fat to =20 g/day.
Lowe syndrome
MedGen UID:
18145
Concept ID:
C0028860
Disease or Syndrome
Lowe syndrome (oculocerebrorenal syndrome) is characterized by involvement of the eyes, central nervous system, and kidneys. Dense congenital cataracts are found in all affected boys and infantile glaucoma in approximately 50%. All boys have impaired vision; corrected acuity is rarely better than 20/100. Generalized hypotonia is noted at birth and is of central (brain) origin. Deep tendon reflexes are usually absent. Hypotonia may slowly improve with age, but normal motor tone and strength are never achieved. Motor milestones are delayed. Almost all affected males have some degree of intellectual disability; 10%-25% function in the low-normal or borderline range, approximately 25% in the mild-to-moderate range, and 50%-65% in the severe-to-profound range of intellectual disability. Affected males have varying degrees of proximal renal tubular dysfunction of the Fanconi type, including low molecular-weight (LMW) proteinuria, aminoaciduria, bicarbonate wasting and renal tubular acidosis, phosphaturia with hypophosphatemia and renal rickets, hypercalciuria, sodium and potassium wasting, and polyuria. The features of symptomatic Fanconi syndrome do not usually become manifest until after the first few months of life, except for LMW proteinuria. Glomerulosclerosis associated with chronic tubular injury usually results in slowly progressive chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease between the second and fourth decades of life.
Prader-Willi syndrome
MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Disease or Syndrome
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common (if not treated with growth hormone); characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present.
Smith-Magenis syndrome
MedGen UID:
162881
Concept ID:
C0795864
Disease or Syndrome
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is characterized by distinctive physical features (particularly coarse facial features that progress with age), developmental delay, cognitive impairment, behavioral abnormalities, sleep disturbance, and childhood-onset abdominal obesity. Infants have feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, hypotonia, hyporeflexia, prolonged napping or need to be awakened for feeds, and generalized lethargy. The majority of individuals function in the mild-to-moderate range of intellectual disability. The behavioral phenotype, including significant sleep disturbance, stereotypies, and maladaptive and self-injurious behaviors, is generally not recognized until age 18 months or older and continues to change until adulthood. Sensory issues are frequently noted; these may include avoidant behavior, as well as repetitive seeking of textures, sounds, and experiences. Toileting difficulties are common. Significant anxiety is common as are problems with executive functioning, including inattention, distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Maladaptive behaviors include frequent outbursts / temper tantrums, attention-seeking behaviors, opposition, aggression, and self-injurious behaviors including self-hitting, self-biting, skin picking, inserting foreign objects into body orifices (polyembolokoilamania), and yanking fingernails and/or toenails (onychotillomania). Among the stereotypic behaviors described, the spasmodic upper-body squeeze or "self-hug" seems to be highly associated with SMS. An underlying developmental asynchrony, specifically emotional maturity delayed beyond intellectual functioning, may also contribute to maladaptive behaviors in people with SMS.
Megalocornea-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
162904
Concept ID:
C0796086
Disease or Syndrome
The cardinal findings of Neuhauser syndrome, also known as MMR syndrome, are impaired intellectual development or developmental delay, megalocornea, hypotonia, prominent forehead, micrognathia, prominent nasal bridge, and thin upper lip or carp-like mouth (Naritomi et al., 1997). Reviews Gutierrez-Amavizca et al. (2013) reviewed published reports and tabulated the clinical features of 35 patients with Neuhauser syndrome. Primary megalocornea and psychomotor delay were present in all patients. Characteristics observed in more than half of patients included hypotonia, growth retardation, abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) and/or seizures, micro- or macrocephaly, brain malformations such as cerebral atrophy and hypoplastic corpus callosum, craniofacial dysmorphisms, cardiac anomalies, osteoarticular abnormalities, and refractive errors. Additional features found at low frequency included primary hypothyroidism, recurrent infections, feeding difficulties, cerebral hypomyelination, dyslipidemia, sensorineural deafness, laryngomalacia, large fleshy and cup-shaped ears, obesity, and cryptorchidism. The authors stated that the classification suggested by Verloes et al. (1993) did not seem to be applicable, and proposed that the diagnosis of Neuhauser syndrome should be made in the presence of intellectual disability and megalocornea in the absence of elevated intraocular pressure, with at least 1 minor feature from among those observed in more than half of patients.
