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Muscle weakness

MedGen UID:
57735
Concept ID:
C0151786
Finding; Sign or Symptom
Synonyms: Muscle Weakness; Muscle Weaknesses; Muscular Weakness; Muscular Weaknesses; Weakness, Muscle; Weakness, Muscular; Weaknesses, Muscle; Weaknesses, Muscular
SNOMED CT: Muscle strength reduced (26544005); Decreased muscle strength (26544005); Muscle weakness (26544005)
 
HPO: HP:0001324

Definition

Reduced strength of muscles. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Chédiak-Higashi syndrome
MedGen UID:
3347
Concept ID:
C0007965
Disease or Syndrome
Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, immunodeficiency, and a mild bleeding tendency. Approximately 85% of affected individuals develop the accelerated phase, or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, a life-threatening, hyperinflammatory condition. All affected individuals including adolescents and adults with atypical CHS and children with classic CHS who have successfully undergone allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) develop neurologic findings during early adulthood.
Diaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
4268
Concept ID:
C0011989
Finding
Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED) is characterized by hyperostosis of the long bones and the skull, proximal muscle weakness, limb pain, a wide-based, waddling gait, and joint contractures. Facial features such as macrocephaly, frontal bossing, enlargement of the mandible, proptosis, and cranial nerve impingement resulting in facial palsy are seen in severely affected individuals later in life.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
3925
Concept ID:
C0013264
Disease or Syndrome
The dystrophinopathies cover a spectrum of X-linked muscle disease ranging from mild to severe that includes Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Becker muscular dystrophy, and DMD-associated dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The mild end of the spectrum includes the phenotypes of asymptomatic increase in serum concentration of creatine phosphokinase (CK) and muscle cramps with myoglobinuria. The severe end of the spectrum includes progressive muscle diseases that are classified as Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy when skeletal muscle is primarily affected and as DMD-associated DCM when the heart is primarily affected. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) usually presents in early childhood with delayed motor milestones including delays in walking independently and standing up from a supine position. Proximal weakness causes a waddling gait and difficulty climbing stairs, running, jumping, and standing up from a squatting position. DMD is rapidly progressive, with affected children being wheelchair dependent by age 12 years. Cardiomyopathy occurs in almost all individuals with DMD after age 18 years. Few survive beyond the third decade, with respiratory complications and progressive cardiomyopathy being common causes of death. Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is characterized by later-onset skeletal muscle weakness. With improved diagnostic techniques, it has been recognized that the mild end of the spectrum includes men with onset of symptoms after age 30 years who remain ambulatory even into their 60s. Despite the milder skeletal muscle involvement, heart failure from DCM is a common cause of morbidity and the most common cause of death in BMD. Mean age of death is in the mid-40s. DMD-associated DCM is characterized by left ventricular dilation and congestive heart failure. Females heterozygous for a DMD pathogenic variant are at increased risk for DCM.
Fucosidosis
MedGen UID:
5288
Concept ID:
C0016788
Disease or Syndrome
Fucosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by defective alpha-L-fucosidase with accumulation of fucose in the tissues. Clinical features include angiokeratoma, progressive psychomotor retardation, neurologic signs, coarse facial features, and dysostosis multiplex. Fucosidosis has been classified into 2 major types. Type 1 is characterized by rapid psychomotor regression and severe neurologic deterioration beginning at about 6 months of age, elevated sweat sodium chloride, and death within the first decade of life. Type 2 is characterized by milder psychomotor retardation and neurologic signs, the development of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum, normal sweat salinity, and longer survival (Kousseff et al., 1976).
Glycogen storage disease, type II
MedGen UID:
5340
Concept ID:
C0017921
Disease or Syndrome
Pompe disease is classified by age of onset, organ involvement, severity, and rate of progression. Infantile-onset Pompe disease (IOPD; individuals with onset before age 12 months with cardiomyopathy) may be apparent in utero but more typically onset is at the median age of four months with hypotonia, generalized muscle weakness, feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, respiratory distress, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Without treatment by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), IOPD commonly results in death by age two years from progressive left ventricular outflow obstruction and respiratory insufficiency. Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD; including: (a) individuals with onset before age 12 months without cardiomyopathy; and (b) all individuals with onset after age 12 months) is characterized by proximal muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency; clinically significant cardiac involvement is uncommon.
Glycogen storage disease type III
MedGen UID:
6641
Concept ID:
C0017922
Disease or Syndrome
Glycogen storage disease type III (GSD III) is characterized by variable liver, cardiac muscle, and skeletal muscle involvement. GSD IIIa is the most common subtype, present in about 85% of affected individuals; it manifests with liver and muscle involvement. GSD IIIb, with liver involvement only, comprises about 15% of all affected individuals. In infancy and early childhood, liver involvement presents as hepatomegaly and failure to thrive, with fasting ketotic hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and elevated hepatic transaminases. In adolescence and adulthood, liver disease becomes less prominent. Most individuals develop cardiac involvement with cardiac hypertrophy and/or cardiomyopathy. Skeletal myopathy manifesting as weakness may be evident in childhood and slowly progresses, typically becoming prominent in the third to fourth decade. The overall prognosis is favorable but cannot be predicted on an individual basis. Long-term complications such as muscular and cardiac symptoms as well as liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma may have a severe impact on prognosis and quality of life. To date, it is unknown if long-term complications can be alleviated and/or avoided by dietary interventions.
Glycogen storage disease, type IV
MedGen UID:
6642
Concept ID:
C0017923
Disease or Syndrome
The clinical manifestations of glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV) discussed in this entry span a continuum of different subtypes with variable ages of onset, severity, and clinical features. Clinical findings vary extensively both within and between families. The fatal perinatal neuromuscular subtype presents in utero with fetal akinesia deformation sequence, including decreased fetal movements, polyhydramnios, and fetal hydrops. Death usually occurs in the neonatal period. The congenital neuromuscular subtype presents in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, respiratory distress, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Death usually occurs in early infancy. Infants with the classic (progressive) hepatic subtype may appear normal at birth, but rapidly develop failure to thrive; hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, and progressive liver cirrhosis; hypotonia; and cardiomyopathy. Without liver transplantation, death from liver failure usually occurs by age five years. Children with the non-progressive hepatic subtype tend to present with hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, myopathy, and hypotonia; however, they are likely to survive without progression of the liver disease and may not show cardiac, skeletal muscle, or neurologic involvement. The childhood neuromuscular subtype is rare and the course is variable, ranging from onset in the second decade with a mild disease course to a more severe, progressive course resulting in death in the third decade.
Glycogen storage disease, type V
MedGen UID:
5341
Concept ID:
C0017924
Disease or Syndrome
Glycogen storage disease type V (GSDV, McArdle disease) is a metabolic myopathy characterized by exercise intolerance manifested by rapid fatigue, myalgia, and cramps in exercising muscles. Symptoms are usually precipitated by isometric exercise or sustained aerobic exercise. Most individuals improve their exercise tolerance by exploiting the "second-wind" phenomenon with relief of myalgia and fatigue after a few minutes of rest. Age of onset is frequently in the first decade of life but can vary; however, diagnosis is typically delayed as myalgia and fatigability are dismissed/overlooked. Fixed muscle weakness occurs in approximately 25% of affected individuals, is more likely to involve proximal muscles, and is more common in individuals of advanced age. Approximately 50% of affected individuals have recurrent episodes of myoglobinuria that can – on occasion – eventually result in acute renal failure.
Glycogen storage disease, type VII
MedGen UID:
5342
Concept ID:
C0017926
Disease or Syndrome
Glycogen storage disease VII is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized clinically by exercise intolerance, muscle cramping, exertional myopathy, and compensated hemolysis. Myoglobinuria may also occur. The deficiency of the muscle isoform of PFK results in a total and partial loss of muscle and red cell PFK activity, respectively. Raben and Sherman (1995) noted that not all patients with GSD VII seek medical care because in some cases it is a relatively mild disorder.
Kearns-Sayre syndrome
MedGen UID:
9618
Concept ID:
C0022541
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion syndromes predominantly comprise three overlapping phenotypes that are usually simplex (i.e., a single occurrence in a family), but rarely may be observed in different members of the same family or may evolve from one clinical syndrome to another in a given individual over time. The three classic phenotypes caused by mtDNA deletions are Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), Pearson syndrome, and progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO). KSS is a progressive multisystem disorder defined by onset before age 20 years, pigmentary retinopathy, and PEO; additional features include cerebellar ataxia, impaired intellect (intellectual disability, dementia, or both), sensorineural hearing loss, ptosis, oropharyngeal and esophageal dysfunction, exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, cardiac conduction block, and endocrinopathy. Pearson syndrome is characterized by sideroblastic anemia and exocrine pancreas dysfunction and may be fatal in infancy without appropriate hematologic management. PEO is characterized by ptosis, impaired eye movements due to paralysis of the extraocular muscles (ophthalmoplegia), oropharyngeal weakness, and variably severe proximal limb weakness with exercise intolerance. Rarely, a mtDNA deletion can manifest as Leigh syndrome.
Sandhoff disease
MedGen UID:
11313
Concept ID:
C0036161
Disease or Syndrome
Sandhoff disease comprises a phenotypic continuum encompassing acute infantile, subacute juvenile, and late-onset disease. Although classification into these phenotypes is somewhat arbitrary, it is helpful in understanding the variation observed in the timing of disease onset, presenting manifestations, rate of progression, and life span. Acute infantile Sandhoff disease (onset age <6 months). Infants are generally normal at birth followed by progressive weakness and slowing of developmental progress, then developmental regression and severe neurologic impairment. Seizures are common. Death usually occurs between ages two and three years. Subacute juvenile Sandhoff disease (onset age 2-5 years). After attaining normal developmental milestones, developmental progress slows, followed by developmental regression and neurologic impairment (abnormal gait, dysarthria, and cognitive decline). Death (usually from aspiration) typically occurs in the early to late teens. Late-onset Sandhoff disease (onset older teen years or young adulthood). Nearly normal psychomotor development is followed by a range of neurologic findings (e.g., weakness, spasticity, dysarthria, and deficits in cerebellar function) and psychiatric findings (e.g., deficits in executive function and memory). Life expectancy is not necessarily decreased.
Cyclical vomiting syndrome
MedGen UID:
57509
Concept ID:
C0152164
Disease or Syndrome
A condition characterized by recurrent, self-limiting episodes of vomiting associated with intense nausea, pallor, and lethargy. It is commonly a migraine precursor.
Acute intermittent porphyria
MedGen UID:
56452
Concept ID:
C0162565
Disease or Syndrome
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), an autosomal dominant disorder, occurs in heterozygotes for an HMBS pathogenic variant that causes reduced activity of the enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase. AIP is considered "overt" in a heterozygote who was previously or is currently symptomatic; AIP is considered "latent" in a heterozygote who has never had symptoms, and typically has been identified during molecular genetic testing of at-risk family members. Note that GeneReviews does not use the term "carrier" for an individual who is heterozygous for an autosomal dominant pathogenic variant; GeneReviews reserves the term "carrier" for an individual who is heterozygous for an autosomal recessive disorder and thus is not expected to ever develop manifestations of the disorder. Overt AIP is characterized clinically by life-threatening acute neurovisceral attacks of severe abdominal pain without peritoneal signs, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, and hypertension. Attacks may be complicated by neurologic findings (mental changes, convulsions, and peripheral neuropathy that may progress to respiratory paralysis), and hyponatremia. Acute attacks, which may be provoked by certain drugs, alcoholic beverages, endocrine factors, calorie restriction, stress, and infections, usually resolve within two weeks. Most individuals with AIP have one or a few attacks; about 3%-8% (mainly women) have recurrent attacks (defined as >3 attacks/year) that may persist for years. Other long-term complications are chronic renal failure, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and hypertension. Attacks, which are very rare before puberty, are more common in women than men. Latent AIP. While all individuals heterozygous for an HMBS pathogenic variant that predisposes to AIP are at risk of developing overt AIP, most have latent AIP and never have symptoms.
MERRF syndrome
MedGen UID:
56486
Concept ID:
C0162672
Disease or Syndrome
MERRF (myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers) is a multisystem disorder characterized by myoclonus (often the first symptom) followed by generalized epilepsy, ataxia, weakness, exercise intolerance, and dementia. Onset can occur from childhood to adulthood, occurring after normal early development. Common findings are ptosis, hearing loss, short stature, optic atrophy, cardiomyopathy, cardiac dysrhythmias such as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and peripheral neuropathy. Pigmentary retinopathy, optic neuropathy, diabetes mellitus, and lipomatosis have been observed.
Hypothalamic hypothyroidism
MedGen UID:
113137
Concept ID:
C0220998
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hypothyroidism that results from a defect in thyrotropin-releasing hormone activity.
Paramyotonia congenita of Von Eulenburg
MedGen UID:
113142
Concept ID:
C0221055
Disease or Syndrome
Paramyotonia congenita (PMC) is an autosomal dominant myotonic disorder characterized by cold-induced prolonged localized muscle contraction and weakness. Patients may experience episodes of generalized weakness (periodic paralysis) unassociated with cold exposure (summary by Ptacek et al., 1992).
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome
MedGen UID:
120516
Concept ID:
C0265224
Disease or Syndrome
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome (FSS), or DA2A, is phenotypically similar to DA1. In addition to contractures of the hands and feet, FSS is characterized by oropharyngeal abnormalities, scoliosis, and a distinctive face that includes a very small oral orifice (often only a few millimeters in diameter at birth), puckered lips, and an H-shaped dimple of the chin; hence, FSS has been called 'whistling face syndrome.' The limb phenotypes of DA1 and FSS may be so similar that they can only be distinguished by the differences in facial morphology (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120).
Pyle metaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
82704
Concept ID:
C0265294
Disease or Syndrome
Pyle disease is characterized by long bones with wide and expanded trabecular metaphyses, thin cortical bone, and bone fragility. Fractures are common in Pyle disease, and fracture lines usually go through the abnormally wide metaphyses, revealing their fragility (summary by Kiper et al., 2016).
Triglyceride storage disease with ichthyosis
MedGen UID:
82780
Concept ID:
C0268238
Disease or Syndrome
Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS) is a rare autosomal recessive nonlysosomal inborn error of neutral lipid metabolism. Patients present with an nonbullous erythrodermic form of ichthyosis, with variable involvement of other organs, such as liver, central nervous system, eyes, and ears. Intracellular triacylglycerol droplets are present in most tissues, and diagnosis can be confirmed by a simple blood smear, in which the characteristic lipid droplets are observed in the cytoplasm of granulocytes (summary by Lefevre et al., 2001).
Niemann-Pick disease, type A
MedGen UID:
78650
Concept ID:
C0268242
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotype of acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD) occurs along a continuum. Individuals with the severe early-onset form, infantile neurovisceral ASMD, were historically diagnosed with Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPD-A). The later-onset, chronic visceral form of ASMD is also referred to as Niemann-Pick disease type B (NPD-B). A phenotype with intermediate severity is also known as chronic neurovisceral ASMD (NPD-A/B). The most common presenting symptom in NPD-A is hepatosplenomegaly, usually detectable by age three months; over time the liver and spleen become massive in size. Psychomotor development progresses no further than the 12-month level, after which neurologic deterioration is relentless. Failure to thrive typically becomes evident by the second year of life. A classic cherry-red spot of the macula of the retina, which may not be present in the first few months, is eventually present in all affected children. Interstitial lung disease caused by storage of sphingomyelin in pulmonary macrophages results in frequent respiratory infections and often respiratory failure. Most children succumb before the third year of life. NPD-B generally presents later than NPD-A, and the manifestations are less severe. NPD-B is characterized by progressive hepatosplenomegaly, gradual deterioration in liver and pulmonary function, osteopenia, and atherogenic lipid profile. No central nervous system (CNS) manifestations occur. Individuals with NPD-A/B have symptoms that are intermediate between NPD-A and NPD-B. The presentation in individuals with NPD-A/B varies greatly, although all are characterized by the presence of some CNS manifestations. Survival to adulthood can occur in individuals with NPD-B and NPD-A/B.
Sphingolipid activator protein 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
120624
Concept ID:
C0268262
Disease or Syndrome
Metachromatic leukodystrophy gets its name from the way cells with an accumulation of sulfatides appear when viewed under a microscope. The sulfatides form granules that are described as metachromatic, which means they pick up color differently than surrounding cellular material when stained for examination.\n\nThe adult form of metachromatic leukodystrophy affects approximately 15 to 20 percent of individuals with the disorder. In this form, the first symptoms appear during the teenage years or later. Often behavioral problems such as alcohol use disorder, drug abuse, or difficulties at school or work are the first symptoms to appear. The affected individual may experience psychiatric symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. People with the adult form of metachromatic leukodystrophy may survive for 20 to 30 years after diagnosis. During this time there may be some periods of relative stability and other periods of more rapid decline.\n\nIn 20 to 30 percent of individuals with metachromatic leukodystrophy, onset occurs between the age of 4 and adolescence. In this juvenile form, the first signs of the disorder may be behavioral problems and increasing difficulty with schoolwork. Progression of the disorder is slower than in the late infantile form, and affected individuals may survive for about 20 years after diagnosis.\n\nThe most common form of metachromatic leukodystrophy, affecting about 50 to 60 percent of all individuals with this disorder, is called the late infantile form. This form of the disorder usually appears in the second year of life. Affected children lose any speech they have developed, become weak, and develop problems with walking (gait disturbance). As the disorder worsens, muscle tone generally first decreases, and then increases to the point of rigidity. Individuals with the late infantile form of metachromatic leukodystrophy typically do not survive past childhood.\n\nIn people with metachromatic leukodystrophy, white matter damage causes progressive deterioration of intellectual functions and motor skills, such as the ability to walk. Affected individuals also develop loss of sensation in the extremities (peripheral neuropathy), incontinence, seizures, paralysis, an inability to speak, blindness, and hearing loss. Eventually they lose awareness of their surroundings and become unresponsive. While neurological problems are the primary feature of metachromatic leukodystrophy, effects of sulfatide accumulation on other organs and tissues have been reported, most often involving the gallbladder.\n\nMetachromatic leukodystrophy is an inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of fats called sulfatides in cells. This accumulation especially affects cells in the nervous system that produce myelin, the substance that insulates and protects nerves. Nerve cells covered by myelin make up a tissue called white matter. Sulfatide accumulation in myelin-producing cells causes progressive destruction of white matter (leukodystrophy) throughout the nervous system, including in the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system) and the nerves connecting the brain and spinal cord to muscles and sensory cells that detect sensations such as touch, pain, heat, and sound (the peripheral nervous system).
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, type 3
MedGen UID:
75670
Concept ID:
C0268337
Disease or Syndrome
Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS) is generally considered the least severe type of EDS, although significant complications, primarily musculoskeletal, can and do occur. The skin is often soft and may be mildly hyperextensible. Subluxations and dislocations are common; they may occur spontaneously or with minimal trauma and can be acutely painful. Degenerative joint disease is common. Chronic pain, distinct from that associated with acute dislocations, is a serious complication of the condition and can be both physically and psychologically disabling. Easy bruising, functional bowel disorders, and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction are common. Aortic root dilation, when present, is typically of a mild degree with no increased risk of dissection in the absence of significant dilation. Psychological dysfunction, psychosocial impairment, and emotional problems are common.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliotic type 1
MedGen UID:
75672
Concept ID:
C0268342
Disease or Syndrome
PLOD1-related kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (kEDS) is an autosomal recessive generalized connective tissue disorder characterized by hypotonia, early-onset kyphoscoliosis, and generalized joint hypermobility in association with skin fragility and ocular abnormality. Intelligence is normal. Life span may be normal, but affected individuals are at risk for rupture of medium-sized arteries. Adults with severe kyphoscoliosis are at risk for complications from restrictive lung disease, recurrent pneumonia, and cardiac failure.
Hyperphosphatasemia with bone disease
MedGen UID:
75678
Concept ID:
C0268414
Disease or Syndrome
Paget disease of bone-5 is an autosomal recessive, juvenile-onset form of Paget disease, a disorder of the skeleton resulting from abnormal bone resorption and formation. Clinical manifestations include short stature, progressive long bone deformities, fractures, vertebral collapse, skull enlargement, and hyperostosis with progressive deafness. There is phenotypic variability, with some patients presenting in infancy, while others present later in childhood (summary by Naot et al., 2014). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Paget disease of bone, see 167250.
Primary hypomagnesemia
MedGen UID:
120640
Concept ID:
C0268448
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is a progressive renal disorder characterized by excessive urinary Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) excretion. There is progressive loss of kidney function, and in about 50% of cases, the need for renal replacement therapy arises as early as the second decade of life (summary by Muller et al., 2006). Amelogenesis imperfecta may also be present in some patients (Bardet et al., 2016). A similar disorder with renal magnesium wasting, renal failure, and nephrocalcinosis (HOMG5; 248190) is caused by mutations in another tight-junction gene, CLDN19 (610036), and is distinguished by the association of severe ocular involvement. For a discussion of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of familial hypomagnesemia, see HOMG1 (602014).
Familial hypokalemia-hypomagnesemia
MedGen UID:
75681
Concept ID:
C0268450
Disease or Syndrome
Gitelman syndrome (GTLMNS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubular salt-wasting disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. It is the most common renal tubular disorder among Caucasians (prevalence of 1 in 40,000). Most patients have onset of symptoms as adults, but some present in childhood. Clinical features include transient periods of muscle weakness and tetany, abdominal pains, and chondrocalcinosis (summary by Glaudemans et al., 2012). Gitelman syndrome is sometimes referred to as a mild variant of classic Bartter syndrome (607364). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
Hypervalinemia
MedGen UID:
120652
Concept ID:
C0268573
Disease or Syndrome
Valinemia is an inborn error of metabolism characterized clinically by vomiting, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, and developmental delay, and biochemically by high concentrations of valine in serum and urine (Wada, 1965).
Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
MedGen UID:
75696
Concept ID:
C0268596
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) represents a clinical spectrum in which presentations can be divided into type I (neonatal onset with congenital anomalies), type II (neonatal onset without congenital anomalies), and type III (late onset). Individuals with type I or II MADD typically become symptomatic in the neonatal period with severe metabolic acidosis, which may be accompanied by profound hypoglycemia and hyperammonemia. Many affected individuals die in the newborn period despite metabolic treatment. In those who survive the neonatal period, recurrent metabolic decompensation resembling Reye syndrome and the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can occur. Congenital anomalies may include dysmorphic facial features, large cystic kidneys, hypospadias and chordee in males, and neuronal migration defects (heterotopias) on brain MRI. Individuals with type III MADD, the most common presentation, can present from infancy to adulthood. The most common symptoms are muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and/or muscle pain, although metabolic decompensation with episodes of rhabdomyolysis can also be seen. Rarely, individuals with late-onset MADD (type III) may develop severe sensory neuropathy in addition to proximal myopathy.
