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Pectus carinatum

MedGen UID:
57643
Concept ID:
C0158731
Congenital Abnormality; Finding
Synonym: Carinatum deformity of the chest
SNOMED CT: Congenital pectus carinatum (205101001)
 
HPO: HP:0000768

Definition

A deformity of the chest caused by overgrowth of the ribs and characterized by protrusion of the sternum. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Acrocephalosyndactyly type I
MedGen UID:
7858
Concept ID:
C0001193
Congenital Abnormality
Apert syndrome is characterized by the presence of multisuture craniosynostosis, midface retrusion, and syndactyly of the hands with fusion of the second through fourth nails. Almost all affected individuals have coronal craniosynostosis, and a majority also have involvement of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures. The midface in Apert syndrome is underdeveloped as well as retruded; a subset of affected individuals have cleft palate. The hand in Apert syndrome always includes fusion of the middle three digits; the thumb and fifth finger are sometimes also involved. Feeding issues, dental abnormalities, hearing loss, hyperhidrosis, and progressive synostosis of multiple bones (skull, hands, feet, carpus, tarsus, and cervical vertebrae) are also common. Multilevel airway obstruction may be present and can be due to narrowing of the nasal passages, tongue-based airway obstruction, and/or tracheal anomalies. Nonprogressive ventriculomegaly is present in a majority of individuals, with a small subset having true hydrocephalus. Most individuals with Apert syndrome have normal intelligence or mild intellectual disability; moderate-to-severe intellectual disability has been reported in some individuals. A minority of affected individuals have structural cardiac abnormalities, true gastrointestinal malformations, and anomalies of the genitourinary tract.
Ellis-van Creveld syndrome
MedGen UID:
8584
Concept ID:
C0013903
Disease or Syndrome
Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is an autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by short limbs, short ribs, postaxial polydactyly, and dysplastic nails and teeth. Congenital cardiac defects, most commonly a defect of primary atrial septation producing a common atrium, occur in 60% of affected individuals (summary by Ruiz-Perez et al., 2000). The clinical features of the Ellis-van Creveld syndrome appear to be identical regardless of whether the disorder is caused by mutation in the EVC gene (604831) or in the EVC2 gene (607261) (Ruiz-Perez et al., 2003, Galdzicka et al., 2002).
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 6 with or without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
44252
Concept ID:
C0024507
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Deficiency of alpha-mannosidase
MedGen UID:
7467
Concept ID:
C0024748
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-mannosidosis encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from mild to severe. Three major clinical subtypes have been suggested: A mild form recognized after age ten years with absence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 1). A moderate form recognized before age ten years with presence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 2). A severe form manifested as prenatal loss or early death from progressive central nervous system involvement or infection (type 3). Individuals with a milder phenotype have mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, impaired hearing, characteristic coarse features, clinical or radiographic skeletal abnormalities, immunodeficiency, and primary central nervous system disease – mainly cerebellar involvement causing ataxia. Periods of psychiatric symptoms are common. Associated medical problems can include corneal opacities, hepatosplenomegaly, aseptic destructive arthritis, and metabolic myopathy. Alpha-mannosidosis is insidiously progressive; some individuals may live into the sixth decade.
Marfan syndrome
MedGen UID:
44287
Concept ID:
C0024796
Disease or Syndrome
FBN1-related Marfan syndrome (Marfan syndrome), a systemic disorder of connective tissue with a high degree of clinical variability, comprises a broad phenotypic continuum ranging from mild (features of Marfan syndrome in one or a few systems) to severe and rapidly progressive neonatal multiorgan disease. Cardinal manifestations involve the ocular, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. Ocular findings include myopia (>50% of affected individuals); ectopia lentis (seen in approximately 60% of affected individuals); and an increased risk for retinal detachment, glaucoma, and early cataracts. Skeletal system manifestations include bone overgrowth and joint laxity; disproportionately long extremities for the size of the trunk (dolichostenomelia); overgrowth of the ribs that can push the sternum in (pectus excavatum) or out (pectus carinatum); and scoliosis that ranges from mild to severe and progressive. The major morbidity and early mortality in Marfan syndrome relate to the cardiovascular system and include dilatation of the aorta at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva (predisposing to aortic tear and rupture), mitral valve prolapse with or without regurgitation, tricuspid valve prolapse, and enlargement of the proximal pulmonary artery. Severe and prolonged regurgitation of the mitral and/or aortic valve can predispose to left ventricular dysfunction and occasionally heart failure. With proper management, the life expectancy of someone with Marfan syndrome approximates that of the general population.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type 6
MedGen UID:
44514
Concept ID:
C0026709
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS6) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of arylsulfatase B. Clinical features and severity are variable, but usually include short stature, hepatosplenomegaly, dysostosis multiplex, stiff joints, corneal clouding, cardiac abnormalities, and facial dysmorphism. Intelligence is usually normal (Azevedo et al., 2004).
Prune belly syndrome
MedGen UID:
18718
Concept ID:
C0033770
Disease or Syndrome
In its rare complete form, 'prune belly' syndrome comprises megacystis (massively enlarged bladder) with disorganized detrusor muscle, cryptorchidism, and thin abdominal musculature with overlying lax skin (summary by Weber et al., 2011).
Mucopolysaccharidosis type 7
MedGen UID:
43108
Concept ID:
C0085132
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease characterized by the inability to degrade glucuronic acid-containing glycosaminoglycans. The phenotype is highly variable, ranging from severe lethal hydrops fetalis to mild forms with survival into adulthood. Most patients with the intermediate phenotype show hepatomegaly, skeletal anomalies, coarse facies, and variable degrees of mental impairment (Shipley et al., 1993). MPS VII was the first autosomal mucopolysaccharidosis for which chromosomal assignment was achieved.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-IV-A
MedGen UID:
43375
Concept ID:
C0086651
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is a continuum that ranges from a severe and rapidly progressive early-onset form to a slowly progressive later-onset form. Children with MPS IVA typically have no distinctive clinical findings at birth. The severe form is usually apparent between ages one and three years, often first manifesting as kyphoscoliosis, genu valgum (knock-knee), and pectus carinatum; the slowly progressive form may not become evident until late childhood or adolescence, often first manifesting as hip problems (pain, stiffness, and Legg Perthes disease). Progressive bone and joint involvement leads to short stature, and eventually to disabling pain and arthritis. Involvement of other organ systems can lead to significant morbidity, including respiratory compromise, obstructive sleep apnea, valvular heart disease, hearing impairment, visual impairment from corneal clouding, dental abnormalities, and hepatomegaly. Compression of the spinal cord is a common complication that results in neurologic impairment. Children with MPS IVA have normal intellectual abilities at the outset of the disease.
Larsen syndrome
MedGen UID:
104500
Concept ID:
C0175778
Disease or Syndrome
The FLNB disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild to severe. At the mild end are spondylocarpotarsal synostosis (SCT) syndrome and Larsen syndrome; at the severe end are the phenotypic continuum of atelosteogenesis types I (AOI) and III (AOIII) and Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD). SCT syndrome is characterized by postnatal disproportionate short stature, scoliosis and lordosis, clubfeet, hearing loss, dental enamel hypoplasia, carpal and tarsal synostosis, and vertebral fusions. Larsen syndrome is characterized by congenital dislocations of the hip, knee, and elbow; clubfeet (equinovarus or equinovalgus foot deformities); scoliosis and cervical kyphosis, which can be associated with a cervical myelopathy; short, broad, spatulate distal phalanges; distinctive craniofacies (prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, malar flattening, and widely spaced eyes); vertebral anomalies; and supernumerary carpal and tarsal bone ossification centers. Individuals with SCT syndrome and Larsen syndrome can have midline cleft palate and hearing loss. AOI and AOIII are characterized by severe short-limbed dwarfism; dislocated hips, knees, and elbows; and clubfeet. AOI is lethal in the perinatal period. In individuals with AOIII, survival beyond the neonatal period is possible with intensive and invasive respiratory support. Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD) is a perinatal-lethal micromelic dwarfism characterized by flipper-like limbs (polysyndactyly with complete syndactyly of all fingers and toes, hypoplastic or absent first digits, and duplicated intermediate and distal phalanges), macrobrachycephaly, prominant forehead, hypertelorism, and exophthalmos. Occasional features include cleft palate, omphalocele, and cardiac and genitourinary anomalies. The radiographic features at mid-gestation are characteristic.
Congenital contractural arachnodactyly
MedGen UID:
67391
Concept ID:
C0220668
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) appears to comprise a broad phenotypic spectrum. Classic CCA is characterized by arachnodactyly; flexion contractures of multiple joints including elbows, knees, hips, ankles, and/or fingers; kyphoscoliosis (usually progressive); a marfanoid habitus (a long and slender build, dolichostenomelia, pectus deformity, muscular hypoplasia, highly arched palate); and abnormal "crumpled" ears. At the mildest end, parents who are diagnosed retrospectively upon evaluation of their more severely affected child may show a lean body build, mild arachnodactyly, mild contractures without impairment, and minor ear abnormalities. At the most severe end is "severe CCA with cardiovascular and/or gastrointestinal anomalies," a rare phenotype in infants with pronounced features of CCA (severe crumpling of the ears, arachnodactyly, contractures, congenital scoliosis, and/or hypotonia) and severe cardiovascular and/or gastrointestinal anomalies. Phenotypic expression can vary within and between families.
Coffin-Lowry syndrome
MedGen UID:
75556
Concept ID:
C0265252
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is usually characterized by severe-to-profound intellectual disability in males; less severely impaired individuals have been reported. Neuropsychiatric concerns can include behavioral problems, loss of strength, progressive spasticity or paraplegia, sleep apnea, or stroke. Stimulus-induced drop attacks (SIDAs) in which unexpected tactile or auditory stimuli or excitement triggers a brief collapse but no loss of consciousness are present in approximately 20% of affected individuals. Typically SIDAs begin between mid-childhood and the teens. Characteristic facial features may be more apparent with age. Upper-extremity differences may be subtle and include short, soft, fleshy hands with tapered fingers as well as fleshy forearms. Progressive kyphoscoliosis is one of the most difficult aspects of long-term care. Affected females tend to have intellectual disability in the mild-to-moderate range and may also have the typical facial, hand, and skeletal findings noted in males.
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type
MedGen UID:
82698
Concept ID:
C0265280
Congenital Abnormality
The autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders (previously considered to be clinically distinct phenotypes before their molecular basis was discovered) are now grouped into neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias; however, the overlap within each group is considerable. Affected individuals typically have either neuromuscular or skeletal manifestations alone, and in only rare instances an overlap syndrome has been reported. The three autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders (mildest to most severe) are: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2C. Scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy. Congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy. The autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders are characterized by a congenital-onset, static, or later-onset progressive peripheral neuropathy with variable combinations of laryngeal dysfunction (i.e., vocal fold paresis), respiratory dysfunction, and joint contractures. The six autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasias (mildest to most severe) are: Familial digital arthropathy-brachydactyly. Autosomal dominant brachyolmia. Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Maroteaux type. Parastremmatic dysplasia. Metatropic dysplasia. The skeletal dysplasia is characterized by brachydactyly (in all 6); the five that are more severe have short stature that varies from mild to severe with progressive spinal deformity and involvement of the long bones and pelvis. In the mildest of the autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders life span is normal; in the most severe it is shortened. Bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) can occur with both autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias.
Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen syndrome
MedGen UID:
120527
Concept ID:
C0265286
Disease or Syndrome
Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen disease (DMC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia and impaired intellectual development. Short-trunk dwarfism and microcephaly are present, and specific radiologic appearances most likely reflect abnormalities of the growth plates, including platyspondyly with notched end plates, metaphyseal irregularities, laterally displaced capital femoral epiphyses, and small iliac wings with lacy iliac crests (summary by El Ghouzzi et al., 2003).