Analbuminemia
MedGen UID:
164210
Concept ID:
C0878666
Finding
Analbuminemia (ANALBA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder manifested by the presence of a very low amount of circulating serum albumin. Affected individuals have few clinical symptoms other than mild edema, hypotension, fatigue, and occasionally a peculiar lower body lipodystrophy (mainly in adult females). The most common biochemical finding is a gross hyperlipidemia, with a significant increase in the total and LDL cholesterol concentrations, but normal concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Analbuminemia often leads to fetal or neonatal death in sibs in families of analbuminemic individuals, which may explain the rarity of the trait (summary by Caridi et al., 2014).
Hypercholesterolemia, autosomal dominant, type B
MedGen UID:
309962
Concept ID:
C1704417
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by significantly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) that leads to atherosclerotic plaque deposition in the coronary arteries and proximal aorta at an early age and increases the risk of premature cardiovascular events such as angina and myocardial infarction; stroke occurs more rarely. Xanthomas (cholesterol deposits in tendons) may be visible in the Achilles tendons or tendons of the hands and worsen with age as a result of extremely high cholesterol levels. Xanthelasmas (yellowish, waxy deposits) can occur around the eyelids. Individuals with FH may develop corneal arcus (white, gray, or blue opaque ring in the corneal margin as a result of cholesterol deposition) at a younger age than those without FH. Individuals with a more severe phenotype, often as a result of biallelic variants, can present with very significant elevations in LDL-C (>500 mg/dL), early-onset coronary artery disease (CAD; presenting as early as childhood in some), and calcific aortic valve disease.
Familial apolipoprotein C-II deficiency
MedGen UID:
328375
Concept ID:
C1720779
Disease or Syndrome
Clinically and biochemically, apoC-II deficiency closely simulates lipoprotein lipase deficiency, or hyperlipoproteinemia type I (238600), and is therefore referred to as hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.
Familial partial lipodystrophy, Dunnigan type
MedGen UID:
354526
Concept ID:
C1720860
Disease or Syndrome
Familial partial lipodystrophy is a metabolic disorder characterized by abnormal subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution beginning in late childhood or early adult life. Affected individuals gradually lose fat from the upper and lower extremities and the gluteal and truncal regions, resulting in a muscular appearance with prominent superficial veins. In some patients, adipose tissue accumulates on the face and neck, causing a double chin, fat neck, or cushingoid appearance. Metabolic abnormalities include insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosis nigricans and hypertriglyceridemia; hirsutism and menstrual abnormalities occur infrequently. Familial partial lipodystrophy may also be referred to as lipoatrophic diabetes mellitus, but the essential feature is loss of subcutaneous fat (review by Garg, 2004). The disorder may be misdiagnosed as Cushing disease (see 219080) (Kobberling and Dunnigan, 1986; Garg, 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Partial Lipodystrophy Familial partial lipodystrophy is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Types 1 and 2 were originally described as clinical subtypes: type 1 (FPLD1; 608600), characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat confined to the limbs (Kobberling et al., 1975), and FPLD2, characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat from the limbs and trunk (Dunnigan et al., 1974; Kobberling and Dunnigan, 1986). No genetic basis for FPLD1 has yet been delineated. FPLD3 (604367) is caused by mutation in the PPARG gene (601487) on chromosome 3p25; FPLD4 (613877) is caused by mutation in the PLIN1 gene (170290) on chromosome 15q26; FPLD5 (615238) is caused by mutation in the CIDEC gene (612120) on chromosome 3p25; FPLD6 (615980) is caused by mutation in the LIPE gene (151750) on chromosome 19q13; FPLD7 (606721) is caused by mutation in the CAV1 gene (601047) on chromosome 7q31; FPLD8 (620679), caused by mutation in the ADRA2A gene (104210) on chromosome 10q25; and FPLD9 (620683), caused by mutation in the PLAAT3 gene (613867) on chromosome 11q12.
Hyperlipoproteinemia, type II, and deafness
MedGen UID:
326732
Concept ID:
C1840425
Disease or Syndrome
Coronary artery disease, autosomal dominant, 1
MedGen UID:
330802
Concept ID:
C1842247
Disease or Syndrome
Coronary artery disease (CAD) and its most important complication, acute myocardial infarction (MI), are leading causes of death and disability in the developed world. Multiple risk factors for CAD/MI have been identified, including family history, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, smoking, and diabetes. Several genomewide scans of affected sib pairs have identified susceptibility loci for CAD, e.g., 607339 and 300464.