Lysinuric protein intolerance
MedGen UID:
75704
Concept ID:
C0268647
Disease or Syndrome
Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) typically presents after an infant is weaned from breast milk or formula; variable findings include recurrent vomiting and episodes of diarrhea, episodes of stupor and coma after a protein-rich meal, poor feeding, aversion to protein-rich food, failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, and muscular hypotonia. Over time, findings include: poor growth, osteoporosis, involvement of the lungs (progressive interstitial changes, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis) and of the kidneys (progressive glomerular and proximal tubular disease), hematologic abnormalities (normochromic or hypochromic anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, erythroblastophagocytosis in the bone marrow aspirate), and a clinical presentation resembling the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophagic activation syndrome. Hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and acute pancreatitis can also be seen.
Glucocorticoid deficiency with achalasia
MedGen UID:
82889
Concept ID:
C0271742
Disease or Syndrome
Triple A syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by three specific features: achalasia, Addison disease, and alacrima. Achalasia is a disorder that affects the ability to move food through the esophagus, the tube that carries food from the throat to the stomach. It can lead to severe feeding difficulties and low blood glucose (hypoglycemia). Addison disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency, is caused by abnormal function of the small hormone-producing glands on top of each kidney (adrenal glands). The main features of Addison disease include fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss, low blood pressure, and darkening of the skin. The third major feature of triple A syndrome is a reduced or absent ability to secrete tears (alacrima). Most people with triple A syndrome have all three of these features, although some have only two.\n\nMany of the features of triple A syndrome are caused by dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. This part of the nervous system controls involuntary body processes such as digestion, blood pressure, and body temperature. People with triple A syndrome often experience abnormal sweating, difficulty regulating blood pressure, unequal pupil size (anisocoria), and other signs and symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (dysautonomia).\n\nPeople with this condition may have other neurological abnormalities, such as developmental delay, intellectual disability, speech problems (dysarthria), and a small head size (microcephaly). In addition, affected individuals commonly experience muscle weakness, movement problems, and nerve abnormalities in their extremities (peripheral neuropathy). Some develop optic atrophy, which is the degeneration (atrophy) of the nerves that carry information from the eyes to the brain. Many of the neurological symptoms of triple A syndrome worsen over time.\n\nPeople with triple A syndrome frequently develop a thickening of the outer layer of skin (hyperkeratosis) on the palms of their hands and the soles of their feet. Other skin abnormalities may also be present in people with this condition.\n\nAlacrima is usually the first noticeable sign of triple A syndrome, as it becomes apparent early in life that affected children produce little or no tears while crying. They develop Addison disease and achalasia during childhood or adolescence, and most of the neurologic features of triple A syndrome begin during adulthood. The signs and symptoms of this condition vary among affected individuals, even among members of the same family.
HNSHA due to aldolase A deficiency
MedGen UID:
82895
Concept ID:
C0272066
Disease or Syndrome
Aldolase A deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia (Kishi et al., 1987).
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome
MedGen UID:
129128
Concept ID:
C0282207
Disease or Syndrome
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome is characterized by gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyposis, alopecia, onychodystrophy, skin hyperpigmentation, and diarrhea. It is associated with high morbidity (summary by Sweetser et al., 2012).
Transcobalamin II deficiency
MedGen UID:
137976
Concept ID:
C0342701
Disease or Syndrome
Transcobalamin II deficiency (TCN2D) is an autosomal recessive disorder with onset in early infancy characterized by failure to thrive, megaloblastic anemia, and pancytopenia. Other features include methylmalonic aciduria, recurrent infections, and vomiting and diarrhea. Treatment with cobalamin results in clinical improvement, but the untreated disorder may result in mental retardation and neurologic abnormalities (summary by Haberle et al., 2009). Hall (1981) gave a clinically oriented review of congenital defects of vitamin B12 transport, and Frater-Schroder (1983) gave a genetically oriented review.
Renal carnitine transport defect
MedGen UID:
90999
Concept ID:
C0342788
Disease or Syndrome
Systemic primary carnitine deficiency (CDSP) is a disorder of the carnitine cycle that results in defective fatty acid oxidation. It encompasses a broad clinical spectrum including the following: Metabolic decompensation in infancy typically presenting between age three months and two years with episodes of hypoketotic hypoglycemia, poor feeding, irritability, lethargy, hepatomegaly, elevated liver transaminases, and hyperammonemia triggered by fasting or common illnesses such as upper respiratory tract infection or gastroenteritis. Childhood myopathy involving heart and skeletal muscle with onset between age two and four years. Pregnancy-related decreased stamina or exacerbation of cardiac arrhythmia. Fatigability in adulthood. Absence of symptoms. The latter two categories often include mothers diagnosed with CDSP after newborn screening has identified low carnitine levels in their infants.
Carnitine acylcarnitine translocase deficiency
MedGen UID:
91000
Concept ID:
C0342791
Disease or Syndrome
Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) is a critical component of the carnitine shuttle, which facilitates the transfer of long-chain fatty acylcarnitines across the inner mitochondrial membrane. CACT deficiency causes a defect in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid ß-oxidation, with variable clinical severity. Severe neonatal-onset disease is most common, with symptoms evident within two days after birth; attenuated cases may present in the first months of life. Hyperammonemia and cardiac arrhythmia are prominent in early-onset disease, with high rates of cardiac arrest. Other clinical features are typical for disorders of long-chain fatty acid oxidation: poor feeding, lethargy, hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hypotonia, transaminitis, liver dysfunction with hepatomegaly, and rhabdomyolysis. Univentricular or biventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, ranging from mild to severe, may respond to appropriate dietary and medical therapies. Hyperammonemia is difficult to treat and is an important determinant of long-term neurocognitive outcome. Affected individuals with early-onset disease typically experience brain injury at presentation, and have recurrent hyperammonemia leading to developmental delay / intellectual disability. Affected individuals with later-onset disease have milder symptoms and are less likely to experience recurrent hyperammonemia, allowing a better developmental outcome. Prompt treatment of the presenting episode to prevent hypoglycemic, hypoxic, or hyperammonemic brain injury may allow normal growth and development.
PMM2-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
138111
Concept ID:
C0349653
Disease or Syndrome
PMM2-CDG, the most common of a group of disorders of abnormal glycosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides, is divided into three clinical stages: infantile multisystem, late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability, and adult stable disability. The clinical manifestations and course are highly variable, ranging from infants who die in the first year of life to mildly affected adults. Clinical findings tend to be similar in sibs. In the infantile multisystem presentation, infants show axial hypotonia, hyporeflexia, esotropia, and developmental delay. Feeding problems, vomiting, faltering growth, and developmental delay are frequently seen. Subcutaneous fat may be excessive over the buttocks and suprapubic region. Two distinct clinical courses are observed: (1) a nonfatal neurologic course with faltering growth, strabismus, developmental delay, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hepatopathy in infancy followed by neuropathy and retinitis pigmentosa in the first or second decade; and (2) a more severe neurologic-multivisceral course with approximately 20% mortality in the first year of life. The late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability stage, which begins between ages three and ten years, is characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, severely delayed language and motor development, inability to walk, and IQ of 40 to 70; other findings include seizures, stroke-like episodes or transient unilateral loss of function, coagulopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, joint contractures, and skeletal deformities. In the adult stable disability stage, intellectual ability is stable; peripheral neuropathy is variable, progressive retinitis pigmentosa and myopia are seen, thoracic and spinal deformities with osteoporosis worsen, and premature aging is observed; females may lack secondary sexual development and males may exhibit decreased testicular volume. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and coagulopathy may occur. The risk for deep venous thrombosis is increased.
Spinal muscular atrophy, type II
MedGen UID:
95975
Concept ID:
C0393538
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy resulting from progressive degeneration and irreversible loss of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord (i.e., lower motor neurons) and the brain stem nuclei. The onset of weakness ranges from before birth to adulthood. The weakness is symmetric, proximal > distal, and progressive. Before the genetic basis of SMA was understood, it was classified into clinical subtypes based on maximum motor function achieved; however, it is now apparent that the phenotype of SMN1-associated SMA spans a continuum without clear delineation of subtypes. With supportive care only, poor weight gain with growth failure, restrictive lung disease, scoliosis, and joint contractures are common complications; however, newly available targeted treatment options are changing the natural history of this disease.
Hereditary liability to pressure palsies
MedGen UID:
98291
Concept ID:
C0393814
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is characterized by recurrent acute sensory and motor neuropathy in a single or multiple nerves. The most common initial manifestation is the acute onset of a non-painful focal sensory and motor neuropathy in a single nerve (mononeuropathy). The first attack usually occurs in the second or third decade but earlier onset is possible. Neuropathic pain is increasingly recognized as a common manifestation. Recovery from acute neuropathy is usually complete; when recovery is not complete, the resulting disability is mild. Some affected individuals also demonstrate a mild-to-moderate peripheral neuropathy.
McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
140765
Concept ID:
C0398568
Disease or Syndrome
McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome (designated as MLS throughout this review) is a multisystem disorder with central nervous system (CNS), neuromuscular, cardiovascular, and hematologic manifestations in males: CNS manifestations are a neurodegenerative basal ganglia disease including movement disorders, cognitive alterations, and psychiatric symptoms. Neuromuscular manifestations include a (mostly subclinical) sensorimotor axonopathy and muscle weakness or atrophy of different degrees. Cardiac manifestations include dilated cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and tachyarrhythmia. Hematologically, MLS is defined as a specific blood group phenotype (named after the first proband, Hugh McLeod) that results from absent expression of the Kx erythrocyte antigen and weakened expression of Kell blood group antigens. The hematologic manifestations are red blood cell acanthocytosis and compensated hemolysis. Alloantibodies in the Kell and Kx blood group system can cause strong reactions to transfusions of incompatible blood and severe anemia in affected male newborns of Kell-negative mothers. Females heterozygous for XK pathogenic variants have mosaicism for the Kell and Kx blood group antigens. Although they usually lack CNS and neuromuscular manifestations, some heterozygous females may develop clinical manifestations including chorea or late-onset cognitive decline.
Neonatal pseudo-hydrocephalic progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
140806
Concept ID:
C0406586
Disease or Syndrome
Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WDRTS) is a rare autosomal recessive neonatal progeroid disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, failure to thrive, short stature, a progeroid appearance, hypotonia, and variable mental impairment (summary by Toriello, 1990). Average survival in WDRTS is 7 months, although survival into the third decade of life has been reported (Akawi et al., 2013).
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A, 4
MedGen UID:
140820
Concept ID:
C0410174
Disease or Syndrome
Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is characterized by hypotonia, symmetric generalized muscle weakness, and CNS migration disturbances that result in changes consistent with cobblestone lissencephaly with cerebral and cerebellar cortical dysplasia. Mild, typical, and severe phenotypes are recognized. Onset typically occurs in early infancy with poor suck, weak cry, and floppiness. Affected individuals have contractures of the hips, knees, and interphalangeal joints. Later features include myopathic facial appearance, pseudohypertrophy of the calves and forearms, motor and speech delays, intellectual disability, seizures, ophthalmologic abnormalities including visual impairment and retinal dysplasia, and progressive cardiac involvement after age ten years. Swallowing disturbance occurs in individuals with severe FCMD and in individuals older than age ten years, leading to recurrent aspiration pneumonia and death.
Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia
MedGen UID:
96581
Concept ID:
C0432215
Congenital Abnormality
Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by predominant involvement of articular cartilage with progressive joint stiffness and enlargement in the absence of inflammation. Onset – typically between ages three and six years – begins with the involvement of the interphalangeal joints. Over time, involvement of large joints and the spine causes significant joint contractures, gait disturbance, and scoliosis and/or kyphosis, resulting in abnormal posture and significant morbidity. Despite the considerable arthropathy, pain is not a major presenting feature of this condition. Initially height is normal; however, short stature (<3rd centile) becomes evident in adolescence as the skeletal changes progress.
Glycogen storage disease IXb
MedGen UID:
107772
Concept ID:
C0543514
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphorylase kinase (PhK) deficiency causing glycogen storage disease type IX (GSD IX) results from deficiency of the enzyme phosphorylase b kinase, which has a major regulatory role in the breakdown of glycogen. The two types of PhK deficiency are liver PhK deficiency (characterized by early childhood onset of hepatomegaly and growth restriction, and often, but not always, fasting ketosis and hypoglycemia) and muscle PhK deficiency, which is considerably rarer (characterized by any of the following: exercise intolerance, myalgia, muscle cramps, myoglobinuria, and progressive muscle weakness). While symptoms and biochemical abnormalities of liver PhK deficiency were thought to improve with age, it is becoming evident that affected individuals need to be monitored for long-term complications such as liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism-dementia complex
MedGen UID:
107775
Concept ID:
C0543859
Disease or Syndrome
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism/dementia complex of Guam is a neurodegenerative disorder with unusually high incidence among the Chamorro people of Guam. Both ALS and parkinsonism-dementia are chronic, progressive, and uniformly fatal disorders in this population. Both diseases are known to occur in the same kindred, the same sibship, and even the same individual. See PARK7 (606324) for discussion of a similar phenotype caused by mutation in the DJ1 gene (602533).
Cockayne syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
155487
Concept ID:
C0751038
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia).
Cockayne syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
155488
Concept ID:
C0751039
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia).
Congenital myotonia, autosomal recessive form
MedGen UID:
155852
Concept ID:
C0751360
Disease or Syndrome
Myotonia congenita is characterized by muscle stiffness present from childhood; all striated muscle groups including the extrinsic eye muscles, facial muscles, and tongue may be involved. Stiffness is relieved by repeated contractions of the muscle (the "warm-up" phenomenon). Muscles are usually hypertrophic. Whereas autosomal recessive (AR) myotonia congenita is often associated with more severe manifestations (such as progressive minor distal weakness and attacks of transient weakness brought on by movement after rest), autosomal dominant (AD) myotonia congenita is not. The age of onset varies: in AD myotonia congenita onset is usually in infancy or early childhood; in AR myotonia congenita the average age of onset is slightly older. In both AR and AD myotonia congenita onset may be as late as the third or fourth decade of life.
Central core myopathy
MedGen UID:
199773
Concept ID:
C0751951
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-1A (CMYP1A) with susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia is an autosomal dominant disorder of skeletal muscle characterized by muscle weakness primarily affecting the proximal muscles of the lower limbs beginning in infancy or early childhood, although later onset of symptoms has been reported. There is significant phenotypic variability, even within families, and the wide clinical diversity most likely depends on the severity of the RYR1 mutation. The disorder is static or slowly progressive; affected individuals typically show delayed motor development and usually achieve independent walking, although many have difficulty running or climbing stairs. Additional features often include mild facial weakness, joint laxity, shoulder girdle weakness, and skeletal manifestations, such as dislocation of the hips, foot deformities, scoliosis, and Achilles tendon contractures. Some patients present with orthopedic deformities. Serum creatine kinase is usually not elevated. Respiratory involvement is rare and there is no central nervous system or cardiac involvement. Patients with dominant mutations in the RYR1 gene are at risk for malignant hyperthermia and both disorders may segregate in the same family. Historically, patients with congenital myopathy due to RYR1 mutations were diagnosed based on the finding of pathologic central cores (central core disease; CCD) on muscle biopsy, which represent areas that lack oxidative enzymes and mitochondrial activity in type 1 muscle fibers. However, additional pathologic findings may also be observed, including cores and rods, central nuclei, fiber type disproportion, multiminicores, and uniform type 1 fibers. These histopathologic features are not always specific to RYR1 myopathy and often change over time (Quinlivan et al., 2003; Jungbluth et al., 2007; Klein et al., 2012; Ogasawara and Nishino, 2021). Some patients with RYR1 mutations have pathologic findings on muscle biopsy, but are clinically asymptomatic (Shuaib et al., 1987; Quane et al., 1993). Rare patients with a more severe phenotype have been found to carry a heterozygous mutation in the RYR1 gene inherited from an unaffected parent. However, in these cases, there is a possibility of recessive inheritance (CMYP1B; 255320) with either a missed second RYR1 mutation in trans or a genomic rearrangement on the other allele that is undetectable on routine genomic sequencing, since the RYR1 gene is very large and genetic analysis may be difficult (Klein et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Myopathy See also CMYP1B (255320), caused by mutation in the RYR1 gene (180901) on chromosome 19q13; CMYP2A (161800), CMYP2B (620265), and CMYP2C (620278), caused by mutation in the ACTA1 gene (102610) on chromosome 1q42; CMYP3 (602771), caused by mutation in the SELENON gene (606210) on chromosome 1p36; CMYP4A (255310) and CMYP4B (609284), caused by mutation in the TPM3 gene (191030) on chromosome 1q21; CMYP5 (611705), caused by mutation in the TTN gene (188840) on chromosome 2q31; CMYP6 (605637), caused by mutation in the MYH2 gene (160740) on chromosome 17p13; CMYP7A (608358) and CMYP7B (255160), caused by mutation in the MYH7 gene (160760) on chromosome 14q11; CMYP8 (618654), caused by mutation in the ACTN2 gene (102573) on chromosome 1q43; CMYP9A (618822) and CMYP9B (618823), caused by mutation in the FXR1 gene (600819) on chromosome 3q28; CMYP10A (614399) and CMYP10B (620249), caused by mutation in the MEGF10 gene (612453) on chromosome 5q23; CMYP11 (619967), caused by mutation in the HACD1 gene (610467) on chromosome 10p12; CMYP12 (612540), caused by mutation in the CNTN1 gene (600016) on chromosome 12q12; CMYP13 (255995), caused by mutation in the STAC3 gene (615521) on chromosome 12q13; CMYP14 (618414), caused by mutation in the MYL1 gene (160780) on chromosome 2q34; CMYP15 (620161), caused by mutation in the TNNC2 gene (191039) on chromosome 20q13; CMYP16 (618524), caused by mutation in the MYBPC1 gene (160794) on chromosome 12q23; CMYP17 (618975), caused by mutation in the MYOD1 gene (159970) on chromosome 11p15; CMYP18 (620246), caused by mutation in the CACNA1S gene (114208) on chromosome 1q32; CMYP19 (618578), caused by mutation in the PAX7 gene (167410) on chromosome 1p36; CMYP20 (620310), caused by mutation in the RYR3 gene (180903) on chromosome 15q13; CMYP21 (620326), caused by mutation in the DNAJB4 gene (611327) on chromosome 1p31; CMYP22A (620351) and CMYP22B (620369), both caused by mutation in the SCN4A gene (603967) on chromosome 17q23; CMYP23 (609285), caused by mutation in the TPM2 gene (190990) on chromosome 9p13; and CMYP24 (617336), caused by mutation in the MYPN gene (608517) on chromosome 10q21.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1
MedGen UID:
155703
Concept ID:
C0752120
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and eventual deterioration of bulbar functions. Early in the disease, affected individuals may have gait disturbance, slurred speech, difficulty with balance, brisk deep tendon reflexes, hypermetric saccades, nystagmus, and mild dysphagia. Later signs include slowing of saccadic velocity, development of up-gaze palsy, dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, and hypotonia. In advanced stages, muscle atrophy, decreased deep tendon reflexes, loss of proprioception, cognitive impairment (e.g., frontal executive dysfunction, impaired verbal memory), chorea, dystonia, and bulbar dysfunction are seen. Onset is typically in the third or fourth decade, although childhood onset and late-adult onset have been reported. Those with onset after age 60 years may manifest a pure cerebellar phenotype. Interval from onset to death varies from ten to 30 years; individuals with juvenile onset show more rapid progression and more severe disease. Anticipation is observed. An axonal sensory neuropathy detected by electrophysiologic testing is common; brain imaging typically shows cerebellar and brain stem atrophy.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease X-linked recessive 4
MedGen UID:
162891
Concept ID:
C0795910
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-4 with or without cerebellar ataxia (CMTX4) is a mitochondrial disorder manifest as progressive neurologic dysfunction with highly variable features. The age at onset ranges from infancy to young adulthood, and patients can present with different features, including hearing loss, delayed motor development, or difficulty walking due to peripheral neuropathy and/or cerebellar ataxia. Most patients develop all features, including a progressive sensorimotor axonal neuropathy and deafness due to auditory neuropathy. Additional more variable features can include cognitive impairment, cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging, cerebellar signs, such as dysarthria, abnormal extraocular movements, tremor, and dysmetria, as well as spasticity. There is significant intrafamilial variability: the variable features are consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. Prolonged treatment with riboflavin may result in some mild improvement in the ataxia (summary by Rinaldi et al., 2012, Heimer et al., 2018, Bogdanova-Mihaylova et al., 2019).
Wieacker-Wolff syndrome
MedGen UID:
163227
Concept ID:
C0796200
Disease or Syndrome
Wieacker-Wolff syndrome (WRWF) is a severe X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is characterized by onset of muscle weakness in utero (fetal akinesia), which results in arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) apparent at birth. Affected boys are born with severe contractures, show delayed motor development, facial and bulbar weakness, characteristic dysmorphic facial features, and skeletal abnormalities, such as hip dislocation, scoliosis, and foot deformities. Additional features include global developmental delay with poor or absent speech and impaired intellectual development, feeding difficulties and poor growth, hypotonia, hypogenitalism, and spasticity. Carrier females may be unaffected or have mild features of the disorder (summary by Hirata et al., 2013 and Frints et al., 2019).
Worster-Drought syndrome
MedGen UID:
163228
Concept ID:
C0796204
Disease or Syndrome
A form of cerebral palsy with characteristics of congenital pseudobulbar (suprabulbar) paresis manifesting as selective weakness of the lips, tongue and soft palate, dysphagia, dysphonia, drooling and jaw jerking. Mean age at diagnosis is 6 years. The main clinical features are spasticity and limited movements around the mouth and throat from an early age, and brisk jaw jerks. Most cases are sporadic but several families with more than one affected member have been reported. Inheritance in these families appeared to follow an autosomal dominant pattern with variable expression and penetrance.
Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
163239
Concept ID:
C0796274
Disease or Syndrome
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and a variety of cranial nerve palsies, usually involving the motor components of the seventh and ninth to twelfth (more rarely the third, fifth, and sixth) cranial nerves. Spinal motor nerves and, less commonly, upper motor neurons are sometimes affected, giving a picture resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; 105400). The onset of the disease is usually in the second decade, but earlier and later onset have been reported. Hearing loss tends to precede the onset of neurologic signs, mostly progressive muscle weakness causing respiratory compromise. However, patients with very early onset may present with bulbar palsy and may not develop hearing loss until later. The symptoms, severity, and disease duration are variable (summary by Green et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome See also BVVLS2 (614707), caused by mutation in the SLC52A2 gene (607882) on chromosome 8q.