Cutis laxa, X-linked
MedGen UID:
82793
Concept ID:
C0268353
Congenital Abnormality
Occipital horn syndrome (OHS) is a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by hyperelastic and bruisable skin, hernias, bladder diverticula, hyperextensible joints, varicosities, and multiple skeletal abnormalities. The disorder is sometimes accompanied by mild neurologic impairment, and bony abnormalities of the occiput are a common feature, giving rise to the name (summary by Das et al., 1995).
Marfanoid joint hypermobility syndrome
MedGen UID:
120632
Concept ID:
C0268365
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
98476
Concept ID:
C0432213
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of disproportionate short-trunked short stature, pectus carinatum, short arms, short and broad hands, short metatarsals, flat and broad feet, coxa vara, genu valgum, osteoarthritis, arthrosis and moderate-to-serious gait impairment. The syndrome has been described among Venezuelan Indians of the Yukpa (Irapa) tribe and three siblings from a Mexican mestizo family. Autosomal recessive inheritance has been suggested, but the causative gene has not yet been identified.
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia - Sutcliffe type
MedGen UID:
98146
Concept ID:
C0432221
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, corner fracture type (SMDCF) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature and a waddling gait in early childhood. Short stature may be present at birth or develop in early infancy. Individuals may present with short limbs and/or short trunk. Radiographic features include enlargement and corner fracture-like lesions of the metaphyses, developmental coxa vara, shortened long bones, scoliosis, and vertebral anomalies. Limited joint mobility and chronic pain are common. Vision impairment and glaucoma have been reported.
Trichorhinophalangeal dysplasia type I
MedGen UID:
140929
Concept ID:
C0432233
Disease or Syndrome
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) comprises TRPS I (caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in TRPS1) and TRPS II (caused by contiguous gene deletion of TRPS1, RAD21, and EXT1). Both types of TRPS are characterized by distinctive facial features; ectodermal features (fine, sparse, depigmented, and slow growing hair; dystrophic nails; and small breasts); and skeletal findings (short stature; short feet; brachydactyly with ulnar or radial deviation of the fingers; and early, marked hip dysplasia). TRPS II is characterized by multiple osteochondromas (typically first observed clinically on the scapulae and around the elbows and knees between ages 1 month and 6 years) and an increased risk of mild-to-moderate intellectual disability.
Café-au-lait macules with pulmonary stenosis
MedGen UID:
107817
Concept ID:
C0553586
Disease or Syndrome
Watson syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by pulmonic stenosis, cafe-au-lait spots, decreased intellectual ability (Watson, 1967), and short stature (Partington et al., 1985). Most affected individuals have relative macrocephaly and Lisch nodules and about one-third of those affected have neurofibroma (Allanson et al., 1991).
Costello syndrome
MedGen UID:
108454
Concept ID:
C0587248
Disease or Syndrome
While the majority of individuals with Costello syndrome share characteristic findings affecting multiple organ systems, the phenotypic spectrum is wide, ranging from a milder or attenuated phenotype to a severe phenotype with early lethal complications. Costello syndrome is typically characterized by failure to thrive in infancy as a result of severe postnatal feeding difficulties; short stature; developmental delay or intellectual disability; coarse facial features (full lips, large mouth, full nasal tip); curly or sparse, fine hair; loose, soft skin with deep palmar and plantar creases; papillomata of the face and perianal region; diffuse hypotonia and joint laxity with ulnar deviation of the wrists and fingers; tight Achilles tendons; and cardiac involvement including: cardiac hypertrophy (usually typical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), congenital heart defect (usually valvar pulmonic stenosis), and arrhythmia (usually supraventricular tachycardia, especially chaotic atrial rhythm/multifocal atrial tachycardia or ectopic atrial tachycardia). Relative or absolute macrocephaly is typical, and postnatal cerebellar overgrowth can result in the development of a Chiari I malformation with associated anomalies including hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. Individuals with Costello syndrome have an approximately 15% lifetime risk for malignant tumors including rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroblastoma in young children and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in adolescents and young adults.
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type
MedGen UID:
147134
Concept ID:
C0700635
Finding
The Strudwick type of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) is characterized by disproportionate short stature, pectus carinatum, and scoliosis, as well as dappled metaphyses (summary by Tiller et al., 1995).
Classic homocystinuria
MedGen UID:
199606
Concept ID:
C0751202
Disease or Syndrome
Homocystinuria caused by cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) deficiency is characterized by involvement of the eye (ectopia lentis and/or severe myopia), skeletal system (excessive height, long limbs, scolioisis, and pectus excavatum), vascular system (thromboembolism), and CNS (developmental delay/intellectual disability). All four ? or only one ? of the systems can be involved; expressivity is variable for all of the clinical signs. It is not unusual for a previously asymptomatic individual to present in adult years with only a thromboembolic event that is often cerebrovascular. Two phenotypic variants are recognized, B6-responsive homocystinuria and B6-non-responsive homocystinuria. B6-responsive homocystinuria is usually milder than the non-responsive variant. Thromboembolism is the major cause of early death and morbidity. IQ in individuals with untreated homocystinuria ranges widely, from 10 to 138. In B6-responsive individuals the mean IQ is 79 versus 57 for those who are B6-non-responsive. Other features that may occur include: seizures, psychiatric problems, extrapyramidal signs (e.g., dystonia), hypopigmentation of the skin and hair, malar flush, livedo reticularis, and pancreatitis.
Intellectual disability, Buenos-Aires type
MedGen UID:
167102
Concept ID:
C0796080
Disease or Syndrome
A rare intellectual disability syndrome with characteristics of growth retardation, microcephaly, characteristic facial features (including narrow forehead, bushy eyebrows, hypertelorism, small, downward-slanting palpebral fissures with blepharoptosis, malformed and low-set ears, broad straight nose, thin upper lip and a wide, tented mouth), developmental delay, intellectual disability, speech disorder, and multiple organ malformations (e.g. ventricular septal defect, megaloureter, dilated renal pelvis). Additional manifestations reported include neurocutaneous lesions (including palmoplantar hyperkeratosis), internal hydrocephalus, and bilateral partial soft-tissue syndactyly of second and third toe.
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
162917
Concept ID:
C0796154
Disease or Syndrome
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1 (SGBS1) is characterized by pre- and postnatal macrosomia; distinctive craniofacial features (including macrocephaly, coarse facial features, macrostomia, macroglossia, and palatal abnormalities); and commonly, mild-to-severe intellectual disability with or without structural brain anomalies. Other variable findings include supernumerary nipples, diastasis recti / umbilical hernia, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, genitourinary defects, and gastrointestinal anomalies. Skeletal anomalies can include vertebral fusion, scoliosis, rib anomalies, and congenital hip dislocation. Hand anomalies can include large hands and postaxial polydactyly. Affected individuals are at increased risk for embryonal tumors including Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma, adrenal neuroblastoma, gonadoblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and medulloblastoma.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Snyder type
MedGen UID:
162918
Concept ID:
C0796160
Disease or Syndrome
Snyder-Robinson syndrome (SRS) is an X-linked intellectual disability syndrome characterized by asthenic build, facial dysmorphism with a prominent lower lip, kyphoscoliosis, osteoporosis, speech abnormalities, and seizures. Developmental delay usually presents as failure to meet early developmental milestones and then evolves to moderate to profound intellectual disability (which appears to remain stable over time) and variable motor disability. Asthenic habitus and low muscle mass usually develop during the first year, even in males who are ambulatory. During the first decade, males with SRS develop osteoporosis, resulting in fractures in the absence of trauma.
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Golden type
MedGen UID:
208672
Concept ID:
C0796172
Disease or Syndrome
A rare primary bone dysplasia disorder with characteristics of severe short stature, coarse facies, thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis and enlarged joints with contractures. Psychomotor delay and intellectual disability may also be associated. Radiographic features include flat vertebral bodies, lacy ossification of the metaphyses of long bones and iliac crests, and marked sclerosis of the skull base.
Spondyloperipheral dysplasia
MedGen UID:
163223
Concept ID:
C0796173
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloperipheral dysplasia is a disorder that impairs bone growth. This condition is characterized by flattened bones of the spine (platyspondyly) and unusually short fingers and toes (brachydactyly), with the exception of the first (big) toes. Other skeletal abnormalities associated with spondyloperipheral dysplasia include short stature, shortened long bones of the arms and legs, exaggerated curvature of the lower back (lordosis), and an inward- and upward-turning foot (clubfoot). Additionally, some affected individuals have nearsightedness (myopia), hearing loss, and intellectual disability.
Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome
MedGen UID:
266149
Concept ID:
C1275081
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is characterized by cardiac abnormalities (pulmonic stenosis and other valve dysplasias, septal defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, rhythm disturbances), distinctive craniofacial appearance, and cutaneous abnormalities (including xerosis, hyperkeratosis, ichthyosis, keratosis pilaris, ulerythema ophryogenes, eczema, pigmented moles, hemangiomas, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis). The hair is typically sparse, curly, fine or thick, woolly or brittle; eyelashes and eyebrows may be absent or sparse. Nails may be dystrophic or fast growing. Some form of neurologic and/or cognitive delay (ranging from mild to severe) is seen in all affected individuals. Neoplasia, mostly acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has been reported in some individuals.
Microcephalic osteodysplastic dysplasia, Saul-Wilson type
MedGen UID:
722057
Concept ID:
C1300285
Disease or Syndrome
Saul-Wilson syndrome (SWS) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by profound short stature, distinctive craniofacial features, short distal phalanges of fingers and toes, and often clubfoot. Early development (primarily speech and motor) is delayed; cognition is normal. Other findings can include hearing loss (conductive, sensorineural, and mixed), lamellar cataracts, and/or rod-cone retinal dystrophy. To date, 16 affected individuals have been reported.
Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome
MedGen UID:
231160
Concept ID:
C1321551
Disease or Syndrome
Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) is characterized by: delayed motor and cognitive milestones and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability; craniosynostosis of the coronal, sagittal, or lambdoid sutures; distinctive craniofacial features; and musculoskeletal findings including olichostenomelia, arachnodactyly, camptodactyly, pectus excavatum or carinatum, scoliosis, joint hypermobility or contractures, pes planus, foot malposition, and C1-C2 spine malformation. Cardiovascular anomalies may include mitral valve prolapse, secundum atrial septal defect, and aortic root dilatation. Minimal subcutaneous fat, abdominal wall defects, and myopia are also characteristic findings.
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda, autosomal recessive, Leroy-Spranger type
MedGen UID:
373126
Concept ID:
C1836584
Disease or Syndrome
Bruck syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
373129
Concept ID:
C1836602
Disease or Syndrome
Any Bruck syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PLOD2 gene.
Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus-pancreatic and cerebellar agenesis syndrome
MedGen UID:
332288
Concept ID:
C1836780
Disease or Syndrome
Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus-pancreatic and cerebellar agenesis syndrome is characterized by neonatal diabetes mellitus associated with cerebellar and/or pancreatic agenesis.
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, A4 type
MedGen UID:
324620
Concept ID:
C1836862
Disease or Syndrome
The spondylometaphyseal dysplasias are a relatively common, heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by spinal and metaphyseal changes of variable pattern and severity. The classification of spondylometaphyseal dysplasias of Maroteaux and Spranger (1991) was based on changes of the femoral neck and the shape of vertebral anomalies. In this classification, type A4 referred to a form with severe metaphyseal changes of the femoral neck and ovoid, flattened vertebral bodies with anterior tongue-like deformities.
Marfanoid habitus with situs inversus
MedGen UID:
323046
Concept ID:
C1836994
Disease or Syndrome
SCARF syndrome
MedGen UID:
326461
Concept ID:
C1839321
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with the association of skeletal abnormalities, cutis laxa, craniostenosis, ambiguous genitalia, psychomotor retardation and facial abnormalities. So far, it has been described in two males (maternal first cousins). The mode of inheritance was suggested to be X-linked recessive.
Acrocapitofemoral dysplasia
MedGen UID:
334681
Concept ID:
C1843096
Disease or Syndrome
Acrocapitofemoral dysplasia (ACFD) is an autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by postnatal-onset disproportionate short stature, relatively large head, narrow thorax, lumbar lordosis, short limbs, and brachydactyly with small broad nails (Ozyavuz Cubuk and Duz, 2021).