Familial isolated deficiency of vitamin E
MedGen UID:
341248
Concept ID:
C1848533
Disease or Syndrome
Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) generally manifests in late childhood or early teens between ages five and 15 years. The first symptoms include progressive ataxia, clumsiness of the hands, loss of proprioception, and areflexia. Other features often observed are dysdiadochokinesia, dysarthria, positive Romberg sign, head titubation, decreased visual acuity, and positive Babinski sign. The phenotype and disease severity vary widely among families with different pathogenic variants; age of onset and disease course are more uniform within a given family, but symptoms and disease severity can vary even among sibs.
Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis due to citrin deficiency
MedGen UID:
340091
Concept ID:
C1853942
Disease or Syndrome
Citrin deficiency can manifest in newborns or infants as neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD), in older children as failure to thrive and dyslipidemia caused by citrin deficiency (FTTDCD), and in adults as recurrent hyperammonemia with neuropsychiatric symptoms in citrullinemia type II (CTLN2). Often citrin deficiency is characterized by strong preference for protein-rich and/or lipid-rich foods and aversion to carbohydrate-rich foods. NICCD. Children younger than age one year have a history of low birth weight with growth restriction and transient intrahepatic cholestasis, hepatomegaly, diffuse fatty liver, and parenchymal cellular infiltration associated with hepatic fibrosis, variable liver dysfunction, hypoproteinemia, decreased coagulation factors, hemolytic anemia, and/or hypoglycemia. NICCD is generally not severe and symptoms often resolve by age one year with appropriate treatment, although liver transplantation has been required in rare instances. FTTDCD. Beyond age one year, many children with citrin deficiency develop a protein-rich and/or lipid-rich food preference and aversion to carbohydrate-rich foods. Clinical abnormalities may include growth restriction, hypoglycemia, pancreatitis, severe fatigue, anorexia, and impaired quality of life. Laboratory changes are dyslipidemia, increased lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, higher levels of urinary oxidative stress markers, and considerable deviation in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites. One or more decades later, some individuals with NICCD or FTTDCD develop CTLN2. CTLN2. Presentation is sudden and usually between ages 20 and 50 years. Manifestations are recurrent hyperammonemia with neuropsychiatric symptoms including nocturnal delirium, aggression, irritability, hyperactivity, delusions, disorientation, restlessness, drowsiness, loss of memory, flapping tremor, convulsive seizures, and coma. Symptoms are often provoked by alcohol and sugar intake, medication, and/or surgery. Affected individuals may or may not have a prior history of NICCD or FTTDCD.
Ataxia, early-onset, with oculomotor apraxia and hypoalbuminemia
MedGen UID:
395301
Concept ID:
C1859598
Disease or Syndrome
Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1) is characterized by childhood onset of slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, followed by oculomotor apraxia and a severe primary motor peripheral axonal motor neuropathy. The first manifestation is progressive gait imbalance (mean age of onset: 4.3 years; range: 2-10 years), followed by dysarthria, then upper-limb dysmetria with mild intention tremor. Oculomotor apraxia, usually noticed a few years after the onset of ataxia, progresses to external ophthalmoplegia. All affected individuals have generalized areflexia followed by a peripheral neuropathy and quadriplegia with loss of ambulation about seven to ten years after onset. Hands and feet are short and atrophic. Chorea and upper-limb dystonia are common. Intellect remains normal in some individuals; in others, different degrees of cognitive impairment have been observed.
Hypercholesterolemia, familial, 4
MedGen UID:
400313
Concept ID:
C1863512
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by significantly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) that leads to atherosclerotic plaque deposition in the coronary arteries and proximal aorta at an early age and increases the risk of premature cardiovascular events such as angina and myocardial infarction; stroke occurs more rarely. Xanthomas (cholesterol deposits in tendons) may be visible in the Achilles tendons or tendons of the hands and worsen with age as a result of extremely high cholesterol levels. Xanthelasmas (yellowish, waxy deposits) can occur around the eyelids. Individuals with FH may develop corneal arcus (white, gray, or blue opaque ring in the corneal margin as a result of cholesterol deposition) at a younger age than those without FH. Individuals with a more severe phenotype, often as a result of biallelic variants, can present with very significant elevations in LDL-C (>500 mg/dL), early-onset coronary artery disease (CAD; presenting as early as childhood in some), and calcific aortic valve disease.
Hypercholesterolemia, autosomal dominant, 3
MedGen UID:
355007
Concept ID:
C1863551
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by significantly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) that leads to atherosclerotic plaque deposition in the coronary arteries and proximal aorta at an early age and increases the risk of premature cardiovascular events such as angina and myocardial infarction; stroke occurs more rarely. Xanthomas (cholesterol deposits in tendons) may be visible in the Achilles tendons or tendons of the hands and worsen with age as a result of extremely high cholesterol levels. Xanthelasmas (yellowish, waxy deposits) can occur around the eyelids. Individuals with FH may develop corneal arcus (white, gray, or blue opaque ring in the corneal margin as a result of cholesterol deposition) at a younger age than those without FH. Individuals with a more severe phenotype, often as a result of biallelic variants, can present with very significant elevations in LDL-C (>500 mg/dL), early-onset coronary artery disease (CAD; presenting as early as childhood in some), and calcific aortic valve disease.