Danon disease
MedGen UID:
209235
Concept ID:
C0878677
Disease or Syndrome
Danon disease is a multisystem condition with predominant involvement of the heart, skeletal muscles, and retina, with overlying cognitive dysfunction. Males are typically more severely affected than females. Males usually present with childhood onset concentric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that is progressive and often requires heart transplantation. Rarely, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can evolve to resemble dilated cardiomyopathy. Most affected males also have cardiac conduction abnormalities. Skeletal muscle weakness may lead to delayed acquisition of motor milestones. Learning disability and intellectual disability, most often in the mild range, are common. Additionally, affected males can develop retinopathy with subsequent visual impairment. The clinical features in females are broader and more variable. Females are more likely to have dilated cardiomyopathy, with a smaller proportion requiring heart transplantation compared to affected males. Cardiac conduction abnormalities, skeletal muscle weakness, mild cognitive impairment, and pigmentary retinopathy are variably seen in affected females.
Becker muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
182959
Concept ID:
C0917713
Disease or Syndrome
The dystrophinopathies cover a spectrum of X-linked muscle disease ranging from mild to severe that includes Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Becker muscular dystrophy, and DMD-associated dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The mild end of the spectrum includes the phenotypes of asymptomatic increase in serum concentration of creatine phosphokinase (CK) and muscle cramps with myoglobinuria. The severe end of the spectrum includes progressive muscle diseases that are classified as Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy when skeletal muscle is primarily affected and as DMD-associated DCM when the heart is primarily affected. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) usually presents in early childhood with delayed motor milestones including delays in walking independently and standing up from a supine position. Proximal weakness causes a waddling gait and difficulty climbing stairs, running, jumping, and standing up from a squatting position. DMD is rapidly progressive, with affected children being wheelchair dependent by age 12 years. Cardiomyopathy occurs in almost all individuals with DMD after age 18 years. Few survive beyond the third decade, with respiratory complications and progressive cardiomyopathy being common causes of death. Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is characterized by later-onset skeletal muscle weakness. With improved diagnostic techniques, it has been recognized that the mild end of the spectrum includes men with onset of symptoms after age 30 years who remain ambulatory even into their 60s. Despite the milder skeletal muscle involvement, heart failure from DCM is a common cause of morbidity and the most common cause of death in BMD. Mean age of death is in the mid-40s. DMD-associated DCM is characterized by left ventricular dilation and congestive heart failure. Females heterozygous for a DMD pathogenic variant are at increased risk for DCM.
Merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
224728
Concept ID:
C1263858
Disease or Syndrome
Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy is an autosomal recessive form of muscular dystrophy characterized by muscle weakness apparent at birth or in the first 6 months of life. Patients show hypotonia, poor suck and cry, and delayed motor development; most never achieve independent ambulation. Most patients also have periventricular white matter abnormalities on brain imaging, but mental retardation and/or seizures occur only rarely (summary by Xiong et al., 2015).
Episodic ataxia type 2
MedGen UID:
314039
Concept ID:
C1720416
Disease or Syndrome
Episodic ataxia is a genetically heterogeneous neurologic condition characterized by spells of incoordination and imbalance, often associated with progressive ataxia. Episodic ataxia type 2 is the most common form of EA (Jen et al., 2007). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of episodic ataxia, see EA1 (160120).
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A deficiency
MedGen UID:
316820
Concept ID:
C1829703
Disease or Syndrome
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) deficiency is a disorder of long-chain fatty acid oxidation. Clinical manifestations usually occur in an individual with a concurrent febrile or gastrointestinal illness when energy demands are increased; onset of symptoms is usually rapid. The recognized phenotypes are: acute fatty liver of pregnancy, in which the fetus has biallelic pathogenic variants in CPT1A that causes CPT1A deficiency; and hepatic encephalopathy, in which individuals (typically children) present with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and sudden onset of liver failure. Individuals with hepatic encephalopathy typically present with hypoglycemia, absent or low levels of ketones, and elevated serum concentrations of liver transaminases, ammonia, and total carnitine. Between episodes of hepatic encephalopathy, individuals appear developmentally and cognitively normal unless previous metabolic decompensation has resulted in neurologic damage.
Cerebellar ataxia-areflexia-pes cavus-optic atrophy-sensorineural hearing loss syndrome
MedGen UID:
318633
Concept ID:
C1832466
Disease or Syndrome
ATP1A3-related neurologic disorders represent a clinical continuum in which at least three distinct phenotypes have been delineated: rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP); alternating hemiplegia of childhood (ACH); and cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS). However, some affected individuals have intermediate phenotypes or only a few features that do not fit well into one of these major phenotypes. RDP has been characterized by: abrupt onset of dystonia over days to weeks with parkinsonism (primarily bradykinesia and postural instability); common bulbar involvement; and absence or minimal response to an adequate trial of L-dopa therapy, with few exceptions. Often fever, physiologic stress, or alcoholic binges trigger the onset of symptoms. After their initial appearance, symptoms often stabilize with little improvement; occasionally second episodes occur with abrupt worsening of symptoms. Rarely, affected individuals have reported a more gradual onset of symptoms over weeks to months. Anxiety, depression, and seizures have been reported. Age of onset ranges from four to 55 years, although a childhood variation of RDP with onset between ages nine and 14 months has been reported. AHC is a complex neurodevelopmental syndrome most frequently manifesting in infancy or early childhood with paroxysmal episodic neurologic dysfunction including alternating hemiparesis or dystonia, quadriparesis, seizure-like episodes, and oculomotor abnormalities. Episodes can last for minutes, hours, days, or even weeks. Remission of symptoms occurs with sleep and immediately after awakening. Over time, persistent neurologic deficits including oculomotor apraxia, ataxia, choreoathetosis, dystonia, parkinsonism, and cognitive and behavioral dysfunction develop in the majority of those affected; more than 50% develop epilepsy in addition to their episodic movement disorder phenotype. CAPOS (cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss) syndrome is characterized by episodes of ataxic encephalopathy and/or weakness during and after a febrile illness. Onset is between ages six months and four years. Some acute symptoms resolve; progression of sensory losses and severity vary.
Brody myopathy
MedGen UID:
371441
Concept ID:
C1832918
Disease or Syndrome
Brody disease (BROD) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder characterized by exercise-induced muscle stiffness and cramps primarily affecting the arms, legs, and eyelids, although more generalized muscle involvement may also occur. Symptom onset is most often in the first decade, but many patients present and are diagnosed later in life. Skeletal muscle biopsy typically shows variation in fiber size, increased internal nuclei, and atrophy of type II muscle fibers. Rare patients have been reported to develop malignant hyperthermia after administration of anesthesia, suggesting that patients with the disorder should be tested. The disorder results from defective relaxation of fast-twitch (type II) skeletal muscle fibers due to defects in calcium homeostasis and reuptake in the muscle fiber (summary by Odermatt et al., 2000 and Molenaar et al., 2020).
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia 3
MedGen UID:
322173
Concept ID:
C1833372
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the AP2S1 gene.
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase II deficiency, myopathic form
MedGen UID:
371584
Concept ID:
C1833508
Disease or Syndrome
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is a disorder of long-chain fatty-acid oxidation. The three clinical presentations are lethal neonatal form, severe infantile hepatocardiomuscular form, and myopathic form (which is usually mild and can manifest from infancy to adulthood). While the former two are severe multisystemic diseases characterized by liver failure with hypoketotic hypoglycemia, cardiomyopathy, seizures, and early death, the latter is characterized by exercise-induced muscle pain and weakness, sometimes associated with myoglobinuria. The myopathic form of CPT II deficiency is the most common disorder of lipid metabolism affecting skeletal muscle and the most frequent cause of hereditary myoglobinuria. Males are more likely to be affected than females.
Amyotrophic neuralgia
MedGen UID:
320318
Concept ID:
C1834304
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA) is an autosomal dominant form of recurrent focal neuropathy characterized clinically by acute, recurrent episodes of brachial plexus neuropathy with muscle weakness and atrophy preceded by severe pain in the affected arm.
Autosomal dominant myoglobinuria
MedGen UID:
320384
Concept ID:
C1834567
Disease or Syndrome
A rare metabolic myopathy with characteristics of episodic myalgia with myoglobinuria which is induced by fever, viral or bacterial infection, prolonged exercise or alcohol abuse, and could, on occasion, lead to acute renal failure. Between episodes, patients may be asymptomatic or could present elevated creatine kinase levels and mild muscle weakness. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1997.
Muscular dystrophy, pseudohypertrophic, with Internalized capillaries
MedGen UID:
320399
Concept ID:
C1834652
Disease or Syndrome
Aminoacylase 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
324393
Concept ID:
C1835922
Disease or Syndrome
Aminoacylase-1 deficiency (ACY1D) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by increased urinary excretion of specific N-actyl amino acids. Most patients show neurologic abnormalities such as intellectual disability, seizures, hypotonia, and motor delay (summary by Ferri et al., 2014).
Vitamin D hydroxylation-deficient rickets, type 1B
MedGen UID:
374020
Concept ID:
C1838657
Disease or Syndrome
Vitamin D hydroxylation-deficient rickets type 1B (VDDR1B) is caused by a defect in vitamin D 25-hydroxylation (Molin et al., 2017). The major function of vitamin D is to maintain calcium and phosphate levels in the normal range to support metabolic functions, neuromuscular transmission, and bone mineralization. Disorders of vitamin D metabolism or action lead to defective bone mineralization and clinical features including intestinal malabsorption of calcium, hypocalcemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased renal clearance of phosphorus, and hypophosphatemia. The combination of hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia causes impaired mineralization of bone that results in rickets and osteomalacia (summary by Liberman and Marx, 2001). Rickets can occur because of inadequate dietary intake or sun exposure or because of genetic disorders. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is taken in the diet or synthesized in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol by ultraviolet irradiation. For vitamin D to be active, it needs to be converted to its active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Vitamin D is transported in the blood by the vitamin D binding protein (DBP; 139200) to the liver, where vitamin D 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1; 608713) is the key enzyme for 25-hydroxylation. Vitamin D 25(OH)D3, the major circulating form of vitamin D, is then transported to the kidney, where 25(OH)D3 is hydroxylated at the position of carbon 1 of the A ring, resulting in the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) (summary by Christakos et al., 2010).
Mitochondrial complex I deficiency
MedGen UID:
374101
Concept ID:
C1838979
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated complex I deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism due to mutations in nuclear or mitochondrial genes encoding subunits or assembly factors of the human mitochondrial complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase) and is characterized by a wide range of manifestations including marked and often fatal lactic acidosis, cardiomyopathy, leukoencephalopathy, pure myopathy and hepatopathy with tubulopathy. Among the numerous clinical phenotypes observed are Leigh syndrome, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and MELAS syndrome (see these terms).
Myosin storage myopathy
MedGen UID:
374868
Concept ID:
C1842160
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant myosin storage congenital myopathy-7A (CMYP7A) is a skeletal muscle disorder with wide phenotypic variability. The age at symptom onset can range from early childhood to late adulthood. Affected individuals have proximal muscle weakness affecting the upper and lower limbs and distal muscle weakness of the lower limbs, resulting in gait difficulties and scapular winging (scapuloperoneal myopathy). Additional features may include thin habitus, high-arched palate, foot drop, pes cavus, calf pseudohypertrophy, and decreased reflexes. The severity is also variable: some patients develop respiratory insufficiency, joint contractures, and scoliosis in the first decades, whereas others are clinically unaffected, but show subtle signs of the disorder on examination. Serum creatine kinase may be normal or elevated. The disease is usually slowly progressive and most patients remain ambulatory. Skeletal muscle biopsy can show different abnormalities, including hyaline bodies, type 1 fiber predominance, congenital fiber-type disproportion (CFTD), and nonspecific myopathic changes with myofibrillar disarray. Intrafamilial variability is common (Dye et al., 2006; Pegoraro et al., 2007; review by Tajsharghi and Oldfors, 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1A
MedGen UID:
335969
Concept ID:
C1843504
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) refers to a group of severe neurodegenerative disorders affecting growth and function of the brainstem and cerebellum, resulting in little or no development. Different types were classified based on the clinical picture and the spectrum of pathologic changes. PCH type 1 is characterized by central and peripheral motor dysfunction associated with anterior horn cell degeneration resembling infantile spinal muscular atrophy (SMA; see SMA1, 253300); death usually occurs early. Genetic Heterogeneity of Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia Also see PCH1B (614678), caused by mutation in the EXOSC3 gene (606489); PCH1C (616081), caused by mutation in the EXOSC8 gene (606019); PCH1D (618065), caused by mutation in the EXOSC9 gene (606180); PCH1E (619303), caused by mutation in the SLC25A46 gene (610826); PCH1F (619304), caused by mutation in the EXOSC1 gene (606493); PCH2A (277470), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene (608755); PCH2B (612389), caused by mutation in the TSEN2 gene (608753); PCH2C (612390), caused by mutation in the TSEN34 gene (608754); PCH2D (613811), caused by mutation in the SEPSECS gene (613009); PCH3 (608027), caused by mutation in the PCLO gene (604918); PCH4 (225753), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene; PCH5 (610204), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene; PCH6 (611523), caused by mutation in the RARS2 gene (611524); PCH7 (614969), caused by mutation in the TOE1 gene (613931); PCH8 (614961), caused by mutation in the CHMP1A gene (164010); PCH9 (615809), caused by mutation in the AMPD2 gene (102771); PCH10 (615803), caused by mutation in the CLP1 gene (608757); PCH11 (617695), caused by mutation in the TBC1D23 gene (617687); PCH12 (618266), caused by mutation in the COASY gene (609855); PCH13 (618606), caused by mutation in the VPS51 gene (615738); PCH14 (619301), caused by mutation in the PPIL1 gene (601301); PCH15 (619302), caused by mutation in the CDC40 gene (605585); PCH16 (619527), caused by mutation in the MINPP1 gene (605391); and PCH17 (619909), caused by mutation in the PRDM13 gene (616741) on chromosome 6q16.
Sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis
MedGen UID:
375302
Concept ID:
C1843851
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Cataract, ataxia, short stature, and intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
375579
Concept ID:
C1845094
Disease or Syndrome
Glycogen storage disease IXd
MedGen UID:
335112
Concept ID:
C1845151
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphorylase kinase (PhK) deficiency causing glycogen storage disease type IX (GSD IX) results from deficiency of the enzyme phosphorylase b kinase, which has a major regulatory role in the breakdown of glycogen. The two types of PhK deficiency are liver PhK deficiency (characterized by early childhood onset of hepatomegaly and growth restriction, and often, but not always, fasting ketosis and hypoglycemia) and muscle PhK deficiency, which is considerably rarer (characterized by any of the following: exercise intolerance, myalgia, muscle cramps, myoglobinuria, and progressive muscle weakness). While symptoms and biochemical abnormalities of liver PhK deficiency were thought to improve with age, it is becoming evident that affected individuals need to be monitored for long-term complications such as liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.
Episodic muscle weakness, X-linked
MedGen UID:
337525
Concept ID:
C1846173
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 7
MedGen UID:
339552
Concept ID:
C1846564
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia 7 (SPG7) is characterized by insidiously progressive bilateral leg weakness and spasticity. Most affected individuals have decreased vibration sense and cerebellar signs. Onset is mostly in adulthood, although symptoms may start as early as age 11 years and as late as age 72 years. Additional features including ataxia (gait and limbs), spastic dysarthria, dysphagia, pale optic disks, ataxia, nystagmus, strabismus, ptosis, hearing loss, motor and sensory neuropathy, amyotrophy, scoliosis, pes cavus, and urinary sphincter disturbances may be observed.
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B5
MedGen UID:
335764
Concept ID:
C1847759
Disease or Syndrome
MDDGB5 is an autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy with impaired intellectual development and structural brain abnormalities (Brockington et al., 2001). It is part of a group of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Mercuri et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B, see MDDGB1 (613155).
Episodic ataxia type 3
MedGen UID:
376220
Concept ID:
C1847839
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare form of hereditary episodic ataxia with characteristics of vestibular ataxia, vertigo, tinnitus and interictal myokymia.
Hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome
MedGen UID:
341133
Concept ID:
C1848030
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic disorder of amino acid absorption and transport, characterized by generalized hypotonia at birth, neonatal/infantile failure to thrive (followed by hyperphagia and rapid weight gain in late childhood), cystinuria type 1, nephrolithiasis, growth retardation due to growth hormone deficiency, and minor facial dysmorphism. Dysmorphic features mainly include dolichocephaly and ptosis. Nephrolithiasis occurs at variable ages.
Graves disease, susceptibility to, 1
MedGen UID:
341307
Concept ID:
C1848795
Finding
Graves disease (GRD) is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies to the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR; 603372) result in constitutive activation of the receptor and increased levels of thyroid hormone. Wilkin (1990) reviewed endocrine disorders of hormone excess and hormone deficiency resulting from receptor autoimmunity. Genetic Heterogeneity of Graves Disease Susceptibility to Graves disease-1 (GRD1) has been mapped to chromosome 14q31. Other susceptibility loci for Graves disease include GRD2 (603388) on chromosome 20q13, GRDX1 (300351) on Xp11, and GRDX2 (see 300351) on Xq21.33-q22. Graves disease has also been mapped to several loci that confer susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid diseases, including Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT; 140300): AITD1 (608173) on 6p11; AITD2 (608174) on 5q31-q33; AITD3 (608175) on 8q24; AITD4 (608176) on 10q, and AITD5 (601941) on 18q21.
Infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
338613
Concept ID:
C1849096
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA) is a severe, progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by normal development until age one year, followed by onset of ataxia, muscle hypotonia, loss of deep-tendon reflexes, and athetosis. Ophthalmoplegia and sensorineural deafness develop by age seven years. By adolescence, affected individuals are profoundly deaf and no longer ambulatory; sensory axonal neuropathy, optic atrophy, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in females become evident. Epilepsy can develop into a serious and often fatal encephalopathy: myoclonic jerks or focal clonic seizures that progress to epilepsia partialis continua followed by status epilepticus with loss of consciousness.
Myoglobinuria, acute recurrent, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
340308
Concept ID:
C1849386
Disease or Syndrome
Recurrent myoglobinuria is characterized by recurrent attacks of rhabdomyolysis associated with muscle pain and weakness and followed by excretion of myoglobin in the urine. Renal failure may occasionally occur. Onset is usually in early childhood under the age of 5 years. Unlike the exercise-induced rhabdomyolyses such as McArdle syndrome (232600), carnitine palmitoyltransferase deficiency (see 255110), and the Creteil variety of phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency (311800), the attacks in recurrent myoglobinuria no relation to exercise, but are triggered by intercurrent illnesses, commonly upper respiratory tract infections (Ramesh and Gardner-Medwin, 1992). See 160010 for discussion of a possible autosomal dominant form of myoglobinuria. Severe rhabdomyolysis is a major clinical feature of anesthetic-induced malignant hyperthermia (145600), an autosomal dominant disorder.
Ophthalmoplegic neuromuscular disorder with abnormal mitochondria
MedGen UID:
340508
Concept ID:
C1850302
Disease or Syndrome
Bailey-Bloch congenital myopathy
MedGen UID:
340586
Concept ID:
C1850625
Disease or Syndrome
STAC3 disorder is characterized by congenital myopathy, musculoskeletal involvement of the trunk and extremities, feeding difficulties, and delayed motor milestones. Most affected individuals have weakness with myopathic facies, scoliosis, kyphosis or kyphoscoliosis, and contractures. Other common findings are ptosis, abnormalities of the palate (including cleft palate), and short stature. Risk for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility and restrictive lung disease are increased. Intellect is typically normal. Originally described in individuals from the Lumbee Native American tribe (an admixture of Cheraw Indian, English, and African American ancestry) in the state of North Carolina and reported as Native American myopathy, STAC3 disorder has now been identified in numerous other populations worldwide.
Myopathy, myosin storage, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
340603
Concept ID:
C1850709
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive myosin storage congenital myopathy-7B (CMYP7B) is a skeletal muscle disorder characterized by the onset of scapuloperoneal muscle weakness in early childhood or young adulthood. Affected individuals have difficulty walking, steppage gait, and scapular winging due to shoulder girdle involvement. The severity and progression of the disorder is highly variable, even within families. Most patients develop respiratory insufficiency, nocturnal hypoventilation, and restrictive lung disease; some develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Additional features include myopathic facies, high-arched palate, scoliosis, and muscle wasting with thin body habitus. Serum creatine kinase may be normal or elevated. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows variable findings, including myosin storage disease, type 1 fiber predominance, centralized nuclei, and multiminicore disease (Onengut et al., 2004; Tajsharghi et al., 2007; Beecroft et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis due to ISCU deficiency
MedGen UID:
342573
Concept ID:
C1850718
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis (HML) is an autosomal recessive muscular disorder characterized by childhood onset of exercise intolerance with muscle tenderness, cramping, dyspnea, and palpitations. Biochemical features include lactic acidosis and, rarely, rhabdomyolysis. It is a chronic disorder with remission and exacerbation of the muscle phenotype (summary by Sanaker et al., 2010).
Myopathy, granulovacuolar lobular, with electrical myotonia
MedGen UID:
338114
Concept ID:
C1850745
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular dystrophy, congenital, with rapid progression
MedGen UID:
338135
Concept ID:
C1850840
Disease or Syndrome
The clinical manifestations of LAMA2 muscular dystrophy (LAMA2-MD) comprise a continuous spectrum ranging from severe congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) to milder late-onset LAMA2-MD. MDC1A is typically characterized by neonatal profound hypotonia, poor spontaneous movements, and respiratory failure. Failure to thrive, gastroesophageal reflux, aspiration, and recurrent chest infections necessitating frequent hospitalizations are common. As disease progresses, facial muscle weakness, temporomandibular joint contractures, and macroglossia may further impair feeding and can affect speech. In late-onset LAMA2-MD onset of manifestations range from early childhood to adulthood. Affected individuals may show muscle hypertrophy and develop a rigid spine syndrome with joint contractures, usually most prominent in the elbows. Progressive respiratory insufficiency, scoliosis, and cardiomyopathy can occur.
Nemaline myopathy 7
MedGen UID:
343979
Concept ID:
C1853154
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-7 is an autosomal recessive congenital myopathy characterized by very early onset of hypotonia and delayed motor development. Affected individuals have difficulty walking and running due to proximal muscle weakness. The disorder is slowly progressive, and patients may lose independent ambulation. Muscle biopsy shows nemaline rods and may later show minicores, abnormal protein aggregates, and dystrophic changes (summary by Ockeloen et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see 161800.
Autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic bone disease
MedGen UID:
501133
Concept ID:
C1853271
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the presence of hypophosphatemia secondary to renal phosphate wasting, radiographic and/or histologic evidence of rickets, limb deformities, muscle weakness, and bone pain. HHRH is distinct from other forms of hypophosphatemic rickets in that affected individuals present with hypercalciuria due to increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels and increased intestinal calcium absorption (summary by Bergwitz et al., 2006).
Muscular dystrophy, adult-onset, with leukoencephalopathy
MedGen UID:
340269
Concept ID:
C1854646
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial myopathy with a defect in mitochondrial-protein transport
MedGen UID:
381541
Concept ID:
C1855034
Disease or Syndrome
Methylmalonic aciduria due to methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficiency
MedGen UID:
344424
Concept ID:
C1855114
Disease or Syndrome
For this GeneReview, the term "isolated methylmalonic acidemia" refers to a group of inborn errors of metabolism associated with elevated methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentration in the blood and urine that result from the failure to isomerize (convert) methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) into succinyl-CoA during propionyl-CoA metabolism in the mitochondrial matrix, without hyperhomocysteinemia or homocystinuria, hypomethioninemia, or variations in other metabolites, such as malonic acid. Isolated MMA is caused by complete or partial deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (mut0 enzymatic subtype or mut– enzymatic subtype, respectively), a defect in the transport or synthesis of its cofactor, 5-deoxy-adenosyl-cobalamin (cblA, cblB, or cblD-MMA), or deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. Prior to the advent of newborn screening, common phenotypes included: Infantile/non-B12-responsive form (mut0 enzymatic subtype, cblB), the most common phenotype, associated with infantile-onset lethargy, tachypnea, hypothermia, vomiting, and dehydration on initiation of protein-containing feeds. Without appropriate treatment, the infantile/non-B12-responsive phenotype could rapidly progress to coma due to hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Partially deficient or B12-responsive phenotypes (mut– enzymatic subtype, cblA, cblB [rare], cblD-MMA), in which symptoms occur in the first few months or years of life and are characterized by feeding problems, failure to thrive, hypotonia, and developmental delay marked by episodes of metabolic decompensation. Methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase deficiency, in which findings range from complete absence of symptoms to severe metabolic acidosis. Affected individuals can also develop ataxia, dysarthria, hypotonia, mild spastic paraparesis, and seizures. In those individuals diagnosed by newborn screening and treated from an early age, there appears to be decreased early mortality, less severe symptoms at diagnosis, favorable short-term neurodevelopmental outcome, and lower incidence of movement disorders and irreversible cerebral damage. However, secondary complications may still occur and can include intellectual disability, tubulointerstitial nephritis with progressive impairment of renal function, "metabolic stroke" (bilateral lacunar infarction of the basal ganglia during acute metabolic decompensation), pancreatitis, growth failure, functional immune impairment, bone marrow failure, optic nerve atrophy, arrhythmias and/or cardiomyopathy (dilated or hypertrophic), liver steatosis/fibrosis/cancer, and renal cancer.
Homocystinuria due to methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency
MedGen UID:
383829
Concept ID:
C1856058
Disease or Syndrome
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency is a common inborn error of folate metabolism. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from severe neurologic deterioration and early death to asymptomatic adults. In the classic form, both thermostable and thermolabile enzyme variants have been identified (Rosenblatt et al., 1992).
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 5
MedGen UID:
347542
Concept ID:
C1857776
Disease or Syndrome
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type V (MGCA5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the onset of dilated or noncompaction cardiomyopathy in infancy or early childhood. Many patients die of cardiac failure. Other features include microcytic anemia, growth retardation, mild ataxia, mild muscle weakness, genital anomalies in males, and increased urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid. Some patients may have optic atrophy or delayed psychomotor development (summary by Davey et al., 2006 and Ojala et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, see MGCA type I (250950).
Sengers syndrome
MedGen UID:
395228
Concept ID:
C1859317
Disease or Syndrome
Sengers syndrome is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder characterized by congenital cataracts, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, exercise intolerance, and lactic acidosis. Mental development is normal, but affected individuals may die early from cardiomyopathy (summary by Mayr et al., 2012). Skeletal muscle biopsies of 2 affected individuals showed severe mtDNA depletion (Calvo et al., 2012).
Ataxia, early-onset, with oculomotor apraxia and hypoalbuminemia
MedGen UID:
395301
Concept ID:
C1859598
Disease or Syndrome
Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1) is characterized by childhood onset of slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, followed by oculomotor apraxia and a severe primary motor peripheral axonal motor neuropathy. The first manifestation is progressive gait imbalance (mean age of onset: 4.3 years; range: 2-10 years), followed by dysarthria, then upper-limb dysmetria with mild intention tremor. Oculomotor apraxia, usually noticed a few years after the onset of ataxia, progresses to external ophthalmoplegia. All affected individuals have generalized areflexia followed by a peripheral neuropathy and quadriplegia with loss of ambulation about seven to ten years after onset. Hands and feet are short and atrophic. Chorea and upper-limb dystonia are common. Intellect remains normal in some individuals; in others, different degrees of cognitive impairment have been observed.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 2, juvenile
MedGen UID:
349246
Concept ID:
C1859807
Disease or Syndrome
ALS2-related disorder involves retrograde degeneration of the upper motor neurons of the pyramidal tracts and comprises a clinical continuum of the following three phenotypes: Infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia (IAHSP), characterized by onset of spasticity with increased reflexes and sustained clonus of the lower limbs within the first two years of life, progressive weakness and spasticity of the upper limbs by age seven to eight years, and wheelchair dependence in the second decade with progression toward severe spastic tetraparesis and a pseudobulbar syndrome caused by progressive cranial nerve involvement. Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS), characterized by upper motor neuron findings of pseudobulbar palsy and spastic quadriplegia without dementia or cerebellar, extrapyramidal, or sensory signs. Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS or ALS2), characterized by onset between ages three and 20 years. All affected individuals show a spastic pseudobulbar syndrome (spasticity of speech and swallowing) together with spastic paraplegia. Some individuals are bedridden by age 12 to 50 years.
Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency
MedGen UID:
349893
Concept ID:
C1860808
Disease or Syndrome
Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency (TPID) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by congenital hemolytic anemia, and progressive neuromuscular dysfunction beginning in early childhood. Many patients die from respiratory failure in childhood. The neurologic syndrome is variable, but usually includes lower motor neuron dysfunction with hypotonia, muscle weakness and atrophy, and hyporeflexia. Some patients may show additional signs such as dystonic posturing and/or spasticity. Laboratory studies show intracellular accumulation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), particularly in red blood cells (summary by Fermo et al., 2010).
Stiff skin syndrome
MedGen UID:
348877
Concept ID:
C1861456
Disease or Syndrome
Stiff skin syndrome (SSKS) is characterized by hard, thick skin, usually over the entire body, which limits joint mobility and causes flexion contractures. Other occasional findings include lipodystrophy and muscle weakness (Loeys et al., 2010). Patients with similar phenotypes involving stiff skin have been described; see, e.g., familial progressive scleroderma (181750), symmetric lipomatosis (151800), and congenital fascial dystrophy (228020).
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 1
MedGen UID:
400169
Concept ID:
C1862939
Disease or Syndrome
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the death of motor neurons in the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord, resulting in fatal paralysis. ALS usually begins with asymmetric involvement of the muscles in middle adult life. Approximately 10% of ALS cases are familial (Siddique and Deng, 1996). ALS is sometimes referred to as 'Lou Gehrig disease' after the famous American baseball player who was diagnosed with the disorder. Rowland and Shneider (2001) and Kunst (2004) provided extensive reviews of ALS. Some forms of ALS occur with frontotemporal dementia (FTD); see 105500. Ranganathan et al. (2020) provided a detailed review of the genes involved in different forms of ALS with FTD, noting that common disease pathways involve disturbances in RNA processing, autophagy, the ubiquitin proteasome system, the unfolded protein response, and intracellular trafficking. The current understanding of ALS and FTD is that some forms of these disorders represent a spectrum of disease with converging mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Familial ALS is distinct from a form of ALS with dementia reported in cases on Guam (105500) (Espinosa et al., 1962; Husquinet and Franck, 1980), in which the histology is different and dementia and parkinsonism complicate the clinical picture. Genetic Heterogeneity of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ALS is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, with several causative genes and mapped loci. ALS6 (608030) is caused by mutation in the FUS gene (137070) on chromosome 16p11; ALS8 (608627) is caused by mutation in the VAPB gene (605704) on chromosome 13; ALS9 (611895) is caused by mutation in the ANG gene (105850) on chromosome 14q11; ALS10 (612069) is caused by mutation in the TARDBP gene (605078) on 1p36; ALS11 (612577) is caused by mutation in the FIG4 gene (609390) on chromosome 6q21; ALS12 (613435) is caused by mutation in the OPTN gene (602432) on chromosome 10p13; ALS15 (300857) is caused by mutation in the UBQLN2 gene (300264) on chromosome Xp11; ALS18 (614808) is caused by mutation in the PFN1 gene (176610) on chromosome 17p13; ALS19 (615515) is caused by mutation in the ERBB4 gene (600543) on chromosome 2q34; ALS20 (615426) is caused by mutation in the HNRNPA1 gene (164017) on chromosome 12q13; ALS21 (606070) is caused by mutation in the MATR3 gene (164015) on chromosome 5q31; ALS22 (616208) is caused by mutation in the TUBA4A gene (191110) on chromosome 2q35; ALS23 (617839) is caused by mutation in the ANXA11 gene (602572) on chromosome 10q23; ALS26 (619133) is caused by mutation in the TIA1 gene (603518) on chromosome 2p13; ALS27 (620285) is caused by mutation in the SPTLC1 gene (605712) on chromosome 9q22; and ALS28 (620452) is caused by mutation in the LRP12 gene (618299) on chromosome 8q22. Loci associated with ALS have been found on chromosomes 18q21 (ALS3; 606640) and 20p13 (ALS7; 608031). Intermediate-length polyglutamine repeat expansions in the ATXN2 gene (601517) contribute to susceptibility to ALS (ALS13; 183090). Susceptibility to ALS24 (617892) is conferred by mutation in the NEK1 gene (604588) on chromosome 4q33, and susceptibility to ALS25 (617921) is conferred by mutation in the KIF5A gene (602821) on chromosome 12q13. Susceptibility to ALS has been associated with mutations in other genes, including deletions or insertions in the gene encoding the heavy neurofilament subunit (NEFH; 162230); deletions in the gene encoding peripherin (PRPH; 170710); and mutations in the dynactin gene (DCTN1; 601143). Some forms of ALS show juvenile onset. See juvenile-onset ALS2 (205100), caused by mutation in the alsin (606352) gene on 2q33; ALS4 (602433), caused by mutation in the senataxin gene (SETX; 608465) on 9q34; ALS5 (602099), caused by mutation in the SPG11 gene (610844) on 15q21; and ALS16 (614373), caused by mutation in the SIGMAR1 gene (601978) on 9p13.
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease
MedGen UID:
355075
Concept ID:
C1863843
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is an autosomal dominant, slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pyramidal and extrapyramidal symptoms, cerebellar ataxia, cognitive decline and dementia, peripheral neuropathy, and autonomic dysfunction. The age at onset varies, but most individuals present as adults between about 30 and 70 years of age. Pathologic investigation shows eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions in almost all cell types, including neurons, skin cells, fibroblasts, and skeletal muscle. Brain imaging shows a characteristic leukoencephalopathy with high intensity signals in the corticomedullary junction on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), as well as white matter abnormalities in subcortical and brainstem regions. Skin biopsy combined with brain imaging is useful for diagnosis (summary by Sone et al., 2016). The phenotype in some cases is suggestive of Parkinson disease (see 168600) and/or Alzheimer disease (see 104300), consistent with an evolving phenotypic spectrum of adult-onset NIID (summary by Tian et al., 2019).
Fatal mitochondrial disease due to combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 3
MedGen UID:
355842
Concept ID:
C1864840
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency type 3 is an extremely rare clinically heterogenous disorder described in about 5 patients to date. Clinical signs included hypotonia, lactic acidosis, and hepatic insufficiency, with progressive encephalomyopathy or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Megaconial type congenital muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
355943
Concept ID:
C1865233
Disease or Syndrome
Megaconial-type congenital muscular dystrophy (MDCMC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset muscle wasting and impaired intellectual development. Some patients develop fatal cardiomyopathy. Muscle biopsy shows peculiar enlarged mitochondria that are prevalent toward the periphery of the fibers but are sparse in the center (summary by Mitsuhashi et al., 2011).
Multiple sclerosis, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
358269
Concept ID:
C1868685
Finding
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with various degrees of axonal damage. MS affects mainly young adults with predominance for females. The disorder often leads to substantial disability (summary by Bomprezzi et al., 2003). Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis Additional MS susceptibility loci include MS2 (612594) on chromosome 10p15, MS3 (612595) on chromosome 5p13, MS4 (612596) on chromosome 1p36, and MS5 (614810), conferred by variation in the TNFRSF1A gene (191190) on chromosome 12p13.
Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement-high lactate syndrome
MedGen UID:
370845
Concept ID:
C1970180
Disease or Syndrome
Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) is characterized by slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia and spasticity with dorsal column dysfunction (decreased position and vibration sense) in most individuals. The neurologic dysfunction involves the legs more than the arms. The tendon reflexes are retained. Deterioration of motor skills usually starts in childhood or adolescence, but occasionally not until adulthood. Dysarthria develops over time. Occasional findings include epilepsy; learning problems; cognitive decline; and reduced consciousness, neurologic deterioration, and fever following minor head trauma. Individuals with neonatal or early-infantile onset have a severe disease course often associated with early death. Those with childhood onset have slow progression with wheelchair dependence in the teens or twenties. Adult onset is associated with slow progression and mild impairment.
Glycogen storage disease due to phosphoglycerate kinase 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
410166
Concept ID:
C1970848
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoglycerate kinase-1 deficiency is an X-linked recessive condition with a highly variable clinical phenotype that includes hemolytic anemia, myopathy, and neurologic involvement. Patients can express 1, 2, or all 3 of these manifestations (Shirakawa et al., 2006).
Compton-North congenital myopathy
MedGen UID:
393406
Concept ID:
C2675527
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-12 (CMYP12) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe neonatal hypotonia resulting in feeding difficulties and respiratory failure within the first months of life. There is evidence of the disorder in utero, with decreased fetal movements and polyhydramnios. Additional features may include high-arched palate and contractures. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows myopathic changes with disrupted sarcomeres and minicore-like structures (Compton et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 42
MedGen UID:
393407
Concept ID:
C2675528
Disease or Syndrome
A pure form of hereditary spastic paraplegia with characteristics of slowly progressive spastic paraplegia of lower extremities with an age of onset ranging from childhood to adulthood and patients presenting with spastic gait, increased tendon reflexes in lower limbs, extensor plantar response, weakness and atrophy of lower limb muscles and, in rare cases, pes cavus. No abnormalities are noted on magnetic resonance imaging.
Fontaine progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
394125
Concept ID:
C2676780
Disease or Syndrome
SLC25A24 Fontaine progeroid syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disorder characterized by poor growth, abnormal skeletal features, and distinctive craniofacial features with sagging, thin skin, and decreased subcutaneous fat suggesting an aged appearance that is most pronounced in infancy and improves with time. Characteristic radiographic features include turribrachycephaly with widely open anterior fontanelle, craniosynostosis, and anomalies of the terminal phalanges. Cardiovascular, genitourinary, ocular, and gastrointestinal abnormalities may also occur. To date, 13 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of SLC25A24 Fontaine progeroid syndrome have been described.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 10
MedGen UID:
383137
Concept ID:
C2677565
Disease or Syndrome
A neurodegenerative disease with characteristics of progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurons in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. There is evidence this disease is caused by heterozygous mutation in the TARDBP gene that encodes the TDP43 protein on chromosome 1p36.
Episodic ataxia type 7
MedGen UID:
383209
Concept ID:
C2677843
Disease or Syndrome
Episodic ataxia is a group of related conditions that affect the nervous system and cause problems with movement and coordination. People with episodic ataxia have episodes of poor coordination and balance (ataxia). During these episodes, many people also experience dizziness (vertigo), nausea and vomiting, migraines, blurred or double vision, slurred speech, and ringing in the ears (tinnitus). Seizures, muscle weakness, and paralysis that affect one side of the body (hemiplegia) may also occur during these episodes. \n\nEpisodes of ataxia and other symptoms can begin anytime from early childhood to adulthood. They can be triggered by environmental factors such as stress, caffeine, alcohol, certain medications, physical activity, and illness. The duration of episodes may vary from seconds to days, and the frequency ranges from several episodes per day to one or two every few months. Between episodes, affected individuals may have no signs or symptoms. However, some continue to experience ataxia, which may worsen over time.\n\nSome children with episodic ataxia have delayed development of speech or motor skills, such as standing and walking. They may also have learning difficulties.\n\nResearchers have identified at least 11 types of episodic ataxia, distinguished by their pattern of signs and symptoms, age of onset, length of episodes, and genetic cause.\n\nAdditionally, a muscle abnormality called myokymia or an eye abnormality called nystagmus can occur during or between episodes. Myokymia causes muscle cramping; stiffness; or continuous, fine muscle twitching that appears as rippling under the skin. Nystagmus refers to rapid, involuntary eye movements.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Najm type
MedGen UID:
437070
Concept ID:
C2677903
Disease or Syndrome
CASK disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes in both females and males. Two main types of clinical presentation are seen: Microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH), generally associated with pathogenic loss-of-function variants in CASK. X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) with or without nystagmus, generally associated with hypomorphic CASK pathogenic variants. MICPCH is typically seen in females with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, progressive microcephaly with or without ophthalmologic anomalies, and sensorineural hearing loss. Most are able to sit independently; 20%-25% attain the ability to walk; language is nearly absent in most. Neurologic features may include axial hypotonia, hypertonia/spasticity of the extremities, and dystonia or other movement disorders. Nearly 40% have seizures by age ten years. Behaviors may include sleep disturbances, hand stereotypies, and self biting. MICPCH in males may occur with or without severe epileptic encephalopathy in addition to severe-to-profound developmental delay. When seizures are present they occur early and may be intractable. In individuals and families with milder (i.e., hypomorphic) pathogenic variants, the clinical phenotype is usually that of XLID with or without nystagmus and additional clinical features. Males have mild-to-severe intellectual disability, with or without nystagmus and other ocular features. Females typically have normal intelligence with some displaying mild-to-severe intellectual disability with or without ocular features.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 43
MedGen UID:
760531
Concept ID:
C2680446
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-43 (SPG43) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by childhood onset of progressive spasticity affecting the lower and upper limbs (summary by Meilleur et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see 270800.
Hereditary angioedema type 1
MedGen UID:
403466
Concept ID:
C2717906
Disease or Syndrome
A form of hereditary angioedema characterized by acute edema in subcutaneous tissues, viscera and/or the upper airway.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 9B
MedGen UID:
440765
Concept ID:
C2749346
Disease or Syndrome
Adult Refsum disease (ARD is associated with elevated plasma phytanic acid levels, late childhood-onset (or later) retinitis pigmentosa, and variable combinations of anosmia, polyneuropathy, deafness, ataxia, and ichthyosis. Onset of symptoms ranges from age seven months to older than age 50 years. Cardiac arrhythmia and heart failure caused by cardiomyopathy are potentially severe health problems that develop later in life.
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis, susceptibility to, 1
MedGen UID:
413199
Concept ID:
C2749982
Finding
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a sporadic muscle disorder characterized by episodic attacks of weakness associated with hypokalemia in individuals with hyperthyroidism. The paralysis resolves upon treatment of hyperthyroidism. The disorder is most common among males of Asian descent, including Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Filipino, and Koreans, although it occurs less commonly in individuals of Caucasian background. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is clinically similar to hereditary hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOKPP; 170400), but the paralysis in TTPP occurs only in the presence of hyperthyroidism. TTPP can also be precipitated by factors that result in hypokalemia, such as carbohydrate ingestion and rest after exercise (review by Kung, 2006). Genetic Heterogeneity of Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis See also TTPP2 (613239), conferred by variation in the KCNJ18 gene (613236) on chromosome 17p11, and TTPP3 (614834), mapped to chromosome 17q24.
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 3, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
413212
Concept ID:
C2750035
Disease or Syndrome
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is characterized classically by the triad of weakness of the shoulder and pelvic girdle muscles, contractures of the elbows, neck, and Achilles tendon, and cardiac involvement, most commonly arrhythmias (summary by Jimenez-Escrig et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of EDMD, see 310300.
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4
MedGen UID:
412871
Concept ID:
C2750069
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4 (CGL4) combines the phenotype of classic Berardinelli-Seip lipodystrophy (608594) with muscular dystrophy and cardiac conduction anomalies (Hayashi et al., 2009). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital generalized lipodystrophy, see CGL1 (608594).
Congenital muscular dystrophy due to integrin alpha-7 deficiency
MedGen UID:
413044
Concept ID:
C2750786
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic congenital muscular dystrophy due to extracellular matrix protein anomaly. The disease has characteristics of early motor development delay and muscle weakness with mild elevation of serum creatine kinase that may be followed by progressive disease course with predominantly proximal muscle weakness and atrophy, motor development regress, scoliosis and respiratory insufficiency. There is evidence this disease is caused by compound heterozygous mutation in the ITGA7 gene on chromosome 12q13.
Familial amyloid neuropathy
MedGen UID:
414031
Concept ID:
C2751492
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis is characterized by a slowly progressive peripheral sensorimotor and/or autonomic neuropathy as well as non-neuropathic changes of cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, vitreous opacities, and CNS amyloidosis. The disease usually begins in the third to fifth decade in persons from endemic foci in Portugal and Japan; onset is later in persons from other areas. Typically, sensory neuropathy starts in the lower extremities with paresthesias and hypesthesias of the feet, followed within a few years by motor neuropathy. In some persons, particularly those with early-onset disease, autonomic neuropathy is the first manifestation of the condition; findings can include: orthostatic hypotension, constipation alternating with diarrhea, attacks of nausea and vomiting, delayed gastric emptying, sexual impotence, anhidrosis, and urinary retention or incontinence. Cardiac amyloidosis is mainly characterized by progressive cardiomyopathy. Individuals with leptomeningeal amyloidosis may have the following CNS findings: dementia, psychosis, visual impairment, headache, seizures, motor paresis, ataxia, myelopathy, hydrocephalus, or intracranial hemorrhage.