Catel-Manzke syndrome
MedGen UID:
375536
Concept ID:
C1844887
Disease or Syndrome
Catel-Manzke syndrome is characterized by the Pierre Robin anomaly, which comprises cleft palate, glossoptosis, and micrognathia, and a unique form of bilateral hyperphalangy in which there is an accessory bone inserted between the second metacarpal and its corresponding proximal phalanx, resulting in radial deviation of the index finger (summary by Manzke et al., 2008).
Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, Al-Gazali type
MedGen UID:
335505
Concept ID:
C1846722
Disease or Syndrome
Al-Gazali-Bakalinova syndrome (AGBK) is characterized by multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, macrocephaly, and distinctive facial features including frontal bossing, hypertelorism, flat malar regions, low-set ears, and short neck. Other features include pectus excavatum, spindle-shaped fingers, clinodactyly, prominent joints, and genu valgum (summary by Ali et al., 2012).
X-linked spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
376281
Concept ID:
C1848097
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic primary bone dysplasia disorder with characteristics of disproportionate short stature with mesomelic short limbs, leg bowing, lumbar lordosis, brachydactyly, joint laxity and a waddling gait. Radiographs show platyspondyly with central protrusion of anterior vertebral bodies, kyphotic angulation and very short long bones with dysplastic epiphyses and flared, irregular, cupped metaphyses.
Schinzel phocomelia syndrome
MedGen UID:
336388
Concept ID:
C1848651
Disease or Syndrome
The Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild/Schinzel phocomelia syndrome (AARRS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe malformations of upper and lower limbs with severely hypoplastic pelvis and abnormal genitalia. The disorder is believed to represent a defect of dorsoventral patterning and outgrowth of limbs (summary by Kantaputra et al., 2010).
Teebi-Shaltout syndrome
MedGen UID:
376472
Concept ID:
C1848912
Disease or Syndrome
Teebi-Shaltout syndrome is characterized by slow hair growth, scaphocephaly with prominent forehead, bitemporal depression, absence of primary teeth, camptodactyly, and caudal appendage with sacral dimple (summary by Aldemir et al., 2013).
Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
341339
Concept ID:
C1848934
Disease or Syndrome
The FLNB disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild to severe. At the mild end are spondylocarpotarsal synostosis (SCT) syndrome and Larsen syndrome; at the severe end are the phenotypic continuum of atelosteogenesis types I (AOI) and III (AOIII) and Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD). SCT syndrome is characterized by postnatal disproportionate short stature, scoliosis and lordosis, clubfeet, hearing loss, dental enamel hypoplasia, carpal and tarsal synostosis, and vertebral fusions. Larsen syndrome is characterized by congenital dislocations of the hip, knee, and elbow; clubfeet (equinovarus or equinovalgus foot deformities); scoliosis and cervical kyphosis, which can be associated with a cervical myelopathy; short, broad, spatulate distal phalanges; distinctive craniofacies (prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, malar flattening, and widely spaced eyes); vertebral anomalies; and supernumerary carpal and tarsal bone ossification centers. Individuals with SCT syndrome and Larsen syndrome can have midline cleft palate and hearing loss. AOI and AOIII are characterized by severe short-limbed dwarfism; dislocated hips, knees, and elbows; and clubfeet. AOI is lethal in the perinatal period. In individuals with AOIII, survival beyond the neonatal period is possible with intensive and invasive respiratory support. Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD) is a perinatal-lethal micromelic dwarfism characterized by flipper-like limbs (polysyndactyly with complete syndactyly of all fingers and toes, hypoplastic or absent first digits, and duplicated intermediate and distal phalanges), macrobrachycephaly, prominant forehead, hypertelorism, and exophthalmos. Occasional features include cleft palate, omphalocele, and cardiac and genitourinary anomalies. The radiographic features at mid-gestation are characteristic.
Brachyolmia type 1, Hobaek type
MedGen UID:
338605
Concept ID:
C1849055
Disease or Syndrome
Rock et al. (2008) provided an overview of the brachyolmias, a heterogeneous group of skeletal dysplasias that affect primarily the spine. Type 1 brachyolmia includes the Hobaek and Toledo (BCYM1B; 271630) forms, which are inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. Both forms of type 1 are characterized by scoliosis, platyspondyly with rectangular and elongated vertebral bodies, overfaced pedicles, and irregular, narrow intervertebral spaces. The Toledo form is distinguished by the presence of corneal opacities and precocious calcification of the costal cartilage. Type 2 brachyolmia (BCYM2; 613678), sometimes referred to as the Maroteaux type, is also an autosomal recessive disorder, primarily distinguished from type 1 by rounded vertebral bodies and less overfaced pedicles. Some cases are associated with precocious calcification of the falx cerebri. Type 3 brachyolmia (BCYM3; 113500) is an autosomal dominant form, caused by mutation in the TRPV4 gene (605427), with severe kyphoscoliosis and flattened, irregular cervical vertebrae. Paradoxically, although the limbs are mildly shortened in all types of brachyolmia, they show minimal epiphyseal and metaphyseal abnormalities on radiographs. Type 4 brachyolmia (BCYM4; 612847) is an autosomal recessive form, caused by mutation in the PAPSS2 gene (603005), with mild epiphyseal and metaphyseal changes.
Bruck syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
342431
Concept ID:
C1850168
Disease or Syndrome
Bruck syndrome is characterized by congenital contractures with pterygia, onset of fractures in infancy or early childhood, postnatal short stature, severe limb deformity, and progressive scoliosis (McPherson and Clemens, 1997). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bruck Syndrome Bruck syndrome-2 (609220) is caused by homozygous mutation in the PLOD2 gene (601865) on chromosome 3q24. Van der Slot et al. (2003) stated that they were unaware of any phenotypic differences between the 2 forms of Bruck syndrome.
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 9
MedGen UID:
376720
Concept ID:
C1850169
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta is a connective tissue disorder characterized clinically by bone fragility and increased susceptibility to fractures. Osteogenesis imperfecta type IX is a severe autosomal recessive form of the disorder (summary by van Dijk et al., 2009).
Congenital osteogenesis imperfecta-microcephaly-cataracts syndrome
MedGen UID:
337988
Concept ID:
C1850184
Disease or Syndrome
A rare multiple congenital malformations/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by osteogenesis imperfecta with multiple prenatal bone fractures, joint laxity, severe microcephaly, and bilateral cataracts. Additional reported manifestations include dysmorphic facial features (such as blue sclerae, hypertelorism, and low-set ears), lissencephaly, hydrocephalus, and cardiac and genital anomalies. The syndrome is lethal <i>in utero</i> or shortly after birth. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1978.
Acropectoral syndrome
MedGen UID:
342975
Concept ID:
C1853812
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of a combination of distal limb abnormalities (syndactyly of all fingers and toes, preaxial polydactyly in the feet and/or hands) and upper sternum malformations. It has been described in 22 patients from a six-generation Turkish family. It is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait and the causative gene is located at 7q36.
Nemaline myopathy 5
MedGen UID:
344273
Concept ID:
C1854380
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy is a disorder that primarily affects skeletal muscles, which are muscles that the body uses for movement. People with nemaline myopathy have muscle weakness (myopathy) throughout the body, but it is typically most severe in the muscles of the face; neck; trunk; and other muscles close to the center of the body (proximal muscles), such as those of the upper arms and legs. This weakness can worsen over time. Affected individuals may have feeding and swallowing difficulties, foot deformities, abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis), and joint deformities (contractures). Most people with nemaline myopathy are able to walk, although some affected children may begin walking later than usual. As the condition progresses, some people may require wheelchair assistance. In severe cases, the muscles used for breathing are affected and life-threatening breathing difficulties can occur.\n\nNemaline myopathy is divided into six types. In order of decreasing severity, the types are: severe congenital, Amish, intermediate congenital, typical congenital, childhood-onset, and adult-onset. The types are distinguished by the age when symptoms first appear and the severity of symptoms; however, there is overlap among the various types. The severe congenital type is the most life-threatening. Most individuals with this type do not survive past early childhood due to respiratory failure. The Amish type solely affects the Old Order Amish population of Pennsylvania and is typically fatal in early childhood. The most common type of nemaline myopathy is the typical congenital type, which is characterized by muscle weakness and feeding problems beginning in infancy. Most of these individuals do not have severe breathing problems and can walk unassisted. People with the childhood-onset type usually develop muscle weakness in adolescence. The adult-onset type is the mildest of all the various types. People with this type usually develop muscle weakness between ages 20 and 50.
Noonan syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
344290
Concept ID:
C1854469
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
GNPTG-mucolipidosis
MedGen UID:
340743
Concept ID:
C1854896
Disease or Syndrome
Mucolipidosis III gamma (ML III?) is a slowly progressive inborn error of metabolism mainly affecting skeletal, joint, and connective tissues. Clinical onset is in early childhood; the progressive course results in severe functional impairment and significant morbidity from chronic pain. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease from thoracic involvement, and thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves) are rarely clinically significant. A few (probably <10%) affected individuals display mild cognitive impairment.
Kniest-like dysplasia with pursed lips and ectopia lentis
MedGen UID:
343394
Concept ID:
C1855606
Disease or Syndrome
Mowat-Wilson syndrome
MedGen UID:
341067
Concept ID:
C1856113
Disease or Syndrome
Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is characterized by distinctive facial features (widely spaced eyes, broad eyebrows with a medial flare, low-hanging columella, prominent or pointed chin, open-mouth expression, and uplifted earlobes with a central depression), congenital heart defects with predilection for abnormalities of the pulmonary arteries and/or valves, Hirschsprung disease or chronic constipation, genitourinary anomalies (particularly hypospadias in males), and hypogenesis or agenesis of the corpus callosum. Most affected individuals have moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. Speech is typically limited to a few words or is absent, with relative preservation of receptive language skills. Growth restriction with microcephaly and seizure disorder are also common. Most affected people have a happy demeanor and a wide-based gait that can sometimes be confused with Angelman syndrome.
Granulocytopenia with immunoglobulin abnormality
MedGen UID:
383874
Concept ID:
C1856263
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-59 is an autosomal recessive primary immunologic disorder characterized by combined immunodeficiency and recurrent septic infections of the respiratory tract, skin, and mucous membranes, as well as disturbed glucose metabolism. Granulocytopenia and B-cell and dentritic cell deficiency are present (Haapaniemi et al., 2017).
MASS syndrome
MedGen UID:
346932
Concept ID:
C1858556
Disease or Syndrome
A genetic disorder of connective tissue caused by mutations in the FBN1 gene. Connective tissue is the material between the cells of the body that gives tissues form and strength. Symptoms include mitral valve prolapse, nearsightedness, borderline and non-progressive aortic enlargement, and skin and skeletal findings that overlap with those seen in Marfan syndrome. Treatment is based on the individuals symptoms.
Camptodactyly syndrome, Guadalajara type 1
MedGen UID:
395241
Concept ID:
C1859359
Disease or Syndrome
A rare syndrome consisting of growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, camptodactyly and skeletal anomalies. To date only eight cases have been reported in the literature. Dysmorphic features include flat face, epicanthic folds, telecanthus, small downturned mouth, small ears with attached lobule and abnormal dental eruption and occlusion. Some patients had psychomotor development delayed. The reported cases suggest the condition is hereditary and is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait.
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type 3
MedGen UID:
349167
Concept ID:
C1859439
Disease or Syndrome
Arterial tortuosity syndrome
MedGen UID:
347942
Concept ID:
C1859726
Disease or Syndrome
Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is characterized by widespread elongation and tortuosity of the aorta and mid-sized arteries as well as focal stenosis of segments of the pulmonary arteries and/or aorta combined with findings of a generalized connective tissue disorder, which may include soft or doughy hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility, inguinal hernia, and diaphragmatic hernia. Skeletal findings include pectus excavatum or carinatum, arachnodactyly, scoliosis, knee/elbow contractures, and camptodactyly. The cardiovascular system is the major source of morbidity and mortality with increased risk at any age for aneurysm formation and dissection both at the aortic root and throughout the arterial tree, and for ischemic vascular events involving cerebrovascular circulation (resulting in non-hemorrhagic stroke) and the abdominal arteries (resulting in infarctions of abdominal organs).
Noonan syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
349931
Concept ID:
C1860991
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Camptomelic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
354620
Concept ID:
C1861922
Disease or Syndrome