Xanthomatosis, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
356066
Concept ID:
C1865704
Disease or Syndrome
Alagille syndrome due to a JAG1 point mutation
MedGen UID:
365434
Concept ID:
C1956125
Disease or Syndrome
Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is a multisystem disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical variability; this variability is seen even among individuals from the same family. The major clinical manifestations of ALGS are bile duct paucity on liver biopsy, cholestasis, congenital cardiac defects (primarily involving the pulmonary arteries), butterfly vertebrae, ophthalmologic abnormalities (most commonly posterior embryotoxon), and characteristic facial features. Renal abnormalities, growth failure, developmental delays, splenomegaly, and vascular abnormalities may also occur.
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 3
MedGen UID:
436541
Concept ID:
C2675861
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy, also known as Berardinelli-Seip syndrome, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by marked paucity of adipose tissue, extreme insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, hepatic steatosis, and early onset of diabetes (Garg, 2004). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital generalized lipodystrophy, see CGL1 (608594).
Sitosterolemia 1
MedGen UID:
440869
Concept ID:
C2749759
Disease or Syndrome
Sitosterolemia is characterized by: Hypercholesterolemia (especially in children) which (1) shows an unexpected significant lowering of plasma cholesterol level in response to low-fat diet modification or to bile acid sequestrant therapy; or (2) does not respond to statin therapy; Tendon xanthomas or tuberous (i.e., planar) xanthomas that can occur in childhood and in unusual locations (heels, knees, elbows, and buttocks); Premature atherosclerosis, which can lead to angina, aortic valve involvement, myocardial infarction, and sudden death; Hemolytic anemia, abnormally shaped erythrocytes (stomatocytes), and large platelets (macrothrombocytopenia). On occasion, the abnormal hematologic findings may be the initial presentation or the only clinical feature of this disorder. Arthritis, arthralgias, and splenomegaly may sometimes be seen and one study has concluded that "idiopathic" liver disease could be undiagnosed sitosterolemia. The clinical spectrum of sitosterolemia is probably not fully appreciated due to underdiagnosis and the fact that the phenotype in infants is likely to be highly dependent on diet.
Palmoplantar keratoderma-XX sex reversal-predisposition to squamous cell carcinoma syndrome
MedGen UID:
461281
Concept ID:
C3149931
Disease or Syndrome
Palmoplantar keratoderma-XX sex reversal-predisposition to squamous cell carcinoma syndrome is characterised by sex reversal in males with a 46, XX (SRY-negative) karyotype, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and a predisposition to squamous cell carcinoma. To date, five cases (four of whom were brothers) have been described. The aetiology is unknown.
Hyperlipidemia due to hepatic triglyceride lipase deficiency
MedGen UID:
462816
Concept ID:
C3151466
Disease or Syndrome
Hepatic lipase deficiency is characterized by premature atherosclerosis, elevated total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), as well as TG-rich low density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL subfractions (summary by Hegele et al., 1991).
Glycogen storage disease IXa1
MedGen UID:
854172
Concept ID:
C3694531
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphorylase kinase (PhK) deficiency causing glycogen storage disease type IX (GSD IX) results from deficiency of the enzyme phosphorylase b kinase, which has a major regulatory role in the breakdown of glycogen. The two types of PhK deficiency are liver PhK deficiency (characterized by early childhood onset of hepatomegaly and growth restriction, and often, but not always, fasting ketosis and hypoglycemia) and muscle PhK deficiency, which is considerably rarer (characterized by any of the following: exercise intolerance, myalgia, muscle cramps, myoglobinuria, and progressive muscle weakness). While symptoms and biochemical abnormalities of liver PhK deficiency were thought to improve with age, it is becoming evident that affected individuals need to be monitored for long-term complications such as liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.
Partial lipodystrophy, congenital cataracts, and neurodegeneration syndrome
MedGen UID:
813897
Concept ID:
C3807567
Disease or Syndrome
Lipodystrophies are rare disorders characterized by loss of body fat from various regions and predisposition to metabolic complications of insulin resistance and lipid abnormalities. FPLD7 is an autosomal dominant disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Additional features, including early-onset cataracts and later onset of spasticity of the lower limbs, have been noted in some patients (summary by Garg et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), see 151660.