DPM3-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
414534
Concept ID:
C2752007
Disease or Syndrome
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type C15 (MDDGC15) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive proximal muscle weakness, manifest initially as unsteady gait, but later including more distal muscles, and dilated cardiomyopathy. The age at onset varies widely from the first decade to adulthood; those with earlier onset may have delayed motor development. Laboratory studies show increased serum creatine kinase and muscle biopsy shows dystrophic features with decreased alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239). Biochemical studies often show evidence of abnormal N-glycosylation of serum proteins, consistent with a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) (summary by Svahn et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy- dystroglycanopathy type C, see MDDGC1 (609308). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
PGM1-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
414536
Concept ID:
C2752015
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type It (CDG1T) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations and severity. The most common features include cleft lip and bifid uvula, apparent at birth, followed by hepatopathy, intermittent hypoglycemia, short stature, and exercise intolerance, often accompanied by increased serum creatine kinase. Less common features include rhabdomyolysis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (summary by Tegtmeyer et al., 2014). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paralysis
MedGen UID:
419413
Concept ID:
C2931441
Disease or Syndrome
ALS2-related disorder involves retrograde degeneration of the upper motor neurons of the pyramidal tracts and comprises a clinical continuum of the following three phenotypes: Infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia (IAHSP), characterized by onset of spasticity with increased reflexes and sustained clonus of the lower limbs within the first two years of life, progressive weakness and spasticity of the upper limbs by age seven to eight years, and wheelchair dependence in the second decade with progression toward severe spastic tetraparesis and a pseudobulbar syndrome caused by progressive cranial nerve involvement. Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS), characterized by upper motor neuron findings of pseudobulbar palsy and spastic quadriplegia without dementia or cerebellar, extrapyramidal, or sensory signs. Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS or ALS2), characterized by onset between ages three and 20 years. All affected individuals show a spastic pseudobulbar syndrome (spasticity of speech and swallowing) together with spastic paraplegia. Some individuals are bedridden by age 12 to 50 years.
Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome
MedGen UID:
419089
Concept ID:
C2931482
Disease or Syndrome
A variant of neurofibromatosis type 1 characterized by the combination of features of neurofibromatosis type 1, such as café-au-lait spots, iris Lisch nodules, axillary and inguinal freckling, optic nerve glioma and multiple neurofibromas; and Noonan syndrome, with features such as short stature, typical facial features, congenital heart defects and unusual pectus deformity.
Camurati-Engelmann disease, type 2
MedGen UID:
419470
Concept ID:
C2931683
Disease or Syndrome
Camurati-Engelmann Disease not associated with TGFB1. This is an n-of-1 use case where only one patient or family has been described with this disorder.
Potassium-aggravated myotonia
MedGen UID:
444151
Concept ID:
C2931826
Disease or Syndrome
In a report on the 37th ENMC Workshop, Rudel and Lehmann-Horn (1997) stated that the sodium channelopathies can be divided into 3 different forms: paramyotonia, potassium-aggravated myotonia, and periodic paralysis. Potassium-aggravated myotonia includes mild myotonia fluctuans, severe myotonia permanens, and acetazolamide-responsive myotonia.
Congenital myotonia, autosomal dominant form
MedGen UID:
422446
Concept ID:
C2936781
Disease or Syndrome
Myotonia congenita is characterized by muscle stiffness present from childhood; all striated muscle groups including the extrinsic eye muscles, facial muscles, and tongue may be involved. Stiffness is relieved by repeated contractions of the muscle (the "warm-up" phenomenon). Muscles are usually hypertrophic. Whereas autosomal recessive (AR) myotonia congenita is often associated with more severe manifestations (such as progressive minor distal weakness and attacks of transient weakness brought on by movement after rest), autosomal dominant (AD) myotonia congenita is not. The age of onset varies: in AD myotonia congenita onset is usually in infancy or early childhood; in AR myotonia congenita the average age of onset is slightly older. In both AR and AD myotonia congenita onset may be as late as the third or fourth decade of life.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 12
MedGen UID:
462042
Concept ID:
C3150692
Disease or Syndrome
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-12 with or without frontotemporal dementia (ALS12) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of ALS in adulthood. Rare patients may also develop frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance patterns have been reported; there is also sporadic occurrence (summary by Maruyama et al., 2010 and Feng et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, see ALS1 (105400).
Hemolytic anemia due to glucophosphate isomerase deficiency
MedGen UID:
462080
Concept ID:
C3150730
Disease or Syndrome
Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects red blood cells, which carry oxygen to the body's tissues. People with this disorder have a condition known as chronic hemolytic anemia, in which red blood cells are broken down (undergo hemolysis) prematurely, resulting in a shortage of red blood cells (anemia). Chronic hemolytic anemia can lead to unusually pale skin (pallor), yellowing of the eyes and skin (jaundice), extreme tiredness (fatigue), shortness of breath (dyspnea), and a rapid heart rate (tachycardia). An enlarged spleen (splenomegaly), an excess of iron in the blood, and small pebble-like deposits in the gallbladder or bile ducts (gallstones) may also occur in this disorder.\n\nHemolytic anemia in GPI deficiency can range from mild to severe. In the most severe cases, affected individuals do not survive to birth. Individuals with milder disease can survive into adulthood. People with any level of severity of the disorder can have episodes of more severe hemolysis, called hemolytic crises, which can be triggered by bacterial or viral infections.\n\nA small percentage of individuals with GPI deficiency also have neurological problems, including intellectual disability and difficulty with coordinating movements (ataxia).
Glycogen storage disease XV
MedGen UID:
462104
Concept ID:
C3150754
Disease or Syndrome
Glycogen storage disease type 15 is an extremely rare genetic glycogen storage disease reported in one patient to date. Clinical signs included muscle weakness, cardiac arrhythmia associated with accumulation of abnormal storage material in the heart and glycogen depletion in skeletal muscle.
Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1H
MedGen UID:
462136
Concept ID:
C3150786
Disease or Syndrome
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1H (LGMD1H) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by adult onset of progressive proximal muscle weakness affecting both the upper and lower limbs (Bisceglia et al., 2010). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, see LGMDD1 (603511).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 7
MedGen UID:
462151
Concept ID:
C3150801
Disease or Syndrome
A rare mitochondrial disease due to a defect in mitochondrial protein synthesis with a variable phenotype that includes onset in infancy or early childhood of failure to thrive and psychomotor regression (after initial normal development), as well as ocular manifestations (such as ptosis, nystagmus, optic atrophy, ophthalmoplegia and reduced vision). Additional manifestations include bulbar paresis with facial weakness, hypotonia, difficulty chewing, dysphagia, mild dysarthria, ataxia, global muscle atrophy, and areflexia. It has a relatively slow disease progression with patients often living into the third decade of life.
Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia 2
MedGen UID:
462152
Concept ID:
C3150802
Disease or Syndrome
Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia-2 (MLASA2) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The disorder shows marked phenotypic variability: some patients have a severe multisystem disorder from infancy, including cardiomyopathy and respiratory insufficiency resulting in early death, whereas others present in the second or third decade of life with sideroblastic anemia and mild muscle weakness (summary by Riley et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MLASA, see MLASA1 (600462).
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 4b
MedGen UID:
462264
Concept ID:
C3150914
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Progressive demyelinating neuropathy with bilateral striatal necrosis
MedGen UID:
462323
Concept ID:
C3150973
Disease or Syndrome
Thiamine metabolism dysfunction syndrome-4 (THMD4) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by childhood onset of episodic encephalopathy, often associated with a febrile illness, and causing transient neurologic dysfunction. Most patients recover fully, but some may have mild residual weakness. Affected individuals also develop a slowly progressive axonal polyneuropathy beginning in childhood. Brain imaging during the acute episodes shows lesions consistent with bilateral striatal degeneration or necrosis (summary by Spiegel et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of disorders due to thiamine metabolism dysfunction, see THMD1 (249270).
Renal hypomagnesemia 6
MedGen UID:
462645
Concept ID:
C3151295
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A3
MedGen UID:
462869
Concept ID:
C3151519
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in the POMGNT1 gene. It is associated with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, and death usually in the first years of life.
Severe X-linked mitochondrial encephalomyopathy
MedGen UID:
463103
Concept ID:
C3151753
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-6 (COXPD6) is an X-linked recessive severe encephalomyopathic disorder with onset in utero or in infancy. Affected patients have hypotonia and severely impaired psychomotor development associated with variably decreased enzymatic activity of mitochondrial respiratory complexes in skeletal muscle or fibroblasts. More variable features may include sensorimotor neuropathy, seizures, severe muscle weakness, abnormal signals in the basal ganglia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, deafness, swallowing difficulties, and respiratory insufficiency. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Berger et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Mitochondrial myopathy with reversible cytochrome C oxidase deficiency
MedGen UID:
463248
Concept ID:
C3151898
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile mitochondrial myopathy due to reversible COX deficiency is a rare mitochondrial disorder characterized by onset in infancy of severe hypotonia and generalized muscle weakness associated with lactic acidosis, but is distinguished from other mitochondrial disorders in that affected individuals recover spontaneously after 1 year of age (summary by Mimaki et al., 2010). See also transient infantile liver failure (LFIT; 613070), which is a similar disorder.
D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria 1
MedGen UID:
463405
Concept ID:
C3152055
Disease or Syndrome
D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a neurometabolic disorder first described by Chalmers et al. (1980). Clinical symptoms include developmental delay, epilepsy, hypotonia, and dysmorphic features. Mild and severe phenotypes were characterized (van der Knaap et al., 1999). The severe phenotype is homogeneous and is characterized by early infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy and, often, cardiomyopathy. The mild phenotype has a more variable clinical presentation. Genetic Heterogeneity of D-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria-2 (D2HGA2; 613657) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 gene (IDH2; 147650) on chromosome 15q26.
Steinert myotonic dystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
886881
Concept ID:
C3250443
Disease or Syndrome
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystem disorder that affects skeletal and smooth muscle as well as the eye, heart, endocrine system, and central nervous system. The clinical findings, which span a continuum from mild to severe, have been categorized into three somewhat overlapping phenotypes: mild, classic, and congenital. Mild DM1 is characterized by cataract and mild myotonia (sustained muscle contraction); life span is normal. Classic DM1 is characterized by muscle weakness and wasting, myotonia, cataract, and often cardiac conduction abnormalities; adults may become physically disabled and may have a shortened life span. Congenital DM1 is characterized by hypotonia and severe generalized weakness at birth, often with respiratory insufficiency and early death; intellectual disability is common.
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
478062
Concept ID:
C3276432
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome is a severe autosomal recessive disorder of systemic energy metabolism, resulting in weakness, respiratory failure, lack of neurologic development, lactic acidosis, and early death (summary by Seyda et al., 2001). Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Mitochondrial Dysfunctions Syndrome See also MMDS2 (614299), caused by mutation in the BOLA3 gene (613183) on chromosome 2p13; MMDS3 (615330), caused by mutation in the IBA57 gene (615316) on chromosome 1q42; MMDS4 (616370), caused by mutation in the ISCA2 gene (615317) on chromosome 14q24; MMDS5 (617613), caused by mutation in the ISCA1 gene (611006) on chromosome 9q21; MMDS6 (617954), caused by mutation in the PMPCB gene (603131) on chromosome 7q22; and MMDS7 (620423), caused by mutation in the GCSH gene (238330) on chromosome 16q23.
Distal myopathy with posterior leg and anterior hand involvement
MedGen UID:
481352
Concept ID:
C3279722
Disease or Syndrome
Williams distal myopathy is an autosomal dominant slowly progressive muscular disorder characterized by distal muscle weakness and atrophy affecting the upper and lower limbs. Onset occurs around the third to fourth decades of life, and patients remain ambulatory even after long disease duration. Muscle biopsy shows nonspecific changes with no evidence of rods, necrosis, or inflammation (summary by Duff et al., 2011). Mutation in the FLNC gene can also cause myofibrillar myopathy-5 (MFM5; 609524), which shows a different pattern of muscle involvement and different histologic changes.
Autoimmune enteropathy and endocrinopathy - susceptibility to chronic infections syndrome
MedGen UID:
481620
Concept ID:
C3279990
Disease or Syndrome
IMD31C is a disorder of immunologic dysregulation with highly variable manifestations resulting from autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in STAT1 (600555). Most patients present in infancy or early childhood with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Other highly variable features include recurrent bacterial, viral, fungal, and mycoplasmal infections, disseminated dimorphic fungal infections, enteropathy with villous atrophy, and autoimmune disorders, such as hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus. A subset of patients show apparently nonimmunologic features, including osteopenia, delayed puberty, and intracranial aneurysms. Laboratory studies show increased activation of gamma-interferon (IFNG; 147570)-mediated inflammation (summary by Uzel et al., 2013 and Sampaio et al., 2013).
Hyperphosphatasia with intellectual disability syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
481783
Concept ID:
C3280153
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome-3 (HPMRS3) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe intellectual disability, hypotonia with poor motor development, poor speech, and increased serum alkaline phosphatase (summary by Hansen et al., 2013). However, the severity of the disorder can also vary to include more mild intellectual impairment (Krawitz et al., 2013). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HPMRS, see HPMRS1 (239300). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
482008
Concept ID:
C3280378
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome-2 (MMDS2) with hyperglycinemia is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by developmental regression in infancy. Affected children have an encephalopathic disease course with seizures, spasticity, loss of head control, and abnormal movement. Additional more variable features include optic atrophy, cardiomyopathy, and leukodystrophy. Laboratory studies show increased serum glycine and lactate. Most patients die in childhood. The disorder represents a form of 'variant' nonketotic hyperglycinemia and is distinct from classic nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH, or GCE; 605899), which is characterized by significantly increased CSF glycine. Several forms of 'variant' NKH, including MMDS2, appear to result from defects of mitochondrial lipoate biosynthesis (summary by Baker et al., 2014). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome, see MMDS1 (605711).
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliotic type, 2
MedGen UID:
482790
Concept ID:
C3281160
Disease or Syndrome
FKBP14 kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (FKBP14-kEDS) is characterized by congenital muscle hypotonia and weakness (typically improving during childhood), progressive scoliosis, joint hypermobility, hyperelastic skin, gross motor developmental delay, myopathy, and hearing impairment. Most affected children achieve independent walking between ages two and four years. A decline of motor function in adulthood may be seen, but affected individuals are likely to be able to participate in activities of daily living in adulthood and maintain independent walking. Occasional features underlying systemic connective tissue involvement include aortic rupture and arterial dissection, subdural hygroma, insufficiency of cardiac valves, bluish sclerae, bladder diverticula, inguinal or umbilical herniae, and premature rupture of membranes during pregnancy. Rarer findings may include bifid uvula with submucous or frank cleft palate, speech/language delay without true cognitive impairment, and rectal prolapse.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 36
MedGen UID:
483339
Concept ID:
C3472711
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-36 (SCA36) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult-onset gait ataxia, eye movement abnormalities, tongue fasciculations, and variable upper motor neuron signs. Some affected individuals may develop hearing loss (summary by Garcia-Murias et al., 2012). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 1
MedGen UID:
762097
Concept ID:
C3541471
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive mitochondrial complex III deficiency is a severe multisystem disorder with onset at birth of lactic acidosis, hypotonia, hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, encephalopathy, and delayed psychomotor development. Visceral involvement, including hepatopathy and renal tubulopathy, may also occur. Many patients die in early childhood, but some may show longer survival (de Lonlay et al., 2001; De Meirleir et al., 2003). Genetic Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial Complex III Deficiency Mitochondrial complex III deficiency can be caused by mutation in several different nuclear-encoded genes. See MC3DN2 (615157), caused by mutation in the TTC19 gene (613814) on chromosome 17p12; MC3DN3 (615158), caused by mutation in the UQCRB gene (191330) on chromosome 8q; MC3DN4 (615159), caused by mutation in the UQCRQ gene (612080) on chromosome 5q31; MC3DN5 (615160), caused by mutation in the UQCRC2 gene (191329) on chromosome 16p12; MC3DN6 (615453), caused by mutation in the CYC1 gene (123980) on chromosome 8q24; MC3DN7 (615824), caused by mutation in the UQCC2 gene (614461) on chromosome 6p21; MC3DN8 (615838), caused by mutation in the LYRM7 gene (615831) on chromosome 5q23; MC3DN9 (616111), caused by mutation in the UQCC3 gene (616097) on chromosome 11q12; and MC3DN10 (618775), caused by mutation in the UQCRFS1 gene (191327) on chromosome 19q12. See also MTYCB (516020) for a discussion of a milder phenotype associated with isolated mitochondrial complex III deficiency and mutations in a mitochondrial-encoded gene.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1B
MedGen UID:
766363
Concept ID:
C3553449
Disease or Syndrome
EXOSC3 pontocerebellar hypoplasia (EXOSC3-PCH) is characterized by abnormalities in the posterior fossa and degeneration of the anterior horn cells. At birth, skeletal muscle weakness manifests as hypotonia (sometimes with congenital joint contractures) and poor feeding. In persons with prolonged survival, spasticity, dystonia, and seizures become evident. Within the first year of life respiratory insufficiency and swallowing difficulties are common. Intellectual disability is severe. Life expectancy ranges from a few weeks to adolescence. To date, 82 individuals (from 58 families) with EXOSC3-PCH have been described.
TMEM165-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
766485
Concept ID:
C3553571
Disease or Syndrome
CDG2K is an autosomal recessive disorder with a variable phenotype. Affected individuals show psychomotor retardation and growth retardation, and most have short stature. Other features include dysmorphism, hypotonia, eye abnormalities, acquired microcephaly, hepatomegaly, and skeletal dysplasia. Serum transferrin analysis shows a CDG type II pattern (summary by Foulquier et al., 2012). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066).
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 18
MedGen UID:
766633
Concept ID:
C3553719
Disease or Syndrome
Any amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PFN1 gene.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 11B
MedGen UID:
766915
Concept ID:
C3554001
Disease or Syndrome
The overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD) represent the milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX13 gene have cells of complementation group 13 (CG13, equivalent to CGH). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 14B
MedGen UID:
766969
Concept ID:
C3554055
Disease or Syndrome
PBD14B is an autosomal recessive peroxisome biogenesis disorder characterized clinically by mild intellectual disability, congenital cataracts, progressive hearing loss, and polyneuropathy (Ebberink et al., 2012), all of which had been observed in patients with mild peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (e.g., Kelley et al., 1986; Poll-The et al., 1987). Additionally, recurrent migraine-like episodes following mental stress or physical exertion, not a common feature in peroxisome disorders, was reported. Thoms and Gartner (2012) classified the disorder described by Ebberink et al. (2012) in their patient as a mild 'Zellweger syndrome (214100) spectrum' (ZSS) disorder. See PBD1B (601539) for a phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of less severe phenotypes on the Zellweger syndrome spectrum. See PBD9B (614879) for another atypical peroxisome biogenesis disorder.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 7
MedGen UID:
767140
Concept ID:
C3554226
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 7 (PCH7) is a severe neurologic condition characterized by delayed psychomotor development, hypotonia, breathing abnormalities, and gonadal abnormalities (summary by Anderson et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Lower motor neuron syndrome with late-adult onset
MedGen UID:
767312
Concept ID:
C3554398
Disease or Syndrome
CHCHD10-related disorders are characterized by a spectrum of adult-onset neurologic phenotypes that can include: Mitochondrial myopathy (may also be early onset): weakness, amyotrophy, exercise intolerance. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): progressive degeneration of upper motor neurons and lower motor neurons. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD): slowly progressive behavioral changes, language disturbances, cognitive decline, extrapyramidal signs. Late-onset spinal motor neuronopathy (SMA, Jokela type): weakness, cramps, and/or fasciculations; areflexia. Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy: slowly progressive lower-leg muscle weakness and atrophy, small hand muscle weakness, loss of tendon reflexes, sensory abnormalities. Cerebellar ataxia: gait ataxia, kinetic ataxia (progressive loss of coordination of lower- and upper-limb movements), dysarthria/dysphagia, nystagmus, cerebellar oculomotor disorder. Because of the recent discovery of CHCHD10-related disorders and the limited number of affected individuals reported to date, the natural history of these disorders (except for SMAJ caused by the p.Gly66Val pathogenic variant) is largely unknown.
Mitochondrial DNA deletion syndrome with progressive myopathy
MedGen UID:
767513
Concept ID:
C3554599
Disease or Syndrome
PEOA6 is characterized by muscle weakness, mainly affecting the lower limbs, external ophthalmoplegia, exercise intolerance, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions on muscle biopsy. Symptoms may appear in childhood or adulthood and show slow progression (summary by Ronchi et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia, see PEOA1 (157640).
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 2
MedGen UID:
767519
Concept ID:
C3554605
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 2 is an autosomal recessive severe neurodegenerative disorder that usually presents in childhood, but may show later onset, even in adulthood. Affected individuals have motor disability, with ataxia, apraxia, dystonia, and dysarthria, associated with necrotic lesions throughout the brain. Most patients also have cognitive impairment and axonal neuropathy and become severely disabled later in life (summary by Ghezzi et al., 2011). The disorder may present clinically as spinocerebellar ataxia or Leigh syndrome, or with psychiatric disturbances (Morino et al., 2014; Atwal, 2014; Nogueira et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex III deficiency, see MC3DN1 (124000).
Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 3
MedGen UID:
767604
Concept ID:
C3554690
Disease or Syndrome
AOA3 is an autosomal recessive progressive neurologic disorder with onset in the second decade of life (Al Tassan et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ataxia-oculomotor apraxia, see AOA1 (208920).
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis, type 1
MedGen UID:
811387
Concept ID:
C3714580
Disease or Syndrome
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoPP) is a condition in which affected individuals may experience paralytic episodes with concomitant hypokalemia (serum potassium <3.5 mmol/L). The paralytic attacks are characterized by decreased muscle tone (flaccidity) more marked proximally than distally with normal to decreased deep tendon reflexes. The episodes develop over minutes to hours and last several minutes to several days with spontaneous recovery. Some individuals have only one episode in a lifetime; more commonly, crises occur repeatedly: daily, weekly, monthly, or less often. The major triggering factors are cessation of effort following strenuous exercise and carbohydrate-rich evening meals. Additional triggers can include cold, stress/excitement/fear, salt intake, prolonged immobility, use of glucosteroids or alcohol, and anesthetic procedures. The age of onset of the first attack ranges from two to 30 years; the duration of paralytic episodes ranges from one to 72 hours with an average of nearly 24 hours. Long-lasting interictal muscle weakness may occur in some affected individuals and in some stages of the disease and in myopathic muscle changes. A myopathy may occur independent of paralytic symptoms and may be the sole manifestation of hypoPP.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 57
MedGen UID:
811490
Concept ID:
C3714897
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare, complex type of hereditary spastic paraplegia, with onset in infancy of pronounced leg spasticity (leading to the inability to walk independently), reduced visual acuity due to optic atrophy and distal wasting of the hands and feet due to an axonal demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy. Caused by mutations in the TFG gene (3q12.2) encoding protein TFG, which is thought to play a role in ER microtubular architecture and function.