Campomelic dysplasia (CD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by distinctive facies, Pierre Robin sequence with cleft palate, shortening and bowing of long bones, and clubfeet. Other findings include laryngotracheomalacia with respiratory compromise and ambiguous genitalia or normal female external genitalia in most individuals with a 46,XY karyotype. Many affected infants die in the neonatal period; additional findings identified in long-term survivors include short stature, cervical spine instability with cord compression, progressive scoliosis, and hearing impairment.
Short stature and Facioauriculothoracic malformations
MedGen UID:
351216
Concept ID:
C1864791
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
355785
Concept ID:
C1866717
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal domiant spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda (autosomal dominant SEDT) is an inherited condition that affects bone growth. Signs and symptoms are generally physically apparent by puberty; however, abnormalities may be seen on X-ray at an earlier age. Affected people may have skeletal abnormalities, short stature (with a short neck and trunk, specifically), scoliosis, kyphosis, lumbar hyperlordosis (exaggerated curvature of the lower back), and early-onset progressive osteoarthritis of the hips and knees. Some cases of autosomal dominant SEDT may be caused by changes (mutations) in the COL2A1 gene. As the name suggests, the condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Treatment is based on the signs and symptoms present in each person and may include surgery and pain management strategies.
Contractures, pterygia, and spondylocarpotarsal fusion syndrome 1A
MedGen UID:
401232
Concept ID:
C1867440
Disease or Syndrome
Contractures, pterygia, and spondylocarpotarsal fusion syndrome-1A (CPSFS1) is characterized by contractures of proximal and distal joints, pterygia involving the neck, axillae, elbows, and/or knees, as well as variable vertebral, carpal, and tarsal fusions and short stature. Progression of vertebral fusions has been observed, and inter- and intrafamilial variability has been reported (Carapito et al., 2016; Zieba et al., 2017; Cameron-Christie et al., 2018). An autosomal recessive form of CPSFS (CPSFS1B; 618469) is caused by compound heterozygous mutation in the MYH3 gene.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability 14
MedGen UID:
372646
Concept ID:
C1970822
Disease or Syndrome
Any X-linked syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the UPF3B gene.
Loeys-Dietz syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
382398
Concept ID:
C2674574
Disease or Syndrome
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant.
Chromosome 3q29 microdeletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
393265
Concept ID:
C2674949
Disease or Syndrome
3q29 recurrent deletion is characterized by neurodevelopmental and/or psychiatric manifestations including mild-to-moderate intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), executive function deficits, graphomotor weakness, and psychosis/schizophrenia. Age at onset for psychosis or prodrome can be younger than the typical age at onset in the general population. Neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions are responsible for the majority of the disability associated with the 3q29 deletion. Other common findings are failure to thrive and feeding problems in infancy that persist into childhood, gastrointestinal disorders (including constipation and gastroesophageal reflux disease [GERD]), ocular issues, dental anomalies, and congenital heart defects (especially patent ductus arteriosus). Structural anomalies of the posterior fossa may be seen on neuroimaging. To date more than 200 affected individuals have been identified.
Hunter-Macdonald syndrome
MedGen UID:
383181
Concept ID:
C2677745
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita
MedGen UID:
412530
Concept ID:
C2745959
Congenital Abnormality
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) is an autosomal dominant chondrodysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature (short trunk), abnormal epiphyses, and flattened vertebral bodies. Skeletal features are manifested at birth and evolve with time. Other features include myopia and/or retinal degeneration with retinal detachment and cleft palate (summary by Anderson et al., 1990).
Spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
412869
Concept ID:
C2750066
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature with a short and stiff neck and trunk; relatively long limbs that may show flexion contractures of the distal joints; delayed and impaired ossification of the vertebral bodies and the presence of large epiphyseal ossification centers and wide growth plates in the long tubular bones; and numerous pseudoepiphyses of the short tubular bones in hands and feet (summary by Hellemans et al., 2009).
Autosomal recessive severe congenital neutropenia due to G6PC3 deficiency
MedGen UID:
414066
Concept ID:
C2751630
Disease or Syndrome
G6PC3 deficiency is characterized by severe congenital neutropenia which occurs in a phenotypic continuum that includes the following: Isolated severe congenital neutropenia (nonsyndromic). Classic G6PC3 deficiency (severe congenital neutropenia plus cardiovascular and/or urogenital abnormalities). Severe G6PC3 deficiency (classic G6PC3 deficiency plus involvement of non-myeloid hematopoietic cell lines, additional extra-hematologic features, and pulmonary hypertension; known as Dursun syndrome). Neutropenia usually presents with recurrent bacterial infections in the first few months of life. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), failure to thrive (FTT), and poor postnatal growth are common. Other findings in classic and severe G6PC3 deficiency can include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) resembling Crohn's disease, and endocrine disorders (growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and delayed puberty).
3M syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
414168
Concept ID:
C2752041
Disease or Syndrome
Three M syndrome is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency (final height 5-6 SD below the mean; i.e., 120-130 cm), characteristic facies, and normal intelligence. Additional features of three M syndrome include short broad neck, prominent trapezii, deformed sternum, short thorax, square shoulders, winged scapulae, hyperlordosis, short fifth fingers, prominent heels, and loose joints. Males with three M syndrome have hypogonadism and occasionally hypospadias.
Richieri Costa-da Silva syndrome
MedGen UID:
419686
Concept ID:
C2930978
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic myotonic syndrome characterised by childhood onset of progressive and severe myotonia (with generalised muscular hypertrophy and progressive impairment of gait) short stature, skeletal abnormalities (including pectus carinatum, short, wedge-shaped thoracolumbar vertebrae, kyphoscoliosis, genu valgum, irregular femoral epiphyses) and mild to moderate intellectual deficiency. Facial dysmorphism and joint limitation are not associated. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1984.
Noonan syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
462320
Concept ID:
C3150970
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Aneurysm-osteoarthritis syndrome
MedGen UID:
462437
Concept ID:
C3151087
Disease or Syndrome
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant.
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 12
MedGen UID:
462783
Concept ID:
C3151433
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. The disorder is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. OI type XII is an autosomal recessive form characterized by recurrent fractures, mild bone deformations, generalized osteoporosis, delayed teeth eruption, progressive hearing loss, no dentinogenesis imperfecta, and white sclerae (summary by Lapunzina et al., 2010).
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Raymond type
MedGen UID:
477037
Concept ID:
C3275406
Disease or Syndrome
Raymond-type X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSR) is characterized by mildly to severely impaired intellectual development with speech and language difficulties associated with variable additional features, including marfanoid habitus, epilepsy, facial dysmorphism, hypotonia, and behavioral problems (summary by Baker et al., 2015 and Schirwani et al., 2018).
Larsen-like syndrome, B3GAT3 type
MedGen UID:
480034
Concept ID:
C3278404
Disease or Syndrome
CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 53
MedGen UID:
761340
Concept ID:
C3539494
Disease or Syndrome
SPG53 is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset in infancy of delayed motor development progressing to upper and lower limb spasticity with impaired walking. Affected individuals also show mild to moderate cognitive impairment (summary by Zivony-Elboum et al., 2012).
Hypertelorism and other facial dysmorphism, brachydactyly, genital abnormalities, intellectual disability, and recurrent inflammatory episodes
MedGen UID:
766379
Concept ID:
C3553465
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
766431
Concept ID:
C3553517
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia.
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 13
MedGen UID:
766801
Concept ID:
C3553887
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. Due to considerable phenotypic variability, Sillence et al. (1979) developed a classification of OI subtypes based on clinical features and disease severity: OI type I, with blue sclerae (166200); perinatal lethal OI type II, also known as congenital OI (166210); OI type III, a progressively deforming form with normal sclerae (259420); and OI type IV, with normal sclerae (166220). Most cases of OI are autosomal dominant with mutations in 1 of the 2 genes that code for type I collagen alpha chains, COL1A1 (120150) and COL1A2 (120160). Martinez-Glez et al. (2012) described osteogenesis imperfecta type XIII, an autosomal recessive form of the disorder characterized by normal teeth, faint blue sclerae, severe growth deficiency, borderline osteoporosis, and an average of 10 to 15 fractures a year affecting both upper and lower limbs and with severe bone deformity.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 7
MedGen UID:
767140
Concept ID:
C3554226
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 7 is a severe neurologic condition characterized by delayed psychomotor development, hypotonia, breathing abnormalities, and gonadal abnormalities (summary by Anderson et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
MEGF8-related Carpenter syndrome
MedGen UID:
767161
Concept ID:
C3554247
Disease or Syndrome
Carpenter syndrome-2 (CRPT2) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital malformation disorder characterized by multisuture craniosynostosis and polysyndactyly of the hands and feet, in association with abnormal left-right patterning and other features, most commonly obesity, umbilical hernia, cryptorchidism, and congenital heart disease (summary by Twigg et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Carpenter syndrome, see 201000.
Smith-McCort dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
811489
Concept ID:
C3714896
Disease or Syndrome
Smith-McCort dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive osteochondrodysplasia characterized by short trunk dwarfism with a barrel-shaped chest, rhizomelic limb shortening, and specific radiologic features including marked platyspondyly with double-humped end-plates, kyphoscoliosis, metaphyseal irregularities, laterally displaced capital femoral epiphyses, and small pelvis with a lace-like appearance of iliac crests. These clinical and radiologic features are also common to Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen syndrome (DMC; 223800), which is distinguished from SMC by the additional feature of mental retardation (summary by Dupuis et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Smith-McCort dysplasia, see SMC1 (607326).
Hypotonia, infantile, with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies 1
MedGen UID:
815784
Concept ID:
C3809454
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies (IHPRF) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with onset at birth or in early infancy. Affected individuals show very poor, if any, normal cognitive development. Some patients are never learn to sit or walk independently (summary by Al-Sayed et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Infantile Hypotonia with Psychomotor Retardation and Characteristic Facies See also IHPRF2 (616801), caused by mutation in the UNC80 gene (612636) on chromosome 2q34; and IHPRF3 (616900), caused by mutation in the TBCK gene (616899) on chromosome 4q24.
Early-onset progressive neurodegeneration-blindness-ataxia-spasticity syndrome
MedGen UID:
815995
Concept ID:
C3809665
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-79B (SPG79B) is an autosomal recessive progressive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of spastic paraplegia and optic atrophy in the first decade of life. Additional features are variable, but may include peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, and cognitive impairment (summary by Rydning et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Rienhoff syndrome
MedGen UID:
816342
Concept ID:
C3810012
Disease or Syndrome
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant.
Desbuquois dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
862731
Concept ID:
C4014294
Disease or Syndrome
Desbuquois dysplasia, which belongs to the multiple dislocation group of disorders, is characterized by dislocations of large joints, severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation, joint laxity, and flat face with prominent eyes. Radiologic features include short long bones with an exaggerated trochanter that gives a 'monkey wrench' appearance to the proximal femur, and advanced carpal and tarsal ossification (summary by Bui et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Desbuquois dysplasia, see DBQD1 (251450).
Aortic aneurysm, familial thoracic 9
MedGen UID:
863805
Concept ID:
C4015368
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MFAP5 gene.
Spondylocostal dysostosis 5
MedGen UID:
901825
Concept ID:
C4083048
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylocostal dysostosis (SCDO), defined radiographically as multiple segmentation defects of the vertebrae (M-SDV) in combination with abnormalities of the ribs, is characterized clinically by: a short trunk in proportion to height; short neck; non-progressive mild scoliosis in most affected individuals, and occasionally, more significant scoliosis. Respiratory function in neonates may be compromised by reduced size of the thorax. By age two years lung growth may improve sufficiently to support relatively normal growth and development; however, even then life-threatening complications can occur, especially pulmonary hypertension in children with severely restricted lung capacity from birth. Males with SCDO appear to be at increased risk for inguinal hernia.