Obesity due to CEP19 deficiency
MedGen UID:
816654
Concept ID:
C3810324
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic form of obesity characterized by morbid obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia leading to early coronary disease, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. Intellectual disability and decreased sperm counts or azoospermia have also been reported.
Abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
862798
Concept ID:
C4014361
Disease or Syndrome
Any metabolic syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the DYRK1B gene.
Congenital diarrhea 7 with exudative enteropathy
MedGen UID:
862953
Concept ID:
C4014516
Disease or Syndrome
Diarrhea-7 (DIAR7) is a protein-losing enteropathy characterized by early-onset nonbloody watery diarrhea and unresponsiveness to soy-based or elemental formulas. Patients experience failure to thrive, hypogammaglobulinemia with recurrent infections, and require albumin infusions and parenteral nutrition. Hypertriglyceridemia and digital clubbing have been observed (Stephen et al., 2016). The malabsorption can result in severe deficiency of vitamin D and other nutrients (Gupta et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of diarrhea, see DIAR1 (214700).
Motor developmental delay due to 14q32.2 paternally expressed gene defect
MedGen UID:
863995
Concept ID:
C4015558
Disease or Syndrome
Temple syndrome is a short stature disorder of imprinting. The cardinal features are low birth weight, hypotonia and motor delay, feeding problems early in life, early puberty, and significantly reduced final height. Facial features include a broad forehead and short nose with a wide nasal tip, and the majority of patients have small hands and feet. However, many of the clinical features are nonspecific, making diagnosis difficult. In addition, isodisomy may uncover recessive disorders, which may influence the phenotype in maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 (UPD14mat) cases (summary by Ioannides et al., 2014).
TMEM199-CDG
MedGen UID:
895025
Concept ID:
C4225190
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIp (CDG2P) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by mild liver dysfunction, which may be found incidentally during adolescence. Laboratory abnormalities include elevated liver enzymes and alkaline phosphatase, coagulation factor deficiencies, hypercholesterolemia, and low ceruloplasmin. Serum isoelectric focusing of proteins shows a combined defect of N- and O-glycosylation, suggestive of a Golgi defect (summary by Jansen et al., 2016). For an overview of congenital disorders of glycosylation, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066).
CCDC115-CDG
MedGen UID:
906792
Concept ID:
C4225191
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIo (CDG2O) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by infantile onset of progressive liver failure, hypotonia, and delayed psychomotor development. Laboratory abnormalities include elevated liver enzymes, coagulation factor deficiencies, hypercholesterolemia, and low ceruloplasmin. Serum isoelectric focusing of proteins shows a combined defect of N- and O-glycosylation, suggestive of a Golgi defect (summary by Jansen et al., 2016). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Nephrotic syndrome, type 11
MedGen UID:
898622
Concept ID:
C4225228
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome type 11 (NPHS11) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the kidney with onset in the first decade of life. The disorder is progressive and usually results in end-stage renal disease necessitating renal transplantation, although some patients may have a slightly milder phenotype (Miyake et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300).
Ataxia - oculomotor apraxia type 4
MedGen UID:
902323
Concept ID:
C4225397
Disease or Syndrome
Ataxia-oculomotor apraxia-4 (AOA4) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of dystonia and ataxia in the first decade. Additional features include oculomotor apraxia and peripheral neuropathy. Some patients may show cognitive impairment. The disorder is progressive, and most patients become wheelchair-bound in the second or third decade (summary by Bras et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ataxia-oculomotor apraxia, see AOA1 (208920).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 20
MedGen UID:
934674
Concept ID:
C4310707
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-20 (BBS20), a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with ciliary dysfunction, is characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, postaxial polydactyly, truncal obesity, renal anomalies, and learning disability, as well as hypogonadism in males and genital abnormalities in females (Saida et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Immunodeficiency 47
MedGen UID:
934786
Concept ID:
C4310819
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-47 (IMD47) is an X-linked recessive complex syndrome characterized by liver dysfunction, recurrent bacterial infections, hypogammaglobulinemia, and defective glycosylation of serum proteins. Some patients also have neurologic abnormalities (summary by Jansen et al., 2016).