Muscle AMP deaminase deficiency
MedGen UID:
811508
Concept ID:
C3714933
Disease or Syndrome
Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency (MMDD) is an autosomal recessive condition that can manifest as exercise-induced muscle pain, occasionally associated with rhabdomyolysis and/or increased serum creatine kinase, or even infantile hypotonia. However, the finding of homozygous mutations among asymptomatic individuals have suggested to some (e.g., Verzijl et al., 1998) that AMPD1 deficiency may be a harmless entity (summary by Castro-Gago et al., 2011). Genetta et al. (2001) stated that AMPD1 deficiency is the most prevalent genetic disease in humans, the number of people heterozygous approaching 10% of Caucasians and individuals of African descent (Sabina et al., 1989). A small percentage of homozygous-deficient individuals, approximately 1.8% of the population, display symptoms of chronic fatigue and lost productivity as well as a predisposition to stress-related ailments, including heart disease and stroke, according to Genetta et al. (2001).
Nemaline myopathy 8
MedGen UID:
815539
Concept ID:
C3809209
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-8 is a severe autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by fetal akinesia or hypokinesia, followed by contractures, fractures, respiratory failure, and swallowing difficulties apparent at birth. Most patients die in infancy. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows numerous small nemaline bodies, often with no normal myofibrils (summary by Ravenscroft et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM3 (161800).
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A14
MedGen UID:
815546
Concept ID:
C3809216
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with intellectual disability), type B14
MedGen UID:
815551
Concept ID:
C3809221
Disease or Syndrome
MDDGB14 is an autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy characterized by severe muscle weakness apparent in infancy and impaired intellectual development. Some patients may have additional features, such as microcephaly, cardiac dysfunction, seizures, or cerebellar hypoplasia. It is part of a group of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (summary by Carss et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B, see MDDGB1 (613155).
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 12B (cardiomyopathic type), autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
815773
Concept ID:
C3809443
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome-12B is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder characterized by childhood onset of slowly progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and generalized skeletal myopathy resulting in exercise intolerance, and, in some patients, muscle weakness and atrophy. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows ragged-red fibers, mtDNA depletion, and accumulation of abnormal mitochondria (summary by Echaniz-Laguna et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mtDNA depletion syndromes, see MTDPS1 (603041).
Inclusion body myopathy with early-onset Paget disease with or without frontotemporal dementia 2
MedGen UID:
815798
Concept ID:
C3809468
Disease or Syndrome
Inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone (PDB) and/or frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) is characterized by adult-onset proximal and distal muscle weakness (clinically resembling a limb-girdle muscular dystrophy syndrome), early-onset PDB, and premature frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Muscle weakness progresses to involve other limb and respiratory muscles. PDB involves focal areas of increased bone turnover that typically lead to spine and/or hip pain and localized enlargement and deformity of the long bones; pathologic fractures occur on occasion. Early stages of FTD are characterized by dysnomia, dyscalculia, comprehension deficits, and paraphasic errors, with minimal impairment of episodic memory; later stages are characterized by inability to speak, auditory comprehension deficits for even one-step commands, alexia, and agraphia. Mean age at diagnosis for muscle disease and PDB is 42 years; for FTD, 56 years. Dilated cardiomyopathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson disease are now known to be part of the spectrum of findings associated with IBMPFD.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2R
MedGen UID:
815985
Concept ID:
C3809655
Disease or Syndrome
A rare subtype of axonal hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy characterised by early-onset axial hypotonia, generalised muscle weakness, absent deep tendon reflexes and decreased muscle mass. Electromyography reveals decreased motor nerve conduction velocities with markedly reduced sensory and motor amplitudes. There is evidence the disease is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the TRIM2 gene on chromosome 4q.
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 7
MedGen UID:
816212
Concept ID:
C3809882
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type VII (HSAN7) is characterized by congenital absence of pain sensation resulting in recurrent injuries and self-inflicted wounds. Severe pruritis, intestinal dysmotility, and hyperhydrosis may be present (Woods et al., 2015; Salvatierra et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, see HSAN1 (162400).
Hereditary sclerosing poikiloderma with tendon and pulmonary involvement
MedGen UID:
816655
Concept ID:
C3810325
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary fibrosing poikiloderma with tendon contractures, myopathy, and pulmonary fibrosis (POIKTMP) is characterized by the skin findings of poikiloderma (typically beginning in the first six months and mainly localized to the face), hypohidrosis with heat intolerance, mild lymphedema of the extremities, chronic erythematous and scaly skin lesions on the extremities, sclerosis of the digits, and mild palmoplantar keratoderma. Scalp hair, eyelashes, and/or eyebrows are typically sparse. Muscle contractures are usually seen in childhood and can be present as early as age two years. The majority of affected individuals develop progressive weakness of the proximal and distal muscles of all four limbs. Some adults develop progressive interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, which can be life threatening within three to four years after respiratory symptoms appear. Other features are exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, liver impairment, hematologic abnormalities, relative short stature, and cataract.
Nemaline myopathy 9
MedGen UID:
816714
Concept ID:
C3810384
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-9 is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by onset of muscle weakness in early infancy. The phenotype is highly variable, ranging from death in infancy due to lack of antigravity movements, to slowly progressive distal muscle weakness with preserved ambulation later in childhood. Muscle biopsy shows typical rod-like structure in myofibers (summary by Gupta et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see 161800.
Very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
MedGen UID:
854382
Concept ID:
C3887523
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (VLCAD), which catalyzes the initial step of mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids with a chain length of 14 to 20 carbons, is associated with three phenotypes. The severe early-onset cardiac and multiorgan failure form typically presents in the first months of life with hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy, pericardial effusion, and arrhythmias, as well as hypotonia, hepatomegaly, and intermittent hypoglycemia. The hepatic or hypoketotic hypoglycemic form typically presents during early childhood with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and hepatomegaly, but without cardiomyopathy. The later-onset episodic myopathic form presents with intermittent rhabdomyolysis provoked by exercise, muscle cramps and/or pain, and/or exercise intolerance. Hypoglycemia typically is not present at the time of symptoms.
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1
MedGen UID:
854771
Concept ID:
C3888102
Disease or Syndrome
C9orf72 frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (C9orf72-FTD/ALS) is characterized most often by frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and upper and lower motor neuron disease (MND); however, atypical presentations also occur. Age at onset is usually between 50 and 64 years (range: 20-91 years) irrespective of the presenting manifestations, which may be pure FTD, pure amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or a combination of the two phenotypes. The clinical presentation is highly heterogeneous and may differ between and within families, causing an unpredictable pattern and age of onset of clinical manifestations. The presence of MND correlates with an earlier age of onset and a worse overall prognosis.
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 8
MedGen UID:
862877
Concept ID:
C4014440
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency, nuclear type 8, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive neurodegeneration with onset in childhood. Affected individuals may have normal or delayed early development, and often have episodic acute neurologic decompensation and regression associated with febrile illnesses. The developmental regression results in variable intellectual disability and motor deficits, such as hypotonia, axial hypertonia, and spasticity; some patients may lose the ability to walk independently. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and isolated deficiency of mitochondrial complex III in skeletal muscle and fibroblasts. Brain imaging shows a characteristic pattern of multifocal small cystic lesions in the periventricular and deep cerebral white matter (summary by Dallabona et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex III deficiency, see MC3DN1 (124000).
Myopathy, tubular aggregate, 2
MedGen UID:
862994
Concept ID:
C4014557
Disease or Syndrome
Any tubular aggregate myopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ORAI1 gene.
Leukoencephalopathy, progressive, with ovarian failure
MedGen UID:
863025
Concept ID:
C4014588
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive leukoencephalopathy with ovarian failure is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of motor and cognitive skills, usually with onset in young adulthood. Some patients may have a history of delayed motor development or learning difficulties in early childhood. Neurologic decline is severe, usually resulting in gait difficulties, ataxia, spasticity, and cognitive decline and dementia. Most patients lose speech and become wheelchair-bound or bedridden. Brain MRI shows progressive white matter signal abnormalities in the deep white matter. Affected females develop premature ovarian failure (summary by Dallabona et al., 2014).
Polyglucosan body myopathy type 1
MedGen UID:
863042
Concept ID:
C4014605
Disease or Syndrome
Polyglucosan body myopathy-1 (PGBM1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset in childhood of progressive proximal muscle weakness, resulting in difficulties in ambulation. Most patients also develop progressive dilated cardiomyopathy, which may necessitate cardiac transplant in severe cases. A small subset of patients present with severe immunodeficiency and a hyperinflammatory state in very early childhood (summary by Boisson et al., 2012 and Nilsson et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Polyglucosan Body Myopathy See also PGBM2 (616199), caused by mutation in the GYG1 gene (603942) on chromosome 3q24.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 20
MedGen UID:
863097
Concept ID:
C4014660
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 20 is a rare mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation disorder characterized by variable combination of psychomotor delay, hypotonia, muscle weakness, seizures, microcephaly, cardiomyopathy and mild dysmorphic facial features. Variable types of structural brain anomalies have also been reported. Biochemical studies typically show decreased activity of mitochondrial complexes (mainly complex I).
Ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder 2
MedGen UID:
863113
Concept ID:
C4014676
Disease or Syndrome
Ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder-2 is an autosomal recessive syndrome resulting from defects in DNA excision repair. Affected individuals have a neurodegenerative phenotype characterized by developmental delay, ataxia, and sensorineural hearing loss. Other features include short stature, cutaneous and ocular telangiectasia, and photosensitivity (summary by Baple et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ATLD, see ATLD1 (604391).
Myopathy, centronuclear, 5
MedGen UID:
863251
Concept ID:
C4014814
Disease or Syndrome
Centronuclear myopathy-5 (CNM5) is an autosomal recessive congenital myopathy characterized by severe neonatal hypotonia with respiratory insufficiency and difficulty feeding. Some patients die in infancy, and some develop dilated cardiomyopathy. Children show severely delayed motor development (summary by Agrawal et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of centronuclear myopathy, see CNM1 (160150).
LIPE-related familial partial lipodystrophy
MedGen UID:
863306
Concept ID:
C4014869
Disease or Syndrome
Familial partial lipodystrophy type 6 (FPLD6) is characterized by abnormal subcutaneous fat distribution, with variable excess accumulation of fat in the face, neck, shoulders, axillae, back, abdomen, and pubic region, and reduction in subcutaneous fat of the lower extremities. Progressive adult-onset myopathy is seen in some patients, and there is variable association with diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and hepatic steatosis (Zolotov et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), see 151660.
Episodic ataxia type 8
MedGen UID:
863545
Concept ID:
C4015108
Disease or Syndrome
A rare hereditary ataxia characterized by recurrent episodes of ataxia with variable frequency and duration, associated with slurred speech, generalized muscle weakness and balance disturbance. Other symptoms may occur between episodes, including intention tremor, gait ataxia, mild dysarthria, myokymia, migraine and nystagmus.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1C
MedGen UID:
863597
Concept ID:
C4015160
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1C is a severe autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severe muscle weakness and failure to thrive apparent in the first months of life. Affected infants showed delayed psychomotor development, often with visual and hearing impairment, and may die of respiratory failure. Brain imaging typically shows cerebellar hypoplasia, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and immature myelination (summary by Boczonadi et al., 2014). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 9
MedGen UID:
863690
Concept ID:
C4015253
Disease or Syndrome
Any mitochondrial complex III deficiency in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the UQCC3 gene.
Nemaline myopathy 10
MedGen UID:
863797
Concept ID:
C4015360
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-10 (NEM10) is an autosomal recessive severe congenital myopathy characterized by early-onset generalized muscle weakness and hypotonia with respiratory insufficiency and feeding difficulties. Many patients present antenatally with decreased fetal movements, and most die of respiratory failure in early infancy (summary by Yuen et al., 2014). Patients with a stable and much milder disease course have been described (Schatz et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM3 (161800).
Myopathy due to calsequestrin and SERCA1 protein overload
MedGen UID:
864061
Concept ID:
C4015624
Disease or Syndrome
Vacuolar myopathy with CASQ1 aggregates is an autosomal dominant mild muscle disorder characterized by adult onset of muscle cramping and weakness as well as increased levels of serum creatine kinase (CK). The disorder is not progressive, and some patients may be asymptomatic (summary by Rossi et al., 2014).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 24
MedGen UID:
864080
Concept ID:
C4015643
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-24 (COXPD24) is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder with wide phenotypic variability. Most patients present in infancy with delayed neurodevelopment, refractory seizures, hypotonia, and hearing impairment due to auditory neuropathy. Less common features may include cortical blindness, renal dysfunction, and/or liver involvement, suggestive of Alpers syndrome (MTDPS4A; 203700). Patients with the severe phenotype tend to have brain abnormalities on imaging, including cerebral atrophy and hyperintensities in the basal ganglia and brainstem, consistent with Leigh syndrome. Laboratory values may be normal or show increased lactate and evidence of mitochondrial respiratory chain defects, particularly in muscle. Some patients achieve little developmental milestones and may die in infancy or early childhood. However, some patients have a less severe phenotype manifest only by myopathy (summary by Sofou et al., 2015, Vanlander et al., 2015, and Mizuguchi et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Spinal muscular atrophy with congenital bone fractures 2
MedGen UID:
907910
Concept ID:
C4225176
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal muscular atrophy with congenital bone fractures is an autosomal recessive severe neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset of severe hypotonia with fetal hypokinesia in utero. This results in congenital contractures, consistent with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, and increased incidence of prenatal fracture of the long bones. Affected infants have difficulty breathing and feeding and often die in the first days or months of life (summary by Knierim et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of spinal muscular atrophy with congenital bone fractures, see SMABF1 (616866).
Spinal muscular atrophy with congenital bone fractures 1
MedGen UID:
896011
Concept ID:
C4225177
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal muscular atrophy with congenital bone fractures is an autosomal recessive severe neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset of severe hypotonia with fetal hypokinesia in utero. This results in congenital contractures, consistent with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, and increased incidence of prenatal fracture of the long bones. Affected infants have difficulty breathing and feeding and often die in the first days or months of life (summary by Knierim et al., 2016). Genetic Heterogeneity of Spinal Muscular Atrophy With Congenital Bone Fractures See also SMABF2 (616867), caused by mutation in the ASCC1 gene (614215) on chromosome 10q22.
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2W
MedGen UID:
897675
Concept ID:
C4225192
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy with cardiomyopathy and triangular tongue (MDRCMTT) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by onset of severe and progressive muscle weakness and atrophy in childhood, resulting in loss of independent ambulation. Patients may also have dilated cardiomyopathy and have macroglossia with a small tip, resulting in a triangular appearance of the tongue (summary by Warman Chardon et al., 2015).
Primary coenzyme Q10 deficiency 8
MedGen UID:
908648
Concept ID:
C4225226
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 5
MedGen UID:
900333
Concept ID:
C4225237
Disease or Syndrome
Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) is a peroxisomal disorder characterized by disproportionately short stature primarily affecting the proximal parts of the extremities, a typical facial appearance including a broad nasal bridge, epicanthus, high-arched palate, dysplastic external ears, and micrognathia, congenital contractures, characteristic ocular involvement, dwarfism, and severe mental retardation with spasticity. Biochemically, plasmalogen synthesis and phytanic acid alpha-oxidation are defective. Most patients die in the first decade of life (summary by Wanders and Waterham, 2005). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata, see 215100.
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 17
MedGen UID:
903845
Concept ID:
C4225301
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of genetic disorders that mainly affect the bones. The term "osteogenesis imperfecta" means imperfect bone formation. People with this condition have bones that break (fracture) easily, often from mild trauma or with no apparent cause. Multiple fractures are common, and in severe cases, can occur even before birth. Milder cases may involve only a few fractures over a person's lifetime.\n\nThere are at least 19 recognized forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, designated type I through type XIX. Several types are distinguished by their signs and symptoms, although their characteristic features overlap. Increasingly, genetic causes are used to define rarer forms of osteogenesis imperfecta. Type I (also known as classic non-deforming osteogenesis imperfecta with blue sclerae) is the mildest form of osteogenesis imperfecta. Type II (also known as perinatally lethal osteogenesis imperfecta) is the most severe. Other types of this condition, including types III (progressively deforming osteogenesis imperfecta) and IV (common variable osteogenesis imperfecta with normal sclerae), have signs and symptoms that fall somewhere between these two extremes.\n\nThe milder forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, including type I, are characterized by bone fractures during childhood and adolescence that often result from minor trauma, such as falling while learning to walk. Fractures occur less frequently in adulthood. People with mild forms of the condition typically have a blue or grey tint to the part of the eye that is usually white (the sclera), and about half develop hearing loss in adulthood. Unlike more severely affected individuals, people with type I are usually of normal or near normal height.\n\nOther types of osteogenesis imperfecta are more severe, causing frequent bone fractures that are present at birth and result from little or no trauma. Additional features of these types can include blue sclerae of the eyes, short stature, curvature of the spine (scoliosis), joint deformities (contractures), hearing loss, respiratory problems, and a disorder of tooth development called dentinogenesis imperfecta. Mobility can be reduced in affected individuals, and some may use a walker or wheelchair. The most severe forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, particularly type II, can include an abnormally small, fragile rib cage and underdeveloped lungs. Infants with these abnormalities may have life-threatening problems with breathing and can die shortly after birth.
Neuropathy, hereditary motor and sensory, type 6B
MedGen UID:
895482
Concept ID:
C4225302
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type VIB is an autosomal recessive complex progressive neurologic disorder characterized mainly by early-onset optic atrophy resulting in progressive visual loss and peripheral axonal sensorimotor neuropathy with highly variable age at onset and severity. Affected individuals may also have cerebellar or pontocerebellar atrophy on brain imaging, and they may show abnormal movements such as ataxia, dysmetria, and myoclonus (summary by Abrams et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HMSN6, see HMSN6A (601152).
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal recessive 2
MedGen UID:
901897
Concept ID:
C4225312
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions-2 (PEOB2) is a mitochondrial disorder characterized by adult onset of progressive external ophthalmoplegia, exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, and signs and symptoms of spinocerebellar ataxia, such as impaired gait and dysarthria. Some patients may have respiratory insufficiency. Laboratory studies are consistent with a defect in mtDNA replication (summary by Reyes et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive PEO, see PEOB1 (258450).
Bethlem myopathy 2
MedGen UID:
907426
Concept ID:
C4225313
Disease or Syndrome
Bethlem myopathy-2 (BTHLM2) is characterized by congenital hypotonia and myopathy. Motor development is delayed, but muscle strength improves with age, and patients are able to achieve ambulation. Proximal joint contractures that improve over time, as well as joint hyperlaxity, are also present. Muscle biopsy shows mild variability in fiber diameter, without degeneration or regeneration (Zou et al., 2014; Hicks et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bethlem myopathy, see BTHLM1 (158810).
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 4
MedGen UID:
902979
Concept ID:
C4225325
Disease or Syndrome
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-4 is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult or late adult onset of cognitive impairment, behavioral abnormalities, and speech apraxia and/or upper and lower motor neuron signs. The phenotype is highly variable (summary by Freischmidt et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FTDALS, see FTDALS1 (105550).
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 3
MedGen UID:
897127
Concept ID:
C4225326
Disease or Syndrome
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-3 is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult or late adult onset of cognitive impairment, behavioral abnormalities, and speech apraxia and/or upper and lower motor neuron signs. Some patients may also develop Paget disease of bone. The phenotype is highly variable, even within families (summary by Rea et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FTDALS, see FTDALS1 (105550).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 4B
MedGen UID:
904424
Concept ID:
C4225369
Disease or Syndrome
Fast-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (FCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the AChR channel, specifically from abnormally brief opening and activity of the channel, with a rapid decay in endplate current and a failure to reach the threshold for depolarization. Treatment with pyridostigmine or amifampridine may be helpful; quinine, quinidine, and fluoxetine should be avoided (summary by Sine et al., 2003 and Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 3B
MedGen UID:
909404
Concept ID:
C4225371
Disease or Syndrome
Fast-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (FCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor channel, specifically from abnormally brief opening and activity of the channel, with a rapid decay in endplate current and a failure to reach the threshold for depolarization. Treatment with pyridostigmine or amifampridine may be helpful; quinine, quinidine, and fluoxetine should be avoided (summary by Sine et al., 2003 and Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 2C
MedGen UID:
903254
Concept ID:
C4225373
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome associated with AChR deficiency is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized clinically by early-onset muscle weakness with variable severity. Electrophysiologic studies show low amplitude of the miniature endplate potential (MEPP) and current (MEPC) resulting from deficiency of AChR at the endplate. Treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors or amifampridine may be helpful (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 17
MedGen UID:
895078
Concept ID:
C4225377
Disease or Syndrome
Any congenital myasthenic syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the LRP4 gene.
Spondylo-ocular syndrome
MedGen UID:
900371
Concept ID:
C4225412
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylo-ocular syndrome is a very rare association of spinal and ocular manifestations that is characterized by dense cataracts, and retinal detachment along with generalized osteoporosis and platyspondyly. Mild craniofacial dysphormism has been reported including short neck, large head and prominent eyebrows.
Singleton-Merten syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
899946
Concept ID:
C4225427
Disease or Syndrome
Singleton-Merten syndrome (SGMRT) is an uncommon autosomal dominant disorder characterized by abnormalities of blood vessels, teeth, and bone. Calcifications of the aorta and aortic and mitral valves occur in childhood or puberty and can lead to early death. Dental findings include delayed primary tooth exfoliation and permanent tooth eruption, truncated tooth root formation, early-onset periodontal disease, and severe root and alveolar bone resorption associated with dysregulated mineralization, leading to tooth loss. Osseous features consist of osteoporosis, either generalized or limited to distal extremities, distal limb osteolysis, widened medullary cavities, and easy tearing of tendons from bone. Less common features are mild facial dysmorphism (high anterior hair line, broad forehead, smooth philtrum, thin upper vermilion border), generalized muscle weakness, psoriasis, early-onset glaucoma, and recurrent infections. The disorder manifests with variable inter- and intrafamilial phenotypes (summary by Rutsch et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Singleton-Merten Syndrome An atypical form of Singleton-Merten syndrome (SGMRT2; 616298) is caused by mutation in the DDX58 gene (609631) on chromosome 9p21.