Lamb-Shaffer syndrome
MedGen UID:
903542
Concept ID:
C4225202
Disease or Syndrome
Lamb-Shaffer syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, poor expressive speech, and mild dysmorphic facial features. Additional variable skeletal abnormalities may also be present (summary by Nesbitt et al., 2015).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 19
MedGen UID:
897962
Concept ID:
C4225235
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome-19 (CMS19) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from a defect in the neuromuscular junction, causing generalized muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and respiratory insufficiency. Patients present with hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and respiratory problems soon after birth, but the severity of the weakness and disease course is variable (summary by Logan et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Noonan syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
902892
Concept ID:
C4225280
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Spondylo-ocular syndrome
MedGen UID:
900371
Concept ID:
C4225412
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylo-ocular syndrome is a very rare association of spinal and ocular manifestations that is characterized by dense cataracts, and retinal detachment along with generalized osteoporosis and platyspondyly. Mild craniofacial dysphormism has been reported including short neck, large head and prominent eyebrows.
Mucopolysaccharidosis-like syndrome with congenital heart defects and hematopoietic disorders
MedGen UID:
934594
Concept ID:
C4310627
Disease or Syndrome
MPSPS is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism resulting in a multisystem disorder with features of the mucopolysaccharidosis lysosomal storage diseases (see, e.g., 607016). Patients present in infancy or early childhood with respiratory difficulties, cardiac problems, anemia, dysostosis multiplex, renal involvement, coarse facies, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients die of cardiorespiratory failure in the first years of life (summary by Kondo et al., 2017).
Harel-Yoon syndrome
MedGen UID:
934644
Concept ID:
C4310677
Disease or Syndrome
Harel-Yoon syndrome is a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, truncal hypotonia, spasticity, and peripheral neuropathy. Other more variable features such as optic atrophy may also occur. Laboratory studies in some patients show evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Harel et al., 2016).
Spinocerebellar ataxia 43
MedGen UID:
934730
Concept ID:
C4310763
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-43 is an autosomal dominant, slowly progressive neurologic disorder characterized by adult-onset gait and limb ataxia and often associated with peripheral neuropathy mainly affecting the motor system, although some patients may have distal sensory impairment (summary by Depondt et al., 2016). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
Intellectual disability, X-linked, syndromic, Bain type
MedGen UID:
934781
Concept ID:
C4310814
Disease or Syndrome
Most individuals with HNRNPH2-related neurodevelopmental disorder (HNRNPH2-NDD) have symptoms early in life, before age 12 months. The major features of HNRNPH2-NDD are developmental delay / intellectual disability, motor and language delays, behavioral and psychiatric disorders, and growth and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Minor features include dysmorphic facies, gastrointestinal disturbances, epilepsy, and visual defects. Although HNRNPH2-NDD is an X-linked condition, there is not enough information on affected females versus affected males to make any generalizations about phenotypic differences between the two sexes.
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 2
MedGen UID:
1376945
Concept ID:
C4479577
Disease or Syndrome
An inherited condition caused by autosomal dominant mutation(s) in the PPP1CB gene, encoding serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-beta catalytic subunit. The condition is characterized by facial features similar to those seen in Noonan syndrome but may also include short stature, cognitive deficits, relative macrocephaly, small posterior fossa resulting in Chiari I malformation, hypernasal voice, cardiac defects, and ectodermal abnormalities, which typically presents as slow-growing, sparse, and/or unruly hair.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1380260
Concept ID:
C4479631
Disease or Syndrome
NDMSBA is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by infantile onset of progressive microcephaly and spasticity and severe global developmental delay resulting in profound mental retardation and severely impaired or absent motor function. More variable features include seizures and optic atrophy. Brain imaging may show myelinating abnormalities and white matter lesions consistent with a leukoencephalopathy, as well as structural anomalies, including thin corpus callosum, gyral abnormalities, and cerebral or cerebellar atrophy. Some patients die in early childhood (summary by Falik Zaccai et al., 2017 and Hall et al., 2017).
Joint laxity, short stature, and myopia
MedGen UID:
1621331
Concept ID:
C4540020
Disease or Syndrome
A rare developmental defect with connective tissue involvement and characteristics of joint hyperextensibility and multiple dislocations of large joints, severe myopia and short stature. Other common features include retinal detachment, iris and chorioretinal coloboma, kyphoscoliosis and other spine deformities, pectus carinatum, talipes equinovarus and progressive hearing loss.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 52
MedGen UID:
1615839
Concept ID:
C4540478
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
1647990
Concept ID:
C4551479
Disease or Syndrome
Schwartz-Jampel syndrome is a rare condition characterized by permanent muscle stiffness (myotonia) and bone abnormalities known as chondrodysplasia. The signs and symptoms of this condition become apparent sometime after birth, usually in early childhood. Either muscle stiffness or chondrodysplasia can appear first. The muscle and bone abnormalities worsen in childhood, although most affected individuals have a normal lifespan. The specific features of Schwartz-Jampel syndrome vary widely.\n\nMyotonia involves continuous tensing (contraction) of muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles) throughout the body. This sustained muscle contraction causes stiffness that interferes with eating, sitting, walking, and other movements. Sustained contraction of muscles in the face leads to a fixed, "mask-like" facial expression with narrow eye openings (blepharophimosis) and pursed lips. This facial appearance is very specific to Schwartz-Jampel syndrome. Affected individuals may also be nearsighted and experience abnormal blinking or spasms of the eyelids (blepharospasm).\n\nChondrodysplasia affects the development of the skeleton, particularly the long bones in the arms and legs and the bones of the hips. These bones are shortened and unusually wide at the ends, so affected individuals have short stature. The long bones may also be abnormally curved (bowed). Other bone abnormalities associated with Schwartz-Jampel syndrome include a protruding chest (pectus carinatum), abnormal curvature of the spine, flattened bones of the spine (platyspondyly), and joint abnormalities called contractures that further restrict movement.\n\nResearchers originally described two types of Schwartz-Jampel syndrome. Type 1 has the signs and symptoms described above, while type 2 has more severe bone abnormalities and other health problems and is usually life-threatening in early infancy. Researchers have since discovered that the condition they thought was Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 2 is actually part of another disorder, Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome, which is caused by mutations in a different gene. They have recommended that the designation Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 2 no longer be used.
LEOPARD syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1631694
Concept ID:
C4551484
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck, and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth restriction resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25th centile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20% of affected individuals, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML.
Meier-Gorlin syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1641240
Concept ID:
C4552001
Disease or Syndrome
The Meier-Gorlin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, bilateral microtia, and aplasia or hypoplasia of the patellae (summary by Shalev and Hall, 2003). While almost all cases have primordial dwarfism with substantial prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, not all cases have microcephaly, and microtia and absent/hypoplastic patella are absent in some. Despite the presence of microcephaly, intellect is usually normal (Bicknell et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Meier-Gorlin Syndrome Most forms of Meier-Gorlin syndrome are autosomal recessive disorders, including Meier-Gorlin syndrome-1; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-2 (613800), caused by mutation in the ORC4 gene (603056) on chromosome 2q23; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-3 (613803), caused by mutation in the ORC6 gene (607213) on chromosome 16q11; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-4 (613804), caused by mutation in the CDT1 gene (605525) on chromosome 16q24; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-5 (613805), caused by mutation in the CDC6 gene (602627) on chromosome 17q21; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-7 (617063), caused by mutation in the CDC45L gene (603465) on chromosome 22q11; and Meier-Gorlin syndrome-8 (617564), caused by mutation in the MCM5 gene (602696) on chromosome 22q12. An autosomal dominant form of the disorder, Meier-Gorlin syndrome-6 (616835), is caused by mutation in the GMNN gene (602842) on chromosome 6p22.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, spondylodysplastic type, 1
MedGen UID:
1646889
Concept ID:
C4552003
Disease or Syndrome
Other types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have additional signs and symptoms. The cardiac-valvular type causes severe problems with the valves that control the movement of blood through the heart. People with the kyphoscoliotic type experience severe curvature of the spine that worsens over time and can interfere with breathing by restricting lung expansion. A type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome called brittle cornea syndrome is characterized by thinness of the clear covering of the eye (the cornea) and other eye abnormalities. The spondylodysplastic type features short stature and skeletal abnormalities such as abnormally curved (bowed) limbs. Abnormalities of muscles, including hypotonia and permanently bent joints (contractures), are among the characteristic signs of the musculocontractural and myopathic forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The periodontal type causes abnormalities of the teeth and gums.\n\nBleeding problems are common in the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and are caused by unpredictable tearing (rupture) of blood vessels and organs. These complications can lead to easy bruising, internal bleeding, a hole in the wall of the intestine (intestinal perforation), or stroke. During pregnancy, women with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome may experience rupture of the uterus. Additional forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that involve rupture of the blood vessels include the kyphoscoliotic, classical, and classical-like types.\n\nAn unusually large range of joint movement (hypermobility) occurs in most forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and it is a hallmark feature of the hypermobile type. Infants and children with hypermobility often have weak muscle tone (hypotonia), which can delay the development of motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking. The loose joints are unstable and prone to dislocation and chronic pain. In the arthrochalasia type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, infants have hypermobility and dislocations of both hips at birth.\n\nMany people with the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes have soft, velvety skin that is highly stretchy (elastic) and fragile. Affected individuals tend to bruise easily, and some types of the condition also cause abnormal scarring. People with the classical form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome experience wounds that split open with little bleeding and leave scars that widen over time to create characteristic "cigarette paper" scars. The dermatosparaxis type of the disorder is characterized by loose skin that sags and wrinkles, and extra (redundant) folds of skin may be present.\n\nThe various forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have been classified in several different ways. Originally, 11 forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome were named using Roman numerals to indicate the types (type I, type II, and so on). In 1997, researchers proposed a simpler classification (the Villefranche nomenclature) that reduced the number of types to six and gave them descriptive names based on their major features. In 2017, the classification was updated to include rare forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that were identified more recently. The 2017 classification describes 13 types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.\n\nEhlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of disorders that affect connective tissues supporting the skin, bones, blood vessels, and many other organs and tissues. Defects in connective tissues cause the signs and symptoms of these conditions, which range from mildly loose joints to life-threatening complications.
Jaberi-Elahi syndrome
MedGen UID:
1647359
Concept ID:
C4693848
Disease or Syndrome
JABELS is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay and intellectual disability with additional variable features. Patients have onset of symptoms in infancy, but the severity is highly variable. Some patients have social interaction and learn to walk but have an ataxic gait and abnormal movements, such as tremor or dystonia, whereas others do not achieve any motor control and are unable to speak. Additional features may include retinal anomalies, visual impairment, microcephaly, abnormal foot or hand posturing, and kyphoscoliosis; some patients have dysmorphic facial features or seizures. Brain imaging typically shows cerebellar atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (summary by et al., 2016 and Bertoli-Avella et al., 2018).