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive, with axonal neuropathy 1
MedGen UID:
1683470
Concept ID:
C4759870
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy type 1 (SCAN1) is characterized by late-childhood-onset slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia and distal sensorimotor axonal neuropathy. Gaze nystagmus and dysarthria usually develop after the onset of ataxic gait. As the disease advances, pain and touch sensation in the hands and feet become impaired; vibration sense is lost in hands and lower thighs. Individuals with advanced disease develop a steppage gait and pes cavus and eventually become wheelchair dependent. Cognitive dysfunction – present in some – manifests as mild intellectual disability and poor executive function. To date only seven affected individuals have been described from three apparently unrelated consanguineous families (one from Saudi Arabia and two from Oman); therefore, it is likely that the full phenotypic spectrum of this disorder is not yet known.
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
1679283
Concept ID:
C5193044
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome-7 (GAMOS7) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by developmental delay, microcephaly, and early-onset nephrotic syndrome (summary by Rosti et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous, 8
MedGen UID:
1684717
Concept ID:
C5231395
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital nongoitrous hypothyroidism-8 (CHNG8) is characterized by relatively mild central hypothyroidism, which may be accompanied by hearing loss in some patients (Heinen et al., 2016).
Sitosterolemia 2
MedGen UID:
1684715
Concept ID:
C5231453
Disease or Syndrome
Sitosterolemia, also known as phytosterolemia, is an autosomal recessive metabolic condition characterized by unrestricted intestinal absorption of both cholesterol and plant-derived cholesterol-like molecules, such as sitosterol. Patients with this disorder have very high levels of plant sterols in the plasma and develop tendon and tuberous xanthomas, accelerated atherosclerosis, and premature coronary artery disease (summary by Berge et al., 2000). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of sitosterolemia, see 210250.
Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type A lipodystrophy
MedGen UID:
1757618
Concept ID:
C5399785
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type A lipodystrophy (MADA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth retardation, craniofacial anomalies with mandibular hypoplasia, skeletal abnormalities with progressive osteolysis of the distal phalanges and clavicles, and pigmentary skin changes. The lipodystrophy is characterized by a marked acral loss of fatty tissue with normal or increased fatty tissue in the neck and trunk. Some patients may show progeroid features. Metabolic complications can arise due to insulin resistance and diabetes (Young et al., 1971; Simha and Garg, 2002; summary by Garavelli et al., 2009). See also MAD type B (MADB; 608612), which is caused by mutation in the ZMPSTE24 gene (606480).
Hypertriglyceridemia 2
MedGen UID:
1783778
Concept ID:
C5543398
Disease or Syndrome
Hypertriglyceridemia-2 (HYTG2) is characterized by moderately to severely elevated plasma triglyceride levels, increased total cholesterol levels, and low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Reduced penetrance has been observed (Lee et al., 2011; Cefalu et al., 2015).
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794200
Concept ID:
C5561990
Disease or Syndrome
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome (BRENS) is an autosomal recessive complex ciliopathy with multisystemic manifestations. The most common presentation is severe neonatal cholestasis that progresses to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Most patients have additional clinical features suggestive of a ciliopathy, including postaxial polydactyly, hydrocephalus, retinal abnormalities, and situs inversus. Additional features of the syndrome may include congenital cardiac defects, echogenic kidneys with renal failure, ocular abnormalities, joint hyperextensibility, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients have global developmental delay. Brain imaging typically shows dilated ventricles, hypomyelination, and white matter abnormalities, although some patients have been described with abnormal pituitary development (summary by Shaheen et al., 2020 and David et al., 2020).
Cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic, 8
MedGen UID:
1794255
Concept ID:
C5562045
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis-8 (PFIC8) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cholestasis and high gamma-glutamyltransferase presenting in the infantile period (summary by Unlusoy Aksu et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PFIC, see PFIC1 (211600).
Thyroid hormone metabolism, abnormal, 2
MedGen UID:
1812066
Concept ID:
C5676976
Finding
Abnormal thyroid hormone metabolism-2 (THMA2) is characterized by elevated serum reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) levels and rT3/T3 ratios. Some patients exhibit resistance to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; see 188540) with mildly elevated TSH levels, and elevated cholesterol levels have been observed (Franca et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of abnormal thyroid hormone metabolism, see THMA1 (609698).
Cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic, 10
MedGen UID:
1807702
Concept ID:
C5676981
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis-10 (PFIC10) is an autosomal recessive liver disorder characterized by the onset of symptoms in the first months or years of life. Features include jaundice, pruritis, and hepatomegaly associated with increased serum bilirubin and bile acids. Liver transaminases may be variably increased, but gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT; see 612346) is normal. Liver biopsy shows hepatocellular and canalicular cholestasis with giant cell changes. Although rare patients may have episodes of diarrhea and even show endoscopic features of microvillus inclusion disease (MVID), this tends to be transient and cholestasis dominates the clinical picture (Gonzales et al., 2017; Cockar et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, see PFIC1 (211600).
Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 8
MedGen UID:
1824072
Concept ID:
C5774299
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia-8 (HHF8) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by protein-related hypoglycemia and persistent mild hyperammonemia (summary by Shahroor et al., 2022). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, see HHF1 (256450).
Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IIaa
MedGen UID:
1841287
Concept ID:
C5830651
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIaa (CDG2AA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by infantile mortality due to liver disease, skeletal abnormalities, and protein glycosylation defects (Linders et al., 2021). For an overview of congenital disorders of glycosylation, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Virani SS, Newby LK, Arnold SV, Bittner V, Brewer LC, Demeter SH, Dixon DL, Fearon WF, Hess B, Johnson HM, Kazi DS, Kolte D, Kumbhani DJ, LoFaso J, Mahtta D, Mark DB, Minissian M, Navar AM, Patel AR, Piano MR, Rodriguez F, Talbot AW, Taqueti VR, Thomas RJ, van Diepen S, Wiggins B, Williams MS; Peer Review Committee Members
Circulation 2023 Aug 29;148(9):e9-e119. Epub 2023 Jul 20 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000001168. PMID: 37471501
Bartalena L, Kahaly GJ, Baldeschi L, Dayan CM, Eckstein A, Marcocci C, Marinò M, Vaidya B, Wiersinga WM; EUGOGO †
Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Aug 27;185(4):G43-G67. doi: 10.1530/EJE-21-0479. PMID: 34297684
Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, Beam C, Birtcher KK, Blumenthal RS, Braun LT, de Ferranti S, Faiella-Tommasino J, Forman DE, Goldberg R, Heidenreich PA, Hlatky MA, Jones DW, Lloyd-Jones D, Lopez-Pajares N, Ndumele CE, Orringer CE, Peralta CA, Saseen JJ, Smith SC Jr, Sperling L, Virani SS, Yeboah J
Circulation 2019 Jun 18;139(25):e1082-e1143. Epub 2018 Nov 10 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000625. PMID: 30586774Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Civeira F, Arca M, Cenarro A, Hegele RA
J Clin Lipidol 2022 Nov-Dec;16(6):813-821. Epub 2022 Sep 30 doi: 10.1016/j.jacl.2022.09.006. PMID: 36229375
Gyawali D, Vohra R, Orme-Johnson D, Ramaratnam S, Schneider RH
Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 May 28;57(6) doi: 10.3390/medicina57060546. PMID: 34071454Free PMC Article
Kosmas CE, Muñoz Estrella A, Sourlas A, Pantou D
Drugs Today (Barc) 2021 May;57(5):311-319. doi: 10.1358/dot.2021.57.5.3277083. PMID: 34061126
Mohamed F, Seedat F, Raal FJ
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2021 Apr 1;28(2):188-195. doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000590. PMID: 33278127
Sharifi M, Futema M, Nair D, Humphries SE
Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Apr 22;21(6):43. doi: 10.1007/s11886-019-1130-z. PMID: 31011892Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Civeira F, Arca M, Cenarro A, Hegele RA
J Clin Lipidol 2022 Nov-Dec;16(6):813-821. Epub 2022 Sep 30 doi: 10.1016/j.jacl.2022.09.006. PMID: 36229375
Loh WJ, Watts GF
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2022 Sep;51(3):511-537. Epub 2022 Jul 4 doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2022.02.006. PMID: 35963626
Clauss SB, de Ferranti SD
Pediatr Clin North Am 2020 Oct;67(5):923-944. Epub 2020 Aug 11 doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2020.06.006. PMID: 32888690
Sharifi M, Futema M, Nair D, Humphries SE
Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Apr 22;21(6):43. doi: 10.1007/s11886-019-1130-z. PMID: 31011892Free PMC Article
Rabès JP, Béliard S, Carrié A
Curr Opin Lipidol 2018 Apr;29(2):65-71. doi: 10.1097/MOL.0000000000000496. PMID: 29389714

Therapy

Deroissart J, Porsch F, Koller T, Binder CJ
Handb Exp Pharmacol 2022;270:359-404. doi: 10.1007/164_2021_505. PMID: 34251531
Zhang MM, Bahal R, Rasmussen TP, Manautou JE, Zhong XB
Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Jul;189:114432. Epub 2021 Jan 26 doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2021.114432. PMID: 33513339Free PMC Article