Sialidosis type 2
MedGen UID:
924303
Concept ID:
C4282398
Disease or Syndrome
Sialidosis is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the progressive lysosomal storage of sialylated glycopeptides and oligosaccharides caused by a deficiency of the enzyme neuraminidase. Common to the sialidoses is the accumulation and/or excretion of sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid) covalently linked ('bound') to a variety of oligosaccharides and/or glycoproteins (summary by Lowden and O'Brien, 1979). The sialidoses are distinct from the sialurias in which there is storage and excretion of 'free' sialic acid, rather than 'bound' sialic acid; neuraminidase activity in sialuria is normal or elevated. Salla disease (604369) is a form of 'free' sialic acid disease. Classification Lowden and O'Brien (1979) provided a logical nosology of neuraminidase deficiency into sialidosis type I and type II. Type I is the milder form, also known as the 'normosomatic' type or the cherry red spot-myoclonus syndrome. Sialidosis type II is the more severe form with an earlier onset, and is also known as the 'dysmorphic' type. Type II has been subdivided into juvenile and infantile forms. Other terms for sialidosis type II are mucolipidosis I and lipomucopolysaccharidosis.
Myofibrillar myopathy 8
MedGen UID:
934612
Concept ID:
C4310645
Disease or Syndrome
Myofibrillar myopathy-8 (MFM8) is an autosomal recessive myopathy characterized by slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness and atrophy affecting the upper and lower limbs, resulting in increased falls, gait problems, difficulty running or climbing stairs, and upper limb weakness or scapular winging. Some patients develop distal muscle weakness and atrophy. The phenotype may also be consistent with a clinical diagnosis of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). Age at symptom onset ranges from infancy to adulthood. Ambulation is generally preserved and cardiac involvement is rare, but respiratory compromise with decreased forced vital capacity often occurs. Muscle biopsy shows a mix of myopathic features, including myofibrillar inclusions and sarcomeric disorganization; some patients have been reported to have dystrophic changes on muscle biopsy (O'Grady et al., 2016; Daimaguler et al., 2021). There is significant phenotypic variation, even in patients with the same mutation, which must be taken into account when counseling affecting individuals (Woods et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419).
Early-onset progressive diffuse brain atrophy-microcephaly-muscle weakness-optic atrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
934638
Concept ID:
C4310671
Disease or Syndrome
PEBAT is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development apparent soon after birth or in infancy, profound intellectual disability, poor or absent speech, and seizures. Most patients are never able to walk due to hypotonia or spasticity. Brain imaging shows cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, thin corpus callosum, and secondary hypomyelination. The disorder shows progressive features, including microcephaly, consistent with a neurodegenerative process (summary by Miyake et al., 2016; Flex et al., 2016).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 20
MedGen UID:
934661
Concept ID:
C4310694
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome-20 is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by severe hypotonia associated with episodic apnea soon after birth. Patients have muscle weakness resulting in delayed walking, ptosis, poor sucking and swallowing, and generalized limb fatigability and weakness. EMG studies usually show a decremental response to repetitive nerve stimulation, and some patients may show a good response to AChE inhibitors (summary by Bauche et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Myofibrillar myopathy 7
MedGen UID:
934678
Concept ID:
C4310711
Disease or Syndrome
Myofibrillar myopathy-7 (MFM7) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by early childhood onset of slowly progressive muscle weakness that primarily affects the lower limbs and is associated with joint contractures (summary by Straussberg et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419).
Encephalopathy due to defective mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission 2
MedGen UID:
934693
Concept ID:
C4310726
Disease or Syndrome
Encephalopathy due to defective mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission-2 (EMPF2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, severe hypotonia with inability to walk, microcephaly, and abnormal signals in the basal ganglia. More variable features include early-onset seizures, optic atrophy, and peripheral neuropathy (summary by Koch et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of EMPF, see EMPF1 (614388).
Myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 22
MedGen UID:
1393545
Concept ID:
C4479088
Disease or Syndrome
MYPN-related myopathy
MedGen UID:
1384302
Concept ID:
C4479186
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-24 (CMYP24) is an autosomal recessive congenital myopathy characterized by onset of slowly progressive muscle weakness in the first decade. Affected individuals present with gait difficulties due to proximal muscle weakness and atrophy mainly affecting the lower limbs and neck. Muscle biopsy shows nemaline bodies. Some patients may have mild cardiac or respiratory involvement, but they do not have respiratory failure (summary by Miyatake et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see 117000. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see 256030.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 51
MedGen UID:
1372686
Concept ID:
C4479208
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-51 (DEE51) is an autosomal recessive severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by onset of intractable seizures and hypotonia in the first days or weeks of life. Affected individuals have severely delayed psychomotor development and may show abnormal movements. Brain imaging shows nonspecific abnormalities, such as cerebral atrophy, cerebellar atrophy, and delayed myelination. Laboratory studies showed increased lactate, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Ait-El-Mkadem et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2C
MedGen UID:
1385755
Concept ID:
C4479387
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type IIC (ARCL2C) is characterized by generalized skin wrinkling with sparse subcutaneous fat and dysmorphic progeroid facial features. Most patients also exhibit severe hypotonia as well as cardiovascular involvement (summary by Van Damme et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100).
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2Y
MedGen UID:
1385152
Concept ID:
C4511482
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive myopathy with rigid spine and distal joint contractures (MRRSDC) is characterized by onset of slowly progressive muscle weakness in the first or second decades of life. There is initial involvement of the proximal lower limbs, followed by distal upper and lower limb muscle weakness and atrophy. Other features include joint contractures, rigid spine, and restricted pulmonary function; some patients may have mild cardiac involvement (summary by Kayman-Kurekci et al., 2014).
Mitochondrial myopathy-cerebellar ataxia-pigmentary retinopathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1620960
Concept ID:
C4540096
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial myopathy and ataxia (MMYAT) is an autosomal recessive mtDNA depletion disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, congenital muscle involvement with histologic findings ranging from myopathic to dystrophic, and pigmentary retinopathy (summary by Donkervoort et al., 2019).
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 9
MedGen UID:
1622927
Concept ID:
C4540171
Disease or Syndrome
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type IX (MGCA9) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset seizures, severely delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability. Patients have hypotonia or spasticity, and laboratory investigations show increased serum lactate and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, suggestive of a mitochondrial defect (summary by Shahrour et al., 2017). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, see MGCA type I (250950).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, ataxia, and seizures
MedGen UID:
1613354
Concept ID:
C4540188
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, ataxia, and seizures (NEDMAS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay and early-onset seizures. More variable features may include deafness, cardiomyopathy, and severe febrile decompensations (summary by Ravel et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder, mitochondrial, with abnormal movements and lactic acidosis, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1619876
Concept ID:
C4540192
Disease or Syndrome
NEMMLAS is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and abnormal motor function, including hypotonia, dystonia, ataxia, and spasticity. Patient tissues may show deficiencies in one or more of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes, but this is not a constant finding (summary by Wortmann et al., 2017).
Immunodeficiency, developmental delay, and hypohomocysteinemia
MedGen UID:
1616061
Concept ID:
C4540293
Disease or Syndrome
IMDDHH is a multisystem disorder characterized by immunodeficiency, mildly delayed psychomotor development, poor overall growth from infancy, and hypohomocysteinemia. Additional features, such as congenital heart defects and liver involvement, are more variable (summary by Huppke et al., 2017).
Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
1647990
Concept ID:
C4551479
Disease or Syndrome
Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 1 (SJS1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by muscle stiffness (myotonia) and chondrodysplasia. Affected individuals usually present in childhood with permanent muscle stiffness or bone deformities. Common clinical features include mask-like facies (narrow palpebral fissures, blepharospasm, and pursed lips); permanent muscle stiffness with continuous skeletal muscle activity recorded on electromyography; dwarfism; pectus carinatum; kyphoscoliosis; bowing of long bones; and epiphyseal, metaphyseal, and hip dysplasia. The disorder is slowly progressive but does not appear to alter life span (summary by Stum et al., 2006).
Fanconi renotubular syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1635492
Concept ID:
C4551503
Disease or Syndrome
Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia 1
MedGen UID:
1634824
Concept ID:
C4551958
Disease or Syndrome
Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA) is a rare autosomal recessive oxidative phosphorylation disorder specific to skeletal muscle and bone marrow (Bykhovskaya et al., 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Myopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Sideroblastic Anemia MLASA2 (613561) is caused by mutation in the YARS2 gene (610957) on chromosome 12p11. MLASA3 (500011) is caused by heteroplasmic mutation in the mitochondrially-encoded MTATP6 gene (516060).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, epilepsy, and brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1637443
Concept ID:
C4693390
Disease or Syndrome
NEDMEBA is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by global developmental delay, severe intellectual disability with poor or absent speech and autistic stereotypic behaviors, microcephaly, early-onset generalized seizures, and hypotonia (summary by Marin-Valencia et al., 2018).
Jaberi-Elahi syndrome
MedGen UID:
1647359
Concept ID:
C4693848
Disease or Syndrome
JABELS is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay and intellectual disability with additional variable features. Patients have onset of symptoms in infancy, but the severity is highly variable. Some patients have social interaction and learn to walk but have an ataxic gait and abnormal movements, such as tremor or dystonia, whereas others do not achieve any motor control and are unable to speak. Additional features may include retinal anomalies, visual impairment, microcephaly, abnormal foot or hand posturing, and kyphoscoliosis; some patients have dysmorphic facial features or seizures. Brain imaging typically shows cerebellar atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (summary by et al., 2016 and Bertoli-Avella et al., 2018).
Adenosine kinase deficiency
MedGen UID:
1632232
Concept ID:
C4706555
Disease or Syndrome
Hypermethioninemia due to adenosine kinase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by global developmental delay, early-onset seizures, mild dysmorphic features, and characteristic biochemical anomalies, including persistent hypermethioninemia with increased levels of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy); homocysteine is typically normal (summary by Bjursell et al., 2011).
Congenital myopathy with internal nuclei and atypical cores
MedGen UID:
1642424
Concept ID:
C4707232
Disease or Syndrome
Centronuclear myopathy is a condition characterized by muscle weakness (myopathy) and wasting (atrophy) in the skeletal muscles, which are the muscles used for movement. The severity of centronuclear myopathy varies among affected individuals, even among members of the same family.\n\nPeople with centronuclear myopathy begin experiencing muscle weakness at any time from birth to early adulthood. The muscle weakness slowly worsens over time and can lead to delayed development of motor skills, such as crawling or walking; muscle pain during exercise; and difficulty walking. Some affected individuals may need wheelchair assistance as the muscles atrophy and weakness becomes more severe. In rare instances, the muscle weakness improves over time.\n\nA key feature of centronuclear myopathy is the displacement of the nucleus in muscle cells, which can be viewed under a microscope. Normally the nucleus is found at the edges of the rod-shaped muscle cells, but in people with centronuclear myopathy the nucleus is located in the center of these cells. How the change in location of the nucleus affects muscle cell function is unknown.\n\nSome people with centronuclear myopathy experience mild to severe breathing problems related to the weakness of muscles needed for breathing. People with centronuclear myopathy may have droopy eyelids (ptosis) and weakness in other facial muscles, including the muscles that control eye movement. People with this condition may also have foot abnormalities, a high arch in the roof of the mouth (high-arched palate), and abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis). Rarely, individuals with centronuclear myopathy have a weakened heart muscle (cardiomyopathy), disturbances in nerve function (neuropathy), or intellectual disability.
Neuropathy, congenital hypomyelinating, 2
MedGen UID:
1648446
Concept ID:
C4722277
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy-2 is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by early-onset hypotonia, severely delayed motor development, muscle weakness with areflexia, and severely decreased nerve conduction velocities (NCV) resulting from improper myelination of axons. The severity is variable: some patients may present at birth with contractures and respiratory insufficiency, whereas others may achieve walking (summary by Warner et al., 1996). CHN shows significant phenotypic overlap with Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS; 145900), which is also a neuropathy with early onset. Some classify the disorders differently, noting that CHN is characterized by hypo- or amyelination resulting from a congenital defect in myelin formation, whereas DSS has features of continuous myelin breakdown, with demyelination and remyelination (summary by Smit et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CHN, see CHN1 (605253).
Proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1648310
Concept ID:
C4746851
Disease or Syndrome
Proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome-1 (PRAAS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early childhood onset of annular erythematous plaques on the face and extremities with subsequent development of partial lipodystrophy and laboratory evidence of immune dysregulation. More variable features include recurrent fever, severe joint contractures, muscle weakness and atrophy, hepatosplenomegaly, basal ganglia calcifications, and microcytic anemia (summary by Agarwal et al., 2010; Kitamura et al., 2011; Arima et al., 2011). This disorder encompasses Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome (NKJO); joint contractures, muscular atrophy, microcytic anemia, and panniculitis-induced lipodystrophy (JMP syndrome); and chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature syndrome (CANDLE). Among Japanese patients, this disorder is best described as Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome, since both Nakajo (1939) and Nishimura et al. (1950) contributed to the original phenotypic descriptions. Genetic Heterogeneity of Proteasome-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome See also PRAAS2 (618048), caused by mutation in the POMP gene (613386) on chromosome 13q12; PRAAS3 (617591), caused by mutation in the PSMB4 gene (602177) on chromosome 1q21; PRAAS4 (619183), caused by mutation in the PSMG2 gene (609702) on chromosome 18p11; PRAAS5 (619175), caused by mutation in the PSMB10 gene (176847) on chromosome 16q22; and PRAAS6 (620796), caused by mutation in the PSMB9 gene (177045) on chromosome 6p21.
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 deficiency
MedGen UID:
1648400
Concept ID:
C4747517
Disease or Syndrome
MC1DN20 is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by infantile onset of acute metabolic acidosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and muscle weakness associated with a deficiency of mitochondrial complex I activity in muscle, liver, and fibroblasts (summary by Haack et al., 2010). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex I deficiency, see 252010.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1D
MedGen UID:
1648387
Concept ID:
C4748058
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1D (PCH1D) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by severe hypotonia and a motor neuronopathy apparent at birth or in infancy. Patients have respiratory insufficiency, feeding difficulties, and severely delayed or minimal gross motor development. Other features may include eye movement abnormalities, poor overall growth, contractures. Brain imaging shows progressive cerebellar atrophy with relative sparing of the brainstem (summary by Burns et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Mitochondrial complex 5 (ATP synthase) deficiency nuclear type 5
MedGen UID:
1648429
Concept ID:
C4748269
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, stress-induced, with variable ataxia and seizures
MedGen UID:
1648391
Concept ID:
C4748527
Disease or Syndrome
Stress-induced childhood-onset neurodegeneration with variable ataxia and seizures (CONDSIAS) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with onset in the first years of life following normal early development. Patient have cyclic episodic deterioration in response to stress, such as infection or febrile illness. The severity is highly variable: some patients develop seizures early in life that are associated with loss of developmental milestones and early sudden death in childhood, whereas others present at a later age with muscle weakness, gait ataxia, impaired speech, more subtle clinical deterioration, and cognitive decline. Neurologic involvement includes gait ataxia, cerebellar signs associated with cerebellar atrophy, generalized brain atrophy, impaired intellectual development, hearing loss, and peripheral neuropathy (summary by Ghosh et al., 2018).
Myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 23, presynaptic
MedGen UID:
1648392
Concept ID:
C4748678
Disease or Syndrome
Myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 24, presynaptic
MedGen UID:
1648337
Concept ID:
C4748684
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 17
MedGen UID:
1648418
Concept ID:
C4748786
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 29
MedGen UID:
1648451
Concept ID:
C4748830
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, with cerebellar atrophy
MedGen UID:
1648286
Concept ID:
C4748934
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset neurodegeneration with cerebellar atrophy (CONDCA) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder affecting the central and peripheral nervous system. Patients present in the first year of life with global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and motor abnormalities. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy. The severity is variable, but death in childhood may occur (Shashi et al., 2018).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 68
MedGen UID:
1648490
Concept ID:
C4749033
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2U
MedGen UID:
1683417
Concept ID:
C5190987
Disease or Syndrome
A rare subtype of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy disorder with characteristics of infantile to childhood-onset of slowly progressive, principally proximal shoulder and/or pelvic-girdle muscular weakness that typically presents with positive Gowers'' sign and is associated with elevated creatine kinase levels, hyporeflexia, joint and achilles tendon contractures and muscle hypertrophy usually of the thighs, calves and/or tongue. Other highly variable features include cerebellar, cardiac and ocular abnormalities.
Intellectual developmental disorder, X-linked 108
MedGen UID:
1680544
Concept ID:
C5193009
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual developmental disorder-108 (MRX108) is characterized by early hypotonia, global developmental delay, and moderately to severely impaired intellectual development. Brisk tendon reflexes, variable facial dysmorphism, and fifth finger clinodactyly may be present (Khayat et al., 2019).
Holoprosencephaly 12 with or without pancreatic agenesis
MedGen UID:
1684550
Concept ID:
C5193131
Disease or Syndrome
Holoprosencephaly-12 with or without pancreatic agenesis (HPE12) is a developmental disorder characterized by abnormal separation of the embryonic forebrain (HPE) resulting in dysmorphic facial features and often, but not always, impaired neurologic development. Most patients with this form of HPE also have congenital absence of the pancreas, resulting in early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus and requiring pancreatic enzyme replacement. Other features may include hearing loss and absence of the gallbladder (summary by De Franco et al., 2019 and Kruszka et al., 2019). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100).
Mitochondrial myopathy, episodic, with optic atrophy and reversible leukoencephalopathy
MedGen UID:
1679560
Concept ID:
C5193223
Disease or Syndrome
Episodic mitochondrial myopathy with or without optic atrophy and reversible leukoencephalopathy (MEOAL) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized mainly by childhood onset of progressive muscle weakness and exercise intolerance. Patients have episodic exacerbation, which may be associated with increased serum creatine kinase or lactic acid. Additional more variable features may include optic atrophy, reversible leukoencephalopathy, and later onset of a sensorimotor polyneuropathy. The disorder results from impaired formation of Fe-S clusters, which are essential cofactors for proper mitochondrial function (summary by Gurgel-Giannetti et al., 2018)
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy 1
MedGen UID:
1684682
Concept ID:
C5231388
Disease or Syndrome
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy-1 (OPDM1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by adult-onset ptosis, external ophthalmoplegia, facial muscle weakness, distal limb muscle weakness and atrophy, and pharyngeal involvement, resulting in dysphagia and dysarthria. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows myopathic changes with rimmed vacuoles. There are variable manifestations of the disorder regarding muscle involvement and severity (summary by Ishiura et al., 2019). Genetic Heterogeneity of Oculopharyngodistal Myopathy See also OPDM2 (618940), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the GIPC1 gene (605072) on chromosome 19p13; OPDM3 (619473), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the NOTCH2NLC gene (618025) on chromosome 1q21; and OPDM4 (619790), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the RILPL1 gene (614092) on chromosome 12q24. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD; 164300) is a similar disorder with overlapping features. It is caused by a similar heterozygous trinucleotide repeat expansion in the PABPN1 gene (602279) (summary by Durmus et al., 2011).
Myopathy, congenital, progressive, with scoliosis
MedGen UID:
1684769
Concept ID:
C5231417
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-19 (CMYP19) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder characterized by infantile-onset of progressive muscle weakness and atrophy associated with scoliosis, variably impaired walking, and dysmorphic facial features (Feichtinger et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Myopathy, congenital, with structured cores and z-line abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1684705
Concept ID:
C5231445
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-8 (CMYP8) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the skeletal muscle characterized by hypotonia and delayed motor development apparent from infancy or childhood, resulting in difficulties walking or loss of ambulation within the first few decades. Affected individuals show respiratory insufficiency, high-arched palate, and scoliosis; external ophthalmoplegia may also be present. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows cores and myofibrillar disorganization (Lornage et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with behavioral abnormalities, absent speech, and hypotonia
MedGen UID:
1684663
Concept ID:
C5231471
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with behavioral abnormalities, absent speech, and hypotonia (NEDBASH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severely impaired intellectual and motor development, axial and peripheral hypotonia usually with inability to walk, and significant behavioral abnormalities consistent with autism spectrum disorder and reminiscent of Rett syndrome (RTT; 312750), such as poor communication, stereotypic or repetitive behaviors, hand-wringing, bruxism, and sleep disturbances. Other features include poor overall growth, and joint hypermobility. Rare features include seizures, dystonia, spasticity, and nonspecific brain abnormalities (summary by Abu-Libdeh et al., 2019 and Dias et al., 2019).
Mitochondrial complex 3 deficiency, nuclear type 10
MedGen UID:
1719382
Concept ID:
C5394051
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with poor growth and with or without seizures or ataxia
MedGen UID:
1711370
Concept ID:
C5394135
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with poor growth and with or without seizures or ataxia (IDPOGSA) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, hypotonia, and poor overall growth, sometimes with borderline microcephaly. The phenotype is highly variable: some patients may show ataxia and some may have seizures (summary by Hu et al., 2019).
Diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal 3
MedGen UID:
1717271
Concept ID:
C5394303
Disease or Syndrome
Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus-3 (PNDM3) is characterized by the onset of mild to severe hyperglycemia within the first months of life, and requires lifelong therapy (summary by Babenko et al., 2006). Some patients also have neurologic features, including developmental delay and epilepsy (Proks et al., 2006; Babenko et al., 2006). The triad of developmental delay, epilepsy, and neonatal diabetes is known as DEND. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus, see PNDM1 (606176).
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 6
MedGen UID:
1759760
Concept ID:
C5436279
Disease or Syndrome
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-6 (FTDALS6) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder with highly variable manifestations. Some patients present in adulthood with progressive FTD, often classified as the 'behavioral variant,' which is characterized by reduced empathy, impulsive behavior, personality changes, and reduced verbal output. Other patients present with features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by upper and lower motor neuron dysfunction resulting in rapidly progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure. The pathologic hallmarks of this disease include pallor of the corticospinal tract due to loss of motor neurons (in ALS). In both ALS and FTD, there are ubiquitin-positive inclusions within surviving neurons as well as deposition of pathologic TDP43 (TARDBP; 605078) or p62 (SQSTM1; 601530) aggregates. Patients with a D395G mutation (601023.0014) have been shown to develop pathologic tau (MAPT; 157140) aggregates. Some patients with the disorder may have features of both diseases, and there is significant interfamilial and intrafamilial phenotypic variability (summary by Johnson et al., 2010; Wong et al., 2018; Al-Obeidi et al., 2018; Darwich et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FTDALS, see FTDALS1 (105550).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 45
MedGen UID:
1731010
Concept ID:
C5436461
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-45 (COXPD45) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by poor overall growth apparent from infancy, global developmental delay, seizures, and acute progressive neurologic deterioration with loss of skills. Other features may include dysmorphic facies and lesions on brain imaging. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and COXPD in patient tissues, consistent with a mitochondrial defect (summary by Serre et al., 2013). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 48
MedGen UID:
1732052
Concept ID:
C5436602
Disease or Syndrome
Myofibrillar myopathy 10
MedGen UID:
1769385
Concept ID:
C5436656
Disease or Syndrome
Myofibrillar myopathy-10 (MFM10) is an autosomal recessive structural muscle disorder characterized by onset of muscle pain, cramping, and exercise fatigue in the first or second decades of life. Some patients have mild contractures of the large joints apparent in early childhood. Affected individuals have a characteristic appearance of a thick neck and prominent shoulder girdle with anteverted shoulders and a tendency toward kyphosis. There is no apparent muscle weakness, but some affected individuals show progressive muscle rigidity leading to limited mobility. There is variable cardiac involvement, ranging from chest pain with left ventricular hypertrophy to subclinical signs such as abnormal EKG or elevated cardiac enzymes. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows structural abnormalities with myofibrillar disorganization and accumulation of autophagocytic vacuoles (summary by Hedberg-Oldfors et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419).