Osteogenesis imperfecta, type 19
MedGen UID:
1648353
Concept ID:
C4746956
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta type XIX (OI19) is characterized by prenatal fractures and generalized osteopenia, with severe short stature in adulthood, as well as variable scoliosis and pectal deformity, and marked anterior angulation of the tibia (Lindert et al., 2016).
Osteopetrosis, autosomal dominant 3
MedGen UID:
1648454
Concept ID:
C4748197
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis-3 is characterized by phenotypic variability. Some patients have typical features of osteopetrosis, including fractures after minor trauma, early tooth loss, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, and a generalized increase in bone mineral density, whereas other patients exhibit localized osteosclerosis and generalized osteopenia. OPTA3 represents a relatively malignant form of osteopetrosis in some patients who develop significant pancytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly (Bo et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant osteopetrosis, see OPTA1 (607634).
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defect 18
MedGen UID:
1648478
Concept ID:
C4748357
Disease or Syndrome
DEE95 is a severe autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by severely impaired global development, hypotonia, weakness, ataxia, coarse facial features, and intractable seizures. More variable features may include abnormalities of the hands and feet, inguinal hernia, and feeding difficulties. The disorder is part of a group of similar neurologic disorders resulting from biochemical defects in the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthetic pathway (summary by Nguyen et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Joubert syndrome 35
MedGen UID:
1648453
Concept ID:
C4748442
Disease or Syndrome
Joubert syndrome-35 (JBTS35) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brain malformations that result in developmental delay, oculomotor apraxia, and hypotonia. Some patients have renal and retinal involvement (Alkanderi et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Joubert syndrome, see JBTS1 (213300).
Turnpenny-fry syndrome
MedGen UID:
1683283
Concept ID:
C5193060
Disease or Syndrome
Turnpenny-Fry syndrome (TPFS) is characterized by developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, impaired growth, and recognizable facial features that include frontal bossing, sparse hair, malar hypoplasia, small palpebral fissures and oral stoma, and dysplastic 'satyr' ears. Other common findings include feeding problems, constipation, and a range of brain, cardiac, vascular, and skeletal malformations (Turnpenny et al., 2018).
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, kondo-fu type
MedGen UID:
1683128
Concept ID:
C5193071
Disease or Syndrome
The Kondo-Fu type of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SEDKF) is characterized by severely retarded growth and skeletal anomalies, including spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with associated kyphosis and reduced bone mineral density. Elevated levels of blood lysosomal enzymes have also been observed (Kondo et al., 2018).
Brain abnormalities, neurodegeneration, and dysosteosclerosis
MedGen UID:
1678789
Concept ID:
C5193117
Disease or Syndrome
Brain abnormalities, neurodegeneration, and dysosteosclerosis (BANDDOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brain abnormalities, progressive neurologic deterioration, and sclerotic bone dysplasia similar to dysosteosclerosis (DOS). The age at onset is highly variable: some patients may present in infancy with hydrocephalus, global developmental delay, and hypotonia, whereas others may have onset of symptoms in the late teens or early twenties after normal development. Neurologic features include loss of previous motor and language skills, cognitive impairment, spasticity, and focal seizures. Brain imaging shows periventricular white matter abnormalities and calcifications, large cisterna magna or Dandy-Walker malformation, and sometimes agenesis of the corpus callosum (summary by Guo et al., 2019).
Joubert syndrome 36
MedGen UID:
1684786
Concept ID:
C5231493
Disease or Syndrome
Joubert syndrome-36 (JBTS36) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by global developmental delay, ocular movement abnormalities, and mesoaxial polydactyly. Brain imaging may be normal or show the classic 'molar tooth sign.' There is some phenotypic similarity to and overlap with orofaciodigital syndrome VI (OFD6; 277170) (summary by Shaheen et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Joubert syndrome, see JBTS1 (213300).
Intellectual developmental disorder, X-linked, syndromic, Hackmann-Di Donato type
MedGen UID:
1716269
Concept ID:
C5393302
Disease or Syndrome
Hackmann-Di Donato-type X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSHD) is an X-linked recessive phenotype characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia, delayed speech, and mildly delayed walking associated with somatic marfanoid features, including tall stature, long fingers, and mildly dysmorphic facies. Some patients may have cardiac defects, such as mitral valve regurgitation, as well as other anomalies related to connective tissue defects, such as scoliosis (summary by Fiordaliso et al., 2019).
Kilquist syndrome
MedGen UID:
1742639
Concept ID:
C5436756
Disease or Syndrome
Kilquist syndrome (KILQS) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by neurologic, gastrointestinal, and secretory dysfunction. Affected individuals present at birth with hypotonia, feeding difficulties, mild dysmorphic features, and sensorineural hearing loss. They show poor overall growth associated with gastrointestinal anomalies such as gastroesophageal reflux or midgut malrotation, as well as profound global developmental delay with inability to sit or speak. Tear, sweat, and saliva production is also impaired, causing dry mouth and recurrent bronchial mucus plugging. Some of the clinical features are reminiscent of cystic fibrosis (CF; 219700) (summary by Stodberg et al., 2020).
Goldblatt syndrome
MedGen UID:
1784281
Concept ID:
C5542277
Disease or Syndrome
Odontochondrodysplasia-1 (ODCD1) is characterized by mesomelic shortening of tubular bones, ligamentous laxity, and scoliosis, in association with dentinogenesis imperfecta involving both primary and secondary dentition. Affected individuals show variable severity. Radiologic features include trident pelvis, posteriorly flattened vertebrae, and brachydactyly with cone-shaped epiphyses (Maroteaux et al., 1996). Clinical variability and extraskeletal manifestations have been observed (Wehrle et al., 2019). Genetic Heterogeneity of Odontochondrodysplasia Odontochondrodysplasia-2 with hearing loss and diabetes (ODCD2; 619269) is caused by mutation in the TANGO1 gene (MIA3; 613455) on chromosome 1q41.
Martsolf syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1778114
Concept ID:
C5542298
Disease or Syndrome
RAB18 deficiency is the molecular deficit underlying both Warburg micro syndrome (characterized by eye, nervous system, and endocrine abnormalities) and Martsolf syndrome (characterized by similar – but milder – findings). To date Warburg micro syndrome comprises >96% of reported individuals with genetically defined RAB18 deficiency. The hallmark ophthalmologic findings are bilateral congenital cataracts, usually accompanied by microphthalmia, microcornea (diameter <10), and small atonic pupils. Poor vision despite early cataract surgery likely results from progressive optic atrophy and cortical visual impairment. Individuals with Warburg micro syndrome have severe to profound intellectual disability (ID); those with Martsolf syndrome have mild to moderate ID. Some individuals with RAB18 deficiency also have epilepsy. In Warburg micro syndrome, a progressive ascending spastic paraplegia typically begins with spastic diplegia and contractures during the first year, followed by upper-limb involvement leading to spastic quadriplegia after about age five years, often eventually causing breathing difficulties. In Martsolf syndrome infantile hypotonia is followed primarily by slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity. Hypogonadism – when present – manifests in both syndromes, in males as micropenis and/or cryptorchidism and in females as hypoplastic labia minora, clitoral hypoplasia, and small introitus.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, facial dysmorphism, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1780615
Concept ID:
C5543591
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, facial dysmorphism, and brain abnormalities (NEDHFBA) is an autosomal recessive neurologic syndrome characterized by global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development, hypotonia and muscle weakness, often resulting in the inability to walk or sit, and characteristic coarse facial features. Additional features include feeding difficulties, respiratory distress, scoliosis, poor visual function, and rotary nystagmus. Brain imaging shows variable abnormalities, including enlarged ventricles, decreased white matter volume, white matter changes, thin corpus callosum, and cerebellar hypoplasia (summary by Loddo et al., 2020).
Usmani-Riazuddin syndrome, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1794162
Concept ID:
C5561952
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Usmani-Riazzudin syndrome (USRISD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and speech delay, hypotonia, and behavioral abnormalities, most commonly aggressive behavior. More variable additional features may include seizures and distal limb anomalies (summary by Usmani et al., 2021).
VISS syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794165
Concept ID:
C5561955
Disease or Syndrome
VISS syndrome is a generalized connective tissue disorder characterized by early-onset thoracic aortic aneurysm and other connective tissue findings, such as aneurysm and tortuosity of other arteries, joint hypermobility, skin laxity, and hernias, as well as craniofacial dysmorphic features, structural cardiac defects, skeletal anomalies, and motor developmental delay (Van Gucht et al., 2021). Immune dysregulation has been observed in some patients (Ziegler et al., 2021).
Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IIw
MedGen UID:
1794196
Concept ID:
C5561986
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIw (CDG2W) is an autosomal dominant metabolic disorder characterized by liver dysfunction, coagulation deficiencies, and profound abnormalities in N-glycosylation of serum specific proteins. All reported patients carry the same mutation (602671.0017) (summary by Ng et al., 2021). For an overview of congenital disorders of glycosylation, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066).
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 2d, generalized, intermediate or severe, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1794224
Concept ID:
C5562014
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 25
MedGen UID:
1799165
Concept ID:
C5567742
Disease or Syndrome
A rare mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation disorder with decreased respiratory complex I and IV enzyme activity. Characteristics of this disease hypotonia, global developmental delay, neonatal onset of progressive pectus carinatum without other skeletal abnormalities, poor growth, sensorineural hearing loss, dysmorphic features and brain abnormalities such as cerebral atrophy, quadriventricular dilatation and thin corpus callosum posteriorly.
Noonan syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
1807988
Concept ID:
C5676916
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-14 (NS14) is a recessive developmental disorder within the RASopathy clinical spectrum. Patients exhibit developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and short stature, as well as distinctive dysmorphic features including bitemporal narrowing, hypertelorism, low-set posteriorly rotated ears, prominent nasal bridge, low posterior hairline with a short webbed neck, and pectus excavatum (Motta et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Noonan syndrome, see NS1 (163950).
Immunodeficiency 94 with autoinflammation and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1802872
Concept ID:
C5676918
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-94 with autoinflammation and dysmorphic facies (IMD94) is a systemic immunologic disorder with onset in early infancy. Primary features include lymphadenopathy, autoinflammation, immunodeficiency with hypogammaglobulinemia, and dysmorphic facial features. Intellectual development is normal and serum IgE is not elevated. The disease results from constitutive activation of the IL6 signaling cascade, resulting in immune dysregulation and a hyperinflammatory state (summary by Materna-Kiryluk et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with central hypotonia and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1807420
Concept ID:
C5676944
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with central hypotonia and dysmorphic facies (NEDCHF) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, seizures, distinctive facial features, scoliosis, delayed closure of the anterior fontanel, and nonspecific brain abnormalities (Wakeling et al., 2021).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 66
MedGen UID:
1812470
Concept ID:
C5677000
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-66 (MRD66) is characterized by global developmental delay with mildly to moderately impaired intellectual development and mild speech delay. The phenotype and severity are highly variable. Some patients have behavioral problems or autism spectrum disorder, and about 50% have variable types of seizures. Additional features may include nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, tall or short stature, and mild skeletal anomalies (Rahimi et al., 2022).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Gigena C, Vincenzo MD, Toselli L, Bellia-Munzon G, Sanjurjo D, Martinez J, Vallee M, Nazar-Peirano M, Martinez-Ferro M
J Pediatr Surg 2022 Aug;57(8):1609-1613. Epub 2021 Nov 6 doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2021.10.048. PMID: 34903358Free PMC Article
Emil S
Eur J Pediatr Surg 2018 Aug;28(4):347-354. Epub 2018 Aug 15 doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1667297. PMID: 30112746
Tomatsu S, Montaño AM, Oikawa H, Smith M, Barrera L, Chinen Y, Thacker MM, Mackenzie WG, Suzuki Y, Orii T
Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2011 Jun;12(6):931-45. doi: 10.2174/138920111795542615. PMID: 21506915