Banach M, Duell PB, Gotto AM Jr, Laufs U, Leiter LA, Mancini GBJ, Ray KK, Flaim J, Ye Z, Catapano AL
JAMA Cardiol 2020 Oct 1;5(10):1124-1135. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2020.2314. PMID: 32609313Free PMC Article
Rosenson RS, Hegele RA, Fazio S, Cannon CP
J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 Jul 17;72(3):314-329. Epub 2018 Jul 9 doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.04.054. PMID: 30012326
Diamond DM, Ravnskov U
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2015 Mar;8(2):201-10. Epub 2015 Feb 12 doi: 10.1586/17512433.2015.1012494. PMID: 25672965

Prognosis

Ong Y, Huey CWT, Shelat VG
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 May;16(5):449-471. Epub 2022 Jun 8 doi: 10.1080/17474124.2022.2085556. PMID: 35649187
Vinson A, Guerra L, Hamilton L, Wilson DP, Fnla
J Pediatr Nurs 2019 Jan-Feb;44:50-55. Epub 2018 Oct 24 doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2018.09.011. PMID: 30683281
Gupta A, Mackay J, Whitehouse A, Godec T, Collier T, Pocock S, Poulter N, Sever P
Lancet 2018 Sep 29;392(10153):1127-1137. Epub 2018 Aug 26 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31776-8. PMID: 30158072
Sabatine MS, Giugliano RP, Keech AC, Honarpour N, Wiviott SD, Murphy SA, Kuder JF, Wang H, Liu T, Wasserman SM, Sever PS, Pedersen TR; FOURIER Steering Committee and Investigators
N Engl J Med 2017 May 4;376(18):1713-1722. Epub 2017 Mar 17 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1615664. PMID: 28304224
Sjöström L, Lindroos AK, Peltonen M, Torgerson J, Bouchard C, Carlsson B, Dahlgren S, Larsson B, Narbro K, Sjöström CD, Sullivan M, Wedel H; Swedish Obese Subjects Study Scientific Group
N Engl J Med 2004 Dec 23;351(26):2683-93. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa035622. PMID: 15616203

Clinical prediction guides

Medeiros AM, Bourbon M
Curr Opin Lipidol 2021 Dec 1;32(6):392-395. doi: 10.1097/MOL.0000000000000787. PMID: 34751168
Kurstjens S, Gemen E, Walk S, Njo T, Krabbe J, Gijzen K, Elisen MG, Kusters R
Ann Clin Biochem 2021 Jul;58(4):289-296. Epub 2021 Feb 17 doi: 10.1177/0004563221992393. PMID: 33478240
Paquette M, Baass A
Curr Opin Lipidol 2018 Aug;29(4):299-306. doi: 10.1097/MOL.0000000000000519. PMID: 29708923
Wang J, Dron JS, Ban MR, Robinson JF, McIntyre AD, Alazzam M, Zhao PJ, Dilliott AA, Cao H, Huff MW, Rhainds D, Low-Kam C, Dubé MP, Lettre G, Tardif JC, Hegele RA
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2016 Dec;36(12):2439-2445. Epub 2016 Oct 20 doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.116.308027. PMID: 27765764
Lee SH
J Atheroscler Thromb 2016 May 2;23(5):532-8. Epub 2016 Mar 5 doi: 10.5551/jat.34363. PMID: 26947601

Recent systematic reviews

Gyawali D, Vohra R, Orme-Johnson D, Ramaratnam S, Schneider RH
Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 May 28;57(6) doi: 10.3390/medicina57060546. PMID: 34071454Free PMC Article
Schoeneck M, Iggman D
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 May 6;31(5):1325-1338. Epub 2021 Jan 16 doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2020.12.032. PMID: 33762150
Ulven SM, Holven KB, Gil A, Rangel-Huerta OD
Adv Nutr 2019 May 1;10(suppl_2):S239-S250. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmy072. PMID: 31089732Free PMC Article
Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, Beam C, Birtcher KK, Blumenthal RS, Braun LT, de Ferranti S, Faiella-Tommasino J, Forman DE, Goldberg R, Heidenreich PA, Hlatky MA, Jones DW, Lloyd-Jones D, Lopez-Pajares N, Ndumele CE, Orringer CE, Peralta CA, Saseen JJ, Smith SC Jr, Sperling L, Virani SS, Yeboah J
Circulation 2019 Jun 18;139(25):e1082-e1143. Epub 2018 Nov 10 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000625. PMID: 30586774Free PMC Article
Salvagioni DAJ, Melanda FN, Mesas AE, González AD, Gabani FL, Andrade SM
PLoS One 2017;12(10):e0185781. Epub 2017 Oct 4 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0185781. PMID: 28977041Free PMC Article

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