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Geraedts TCM, Daemen JHT, Vissers YLJ, Hulsewé KWE, Van Veer HGL, Abramson H, de Loos ER
J Pediatr Surg 2022 Oct;57(10):325-332. Epub 2021 Dec 5 doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2021.11.028. PMID: 34969524
Kocher G, Gioutsos K, Nguyen TL, Sesia S
Multimed Man Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Dec 6;2021 doi: 10.1510/mmcts.2021.082. PMID: 34874627
Buziashvili D, Gopman JM, Weissler H, Bodenstein L, Kaufman AJ, Taub PJ
Ann Plast Surg 2019 Mar;82(3):352-358. doi: 10.1097/SAP.0000000000001654. PMID: 30383585
Cobben JM, Oostra RJ, van Dijk FS
Eur J Med Genet 2014 Aug;57(8):414-7. Epub 2014 May 10 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2014.04.017. PMID: 24821303
Desmarais TJ, Keller MS
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Diagnosis

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Adv Exp Med Biol 2021;1348:251-264. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-80614-9_11. PMID: 34807423
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Peracha H, Sawamoto K, Averill L, Kecskemethy H, Theroux M, Thacker M, Nagao K, Pizarro C, Mackenzie W, Kobayashi H, Yamaguchi S, Suzuki Y, Orii K, Orii T, Fukao T, Tomatsu S
Mol Genet Metab 2018 Sep;125(1-2):18-37. Epub 2018 May 15 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.05.004. PMID: 29779902Free PMC Article
Cobben JM, Oostra RJ, van Dijk FS
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Coelho Mde S, Guimarães Pde S
J Bras Pneumol 2007 Jul-Aug;33(4):463-74. doi: 10.1590/s1806-37132007000400017. PMID: 17982540

Therapy

Moon DH, Kang MK, Lee HS, Lee S
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2019 Jan;67(1):67-72. Epub 2018 Sep 14 doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1669927. PMID: 30216948
Khan S, Alméciga-Díaz CJ, Sawamoto K, Mackenzie WG, Theroux MC, Pizarro C, Mason RW, Orii T, Tomatsu S
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Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 Aug;138(2):317e-329e. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000002414. PMID: 27465193
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Lee RT, Moorman S, Schneider M, Sigalet DL
J Pediatr Surg 2013 Jan;48(1):184-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.10.037. PMID: 23331813

Prognosis

Orrick BA, Pierce AL, McElroy SF
J Pediatr Surg 2022 Aug;57(8):1579-1583. Epub 2021 Dec 10 doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2021.12.002. PMID: 34996608
Servi M, Buonamici F, Furferi R, Governi L, Uccheddu F, Volpe Y, Leng S, Facchini F, Ghionzoli M, Messineo A
Med Biol Eng Comput 2019 Aug;57(8):1727-1735. Epub 2019 Jun 1 doi: 10.1007/s11517-019-01993-0. PMID: 31154586
Buziashvili D, Gopman JM, Weissler H, Bodenstein L, Kaufman AJ, Taub PJ
Ann Plast Surg 2019 Mar;82(3):352-358. doi: 10.1097/SAP.0000000000001654. PMID: 30383585
Peracha H, Sawamoto K, Averill L, Kecskemethy H, Theroux M, Thacker M, Nagao K, Pizarro C, Mackenzie W, Kobayashi H, Yamaguchi S, Suzuki Y, Orii K, Orii T, Fukao T, Tomatsu S
Mol Genet Metab 2018 Sep;125(1-2):18-37. Epub 2018 May 15 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.05.004. PMID: 29779902Free PMC Article
Golladay ES, Golladay GJ
Indian J Pediatr 1997 May-Jun;64(3):339-50. doi: 10.1007/BF02845203. PMID: 10771855

Clinical prediction guides

Ramadan S, Wilde J, Tabard-Fougère A, Toso S, Beghetti M, Vallée JP, Corbelli R, Barazzone-Argiroffo C, Lascombes P, Ruchonnet-Métrailler I
BMJ Open Respir Res 2021 Jul;8(1) doi: 10.1136/bmjresp-2021-001020. PMID: 34326157Free PMC Article
Paulson JF, Ellis K, Obermeyer RJ, Kuhn MA, Frantz FW, McGuire MM, Ortiz E, Kelly RE Jr
J Pediatr Surg 2019 Nov;54(11):2257-2260. Epub 2019 Apr 24 doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.03.019. PMID: 31056346
de Beer SA, Blom YE, Lopez M, de Jong JR
Semin Pediatr Surg 2018 Jun;27(3):175-182. Epub 2018 Jun 15 doi: 10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2018.06.001. PMID: 30078489
Del Frari B, Sigl S, Schwabegger AH
Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 Aug;138(2):317e-329e. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000002414. PMID: 27465193
Cobben JM, Oostra RJ, van Dijk FS
Eur J Med Genet 2014 Aug;57(8):414-7. Epub 2014 May 10 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2014.04.017. PMID: 24821303

Recent systematic reviews

Geraedts TCM, Daemen JHT, Vissers YLJ, Hulsewé KWE, Van Veer HGL, Abramson H, de Loos ER
J Pediatr Surg 2022 Oct;57(10):325-332. Epub 2021 Dec 5 doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2021.11.028. PMID: 34969524
de Beer SA, Blom YE, Lopez M, de Jong JR
Semin Pediatr Surg 2018 Jun;27(3):175-182. Epub 2018 Jun 15 doi: 10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2018.06.001. PMID: 30078489
Sigl S, Del Frari B, Harasser C, Schwabegger AH
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2018 Mar 1;26(3):474-479. doi: 10.1093/icvts/ivx353. PMID: 29092017Free PMC Article

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