Spinal muscular atrophy, infantile, James type
MedGen UID:
1764556
Concept ID:
C5436669
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of GARS1-associated axonal neuropathy ranges from GARS1 infantile-onset SMA (GARS1-iSMA) to GARS1 adolescent- or early adult-onset hereditary motor/sensory neuropathy (GARS1-HMSN). GARS1-iSMA. Age of onset ranges from the neonatal period to the toddler years. Initial manifestations are typically respiratory distress, poor feeding, and muscle weakness (distal greater than proximal). Weakness is slowly progressive, ultimately requiring mechanical ventilation and feeding via gastrostomy tube. GARS1-HMSN. Age of onset is most commonly during the second decade (range eight to 36 years). Initial manifestations are typically muscle weakness in the hands sometimes with sensory deficits. Lower limb involvement (seen in ~50% of individuals) ranges from weakness and atrophy of the extensor digitorum brevis and weakness of toe dorsiflexors to classic peroneal muscular atrophy with foot drop and a high steppage gait.
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 3
MedGen UID:
1764816
Concept ID:
C5436682
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 3 (MC4DN3) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients present with encephalomyopathic features in early infancy, whereas others may present later in infancy or the first years of life after normal early development. Affected individuals show hypotonia, failure to thrive, and developmental delay or regression with poor eye contact and loss of motor skills with ataxia. Additional features observed in some patients include proximal renal tubulopathy, macrocytic anemia, sensorineural hearing loss, nystagmus, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, consistent with systemic involvement. Brain imaging in most patients shows lesions consistent with Leigh syndrome (see 256000). Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV. Most patients die in infancy (summary by Valnot et al., 2000 and Antonicka et al., 2003). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 7
MedGen UID:
1754683
Concept ID:
C5436685
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 7 (MC4DN7) is an autosomal recessive metabolic encephalomyopathic disorder with highly variable manifestations. Only a few patients have been reported. Some patients have normal early development then show rapid neurodegeneration with progressive muscle weakness, gait disturbances, and cognitive decline in mid to late childhood. Other features may include seizures and visual impairment. Brain imaging shows progressive leukodystrophy with cystic lesions. In contrast, at least 1 patient has been reported who presented in the neonatal period with metabolic acidosis, hydrocephalus, hypotonia, and cortical blindness. This patient developed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy resulting in early death. All patients had increased serum lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Massa et al., 2008 and Abdulhag et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 18
MedGen UID:
1752734
Concept ID:
C5436720
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 18 (MC4DN18) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that primarily affects skeletal muscle tissue. Affected individuals present in infancy with hypotonia, limb muscle weakness, and high-arched palate. The severity of the disorder is variable: some patients may only have gait difficulties, whereas others may also have significant respiratory insufficiency and cardiomyopathy. Death in infancy has been reported. Patient skeletal muscle shows decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (Inoue et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1755716
Concept ID:
C5436747
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and brain atrophy (NEDMISB) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay, developmental regression with loss of milestones, severe microcephaly, and brain abnormalities, primarily cerebral atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Affected individuals develop seizures in the first year of life; eventually they are unable to sit, feed, or communicate, and may be unresponsive to stimuli. Other features include muscle weakness, spasticity with hyperreflexia, irritability, and contractures (Coulter et al., 2020).
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 5
MedGen UID:
1756201
Concept ID:
C5436884
Disease or Syndrome
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-5 (FTDALS5) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of ALS or FTD symptoms in adulthood. The disease is progressive, and some patients may develop both diseases, although ALS seems to be more prevalent than FTD. The disorder usually results in premature death (summary by Williams et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FTDALS, see FTDALS1 (105550).
Marbach-Rustad progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
1784907
Concept ID:
C5543388
Disease or Syndrome
Marbach-Rustad progeroid syndrome (MARUPS) is characterized by progeroid appearance with little subcutaneous fat and triangular facies, growth retardation with short stature, hypoplastic mandible crowded with unerupted supernumerary teeth, and cerebellar intention tremor. Psychomotor development is normal. Although features are reminiscent of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS; 176670), MARUPS is less severe, with a relatively good prognosis. Two patients have been reported (Marbach et al., 2019).
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 31
MedGen UID:
1786855
Concept ID:
C5543627
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-31 (SCAR31) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia and variably impaired intellectual and language development. Affected individuals have an ataxic gait, tremor, and dysarthria; more severely affected patients also have spasticity with inability to walk. Most have optic atrophy. Brain imaging shows cerebellar hypoplasia, enlarged ventricles, and atrophy of the posterior corpus callosum. Additional features may include retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness, dysmorphic facial features, and possibly endocrine dysfunction (summary by Collier et al., 2021).
Cerebellar ataxia, brain abnormalities, and cardiac conduction defects
MedGen UID:
1794215
Concept ID:
C5562005
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia, brain abnormalities, and cardiac conduction defects (CABAC) is an autosomal recessive primarily neurologic disorder with variable manifestations. Common features included infantile-onset hypotonia, poor motor development, poor feeding and overall growth, and ataxic gait due to cerebellar ataxia. Other features include dysarthria, nystagmus, variable ocular anomalies, spasticity, hyperreflexia, and nonspecific dysmorphic features. Most, but not all, patients have global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and speech delay. Brain imaging shows cerebellar hypoplasia, often with brainstem hypoplasia, enlarged ventricles, delayed myelination, and thin corpus callosum. A significant number of patients develop cardiac conduction defects in childhood or adolescence, often requiring pacemaker placement (summary by Slavotinek et al., 2020).
Recurrent metabolic encephalomyopathic crises-rhabdomyolysis-cardiac arrhythmia-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
1798947
Concept ID:
C5567524
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with TANGO2-related metabolic encephalopathy and arrhythmias can present in acute metabolic crisis (hypoglycemia, elevated lactate, mild hyperammonemia) or with developmental delay, regression, and/or seizures. The acute presentation varies from profound muscle weakness, ataxia, and/or disorientation to a comatose state. Individuals can present with intermittent acute episodes of rhabdomyolysis. The first episode of myoglobinuria has been known to occur as early as age five months. Acute renal tubular damage due to myoglobinuria can result in acute kidney injury and renal failure. During acute illness, transient electrocardiogram changes can be seen; the most common is QT prolongation. Life-threatening recurrent ventricular tachycardia or torsade de pointes occurs primarily during times of acute illness. Individuals who do not present in metabolic crises may present with gait incoordination, progressively unsteady gait, difficulty with speech, or clumsiness. Intellectual disability of variable severity is observed in almost all individuals. Seizures are observed outside the periods of crises in more than 75% of individuals. Hypothyroidism has been reported in more than one third of individuals.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 26
MedGen UID:
1799164
Concept ID:
C5567741
Disease or Syndrome
Peripheral neuropathy with variable spasticity, exercise intolerance, and developmental delay (PNSED) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with highly variable manifestations, even within the same family. Some patients present in infancy with hypotonia and global developmental delay with poor or absent motor skill acquisition and poor growth, whereas others present as young adults with exercise intolerance and muscle weakness. All patients have signs of a peripheral neuropathy, usually demyelinating, with distal muscle weakness and atrophy and distal sensory impairment; many become wheelchair-bound. Additional features include spasticity, extensor plantar responses, contractures, cerebellar signs, seizures, short stature, and rare involvement of other organ systems, including the heart, pancreas, and kidney. Biochemical analysis may show deficiencies in mitochondrial respiratory complex enzyme activities in patient tissue, although this is not always apparent. Lactate is frequently increased, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction (Powell et al., 2015; Argente-Escrig et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Neonatal encephalomyopathy-cardiomyopathy-respiratory distress syndrome
MedGen UID:
1799985
Concept ID:
C5568562
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease axonal type 2V
MedGen UID:
1800473
Concept ID:
C5569050
Disease or Syndrome
A rare axonal hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy characterized by adult onset of recurrent pain in legs with or without cramps, progressive loss of deep tendon reflexes and vibration sense, paresthesia in the feet and later in the hands. Patients often experience sleep disturbances and mild sensory ataxia.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 28
MedGen UID:
1800504
Concept ID:
C5569081
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-28 (COXPD28) is a complex autosomal recessive multisystem disorder associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The phenotype is variable, but includes episodic metabolic decompensation beginning in infancy that can result in mild muscle weakness, cardiorespiratory insufficiency, developmental delay, or even death. Biochemical studies of patient tissues show variable mitochondrial defects, including decreased activities of respiratory chain enzymes (summary by Kishita et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Pulmonary hypertension, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1802382
Concept ID:
C5676877
Disease or Syndrome
Primary pulmonary hypertension-5 (PPH5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the onset of pulmonary arterial hypertension in infancy, resulting in right heart dysfunction and ultimately right heart failure. Death in early childhood is common (Machado et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary pulmonary hypertension, see PPH1 (178600).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 55
MedGen UID:
1806598
Concept ID:
C5676915
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-55 (COXPD55) is characterized by global developmental delay, hypotonia, short stature, and impaired intellectual development with speech disabilities in childhood. Indolent progressive external ophthalmoplegia phenotype has been described in 1 patient (summary by Olahova et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1800921
Concept ID:
C5677012
Disease or Syndrome
Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome-2 (CFZS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by weakness of the facial musculature, hypomimic facies, increased overbite, micrognathia, and facial dysmorphism. Other features may include failure to thrive, axial hypotonia, and progressive scoliosis (Ramirez-Martinez et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome, see CFZS1 (254940).
Mitochondrial complex II deficiency, nuclear type 1
MedGen UID:
1814582
Concept ID:
C5700310
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex II deficiency is an autosomal recessive multisystemic metabolic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients have multisystem involvement of the brain, heart, and muscle with onset in infancy, whereas others have only isolated cardiac or muscle involvement. Measurement of complex II activity in muscle is the most reliable means of diagnosis; however, there is no clear correlation between residual complex II activity and severity or clinical outcome. In some cases, treatment with riboflavin may have clinical benefit (summary by Jain-Ghai et al., 2013). Complex II, also known as succinate dehydrogenase, is part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Genetic Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial Complex II Deficiency See MC2DN2 (619166), caused by mutation in the SDHAF1 gene (612848) on chromosome 19q13; MC2DN3 (619167), caused by mutation in the SDHD gene (602690) on chromosome 11q23; and MC2DN4 (619224), caused by mutation in the SDHB gene (185470) on chromosome 1p36. Fullerton et al. (2020) reviewed the genetic basis of isolated mitochondrial complex II deficiency.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, IIa 2II
MedGen UID:
1824000
Concept ID:
C5774227
Disease or Syndrome
Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2II (CMT2II) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by a slowly progressive sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy affecting mainly the lower limbs, resulting in distal muscle weakness and atrophy and subsequent walking difficulties. Some patients may have upper limb involvement with atrophy of the intrinsic hand muscles. The age at onset is highly variable, ranging from infancy to adulthood. Electrophysiologic studies are usually consistent with an axonal process, although some may show intermediate or even demyelinating values (Park et al., 2020; Ando et al., 2022). One family with possible autosomal recessive inheritance has been reported (Bogdanova-Mihaylova et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT, see CMT2A1 (118210).
Congenital myopathy 15
MedGen UID:
1824046
Concept ID:
C5774273
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-15 (CMYP15) is a skeletal muscle disorder characterized by symptom onset soon after birth. Affected infants are hypotonic and have severe respiratory insufficiency and feeding problems, sometimes requiring mechanical ventilation or tube feeding. The disorder is unique in that there is gradual improvement of the severe muscle weakness with time, although forced vital capacity remains decreased. Additional features include facial weakness, scoliosis, joint contractures, and persistent ptosis or external ophthalmoplegia (van de Locht et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Muscular dystrophy, congenital, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1824047
Concept ID:
C5774274
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy with or without seizures (MYOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe muscle hypotonia apparent from birth, as well as developmental delay. Laboratory studies show increased serum creatine kinase and muscle biopsy shows nonspecific dystrophic features. Most patients develop seizures or have abnormal epileptiform findings on EEG studies; other variable findings may include feeding difficulties, nystagmus, myopathic facies, areflexia, and brain atrophy on MRI (summary by Larson et al., 2018 and Henige et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skin abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1824058
Concept ID:
C5774285
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skin abnormalities (NEDHFS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech. Affected individuals have dysmorphic facies, including large abnormally shaped ears and strabismus, hypotonia, and dry skin with keratosis pilaris. Some patients develop seizures. Metabolic studies are unremarkable (Morava et al., 2021).
Thyroid hormone metabolism, abnormal, 3
MedGen UID:
1824065
Concept ID:
C5774292
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormal thyroid hormone metabolism-3 (THMA3) is characterized by euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia, with elevated free T4 and reverse T3 levels, and normal TSH (see 188540) and free T3 levels. Patients also show low plasma selenium levels and reduced levels of stress-related selenoproteins (Schoenmakers et al., 2016; Geslot et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of abnormal thyroid hormone metabolism, see THMA1 (609698).
Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic, 29, with polyglucosan bodies
MedGen UID:
1824081
Concept ID:
C5774308
Disease or Syndrome
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-29 (CMH29) is characterized by recurrent syncope, dyspnea on exertion, and palpitations. The clinical phenotype is associated with a poor prognosis due to lethal arrhythmias and cardiac failure. Cardiac muscle biopsies show intermyofibrillar accumulation of glycogen and polyglucosan bodies within cardiomyocytes, and skeletal muscle accumulation of glycogen has also been observed (Hedberg-Oldfors et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, see CMH1 (192600).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with poor growth and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1840909
Concept ID:
C5830273
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with poor growth and behavioral abnormalities (NEDGBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay, moderately to severely impaired intellectual development, often with absent speech, and behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity, short attention span, and ADHD. Affected individuals show failure to thrive with poor overall growth; some have microcephaly. Additional features may include nonspecific facial dysmorphism, hypotonia, and feeding difficulties (Vogt et al., 2022; Meng et al., 2023).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 58
MedGen UID:
1841277
Concept ID:
C5830641
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-58 (COXPD58) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a wide range of clinical presentations including neonatal lactic acidosis, epileptic encephalopathy, developmental delay and impaired intellectual development with nonspecific changes on brain MRI, or mitochondrial myopathy with a treatable neuromuscular transmission defect (Van Haute et al., 2023). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 28
MedGen UID:
1841278
Concept ID:
C5830642
Disease or Syndrome
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-28 (ALS28) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult onset of slowly progressive limb muscle weakness and atrophy resulting in gait difficulties, loss of ambulation, and distal upper limb weakness. Facial involvement is rare, but some patients may have respiratory insufficiency. EMG and muscle biopsy show active and chronic denervation. Patient-derived motor neurons show accumulation of TDP43 (605078) and toxic intranuclear RNA accumulation (Kume et al., 2023). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, see ALS1 (105400).
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy 2
MedGen UID:
1841318
Concept ID:
C5830682
Disease or Syndrome
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy-2 (OPMD2) is an autosomal dominant muscle disorder characterized by early-onset ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, dysphagia, variable respiratory insufficiency, and proximal limb muscle weakness. Most patients have onset in the first years of life, although rare patients have onset in their teens. The disorder is slowly progressive and the severity is highly variable; the most severely affected individuals lose ambulation and may require tube-feeding or noninvasive ventilation (Kim et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of OPMD, see OPMD1 (164300).
Autosomal dominant distal renal tubular acidosis
MedGen UID:
963849
Concept ID:
CN280572
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with hereditary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) typically present in infancy with failure to thrive, although later presentations can occur, especially in individuals with autosomal dominant SLC4A1-dRTA. Initial clinical manifestations can also include emesis, polyuria, polydipsia, constipation, diarrhea, decreased appetite, and episodes of dehydration. Electrolyte manifestations include hyperchloremic non-anion gap metabolic acidosis and hypokalemia. Renal complications of dRTA include nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, medullary cysts, and impaired renal function. Additional manifestations include bone demineralization (rickets, osteomalacia), growth deficiency, sensorineural hearing loss (in ATP6V0A4-, ATP6V1B1-, and FOXI1-dRTA), and hereditary hemolytic anemia (in some individuals with SLC4A1-dRTA).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Yiu EM, Bray P, Baets J, Baker SK, Barisic N, de Valle K, Estilow T, Farrar MA, Finkel RS, Haberlová J, Kennedy RA, Moroni I, Nicholson GA, Ramchandren S, Reilly MM, Rose K, Shy ME, Siskind CE, Yum SW, Menezes MP, Ryan MM, Burns J
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2022 May;93(5):530-538. Epub 2022 Feb 9 doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2021-328483. PMID: 35140138
Larson ST, Wilbur J
Am Fam Physician 2020 Jan 15;101(2):95-108. PMID: 31939642
Woods BI, Hilibrand AS
J Spinal Disord Tech 2015 Jun;28(5):E251-9. doi: 10.1097/BSD.0000000000000284. PMID: 25985461

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Boelens YFN, Melchers M, van Zanten ARH
Curr Opin Crit Care 2022 Aug 1;28(4):409-416. Epub 2022 Jul 5 doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000955. PMID: 35796071Free PMC Article
Tortuyaux R, Davion JB, Jourdain M
Rev Neurol (Paris) 2022 Jan-Feb;178(1-2):84-92. Epub 2022 Jan 5 doi: 10.1016/j.neurol.2021.12.007. PMID: 34998522
Øiestad BE, Juhl CB, Culvenor AG, Berg B, Thorlund JB
Br J Sports Med 2022 Mar;56(6):349-355. Epub 2021 Dec 16 doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2021-104861. PMID: 34916210
Morley JE
Wien Klin Wochenschr 2016 Dec;128(Suppl 7):439-445. Epub 2016 Sep 26 doi: 10.1007/s00508-016-1087-5. PMID: 27670855
Kress JP, Hall JB
N Engl J Med 2014 Apr 24;370(17):1626-35. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1209390. PMID: 24758618

Diagnosis

Tortuyaux R, Davion JB, Jourdain M
Rev Neurol (Paris) 2022 Jan-Feb;178(1-2):84-92. Epub 2022 Jan 5 doi: 10.1016/j.neurol.2021.12.007. PMID: 34998522
Bhagavan SM, Ramaswamy SB, Mehta TR, Govindarajan R
Semin Neurol 2021 Dec;41(6):644-666. Epub 2021 Nov 26 doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1726357. PMID: 34826869
Larson ST, Wilbur J
Am Fam Physician 2020 Jan 15;101(2):95-108. PMID: 31939642
Kress JP, Hall JB
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Latronico N, Bolton CF
Lancet Neurol 2011 Oct;10(10):931-41. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70178-8. PMID: 21939902

Therapy

Liaw MY, Hsu CH, Leong CP, Liao CY, Wang LY, Lu CH, Lin MC
Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Mar;99(10):e19337. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000019337. PMID: 32150072Free PMC Article
Qu H, Guo M, Chai H, Wang WT, Gao ZY, Shi DZ
J Am Heart Assoc 2018 Oct 2;7(19):e009835. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.118.009835. PMID: 30371340Free PMC Article
Willison HJ, Jacobs BC, van Doorn PA
Lancet 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):717-27. Epub 2016 Mar 2 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00339-1. PMID: 26948435
Pozzi F, Snyder-Mackler L, Zeni J
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2013 Dec;49(6):877-92. Epub 2013 Oct 30 PMID: 24172642Free PMC Article
Liu CJ, Latham NK
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009 Jul 8;2009(3):CD002759. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002759.pub2. PMID: 19588334Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Bubuioc AM, Kudebayeva A, Turuspekova S, Lisnic V, Leone MA
J Med Life 2021 Jan-Mar;14(1):7-16. doi: 10.25122/jml-2020-0145. PMID: 33767779Free PMC Article
Hermans G, Van den Berghe G
Crit Care 2015 Aug 5;19(1):274. doi: 10.1186/s13054-015-0993-7. PMID: 26242743Free PMC Article
Latronico N, Bolton CF
Lancet Neurol 2011 Oct;10(10):931-41. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70178-8. PMID: 21939902
Zhang Y, Jordan JM
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Clinical prediction guides

Liaw MY, Hsu CH, Leong CP, Liao CY, Wang LY, Lu CH, Lin MC
Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Mar;99(10):e19337. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000019337. PMID: 32150072Free PMC Article
Dodds RM, Syddall HE, Cooper R, Kuh D, Cooper C, Sayer AA
Age Ageing 2016 Mar;45(2):209-16. Epub 2016 Jan 19 doi: 10.1093/ageing/afv192. PMID: 26790455Free PMC Article
Friedrich O, Reid MB, Van den Berghe G, Vanhorebeek I, Hermans G, Rich MM, Larsson L
Physiol Rev 2015 Jul;95(3):1025-109. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00028.2014. PMID: 26133937Free PMC Article
Sahota O
Age Ageing 2014 Sep;43(5):589-91. Epub 2014 Jul 28 doi: 10.1093/ageing/afu104. PMID: 25074537Free PMC Article
Paternostro-Sluga T, Grim-Stieger M, Posch M, Schuhfried O, Vacariu G, Mittermaier C, Bittner C, Fialka-Moser V
J Rehabil Med 2008 Aug;40(8):665-71. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0235. PMID: 19020701

Recent systematic reviews

Fazzini B, Märkl T, Costas C, Blobner M, Schaller SJ, Prowle J, Puthucheary Z, Wackerhage H
Crit Care 2023 Jan 3;27(1):2. doi: 10.1186/s13054-022-04253-0. PMID: 36597123Free PMC Article
Salari N, Fatahi B, Valipour E, Kazeminia M, Fatahian R, Kiaei A, Shohaimi S, Mohammadi M
J Orthop Surg Res 2022 Feb 15;17(1):96. doi: 10.1186/s13018-022-02996-8. PMID: 35168641Free PMC Article
Anaya JM, Rojas M, Salinas ML, Rodríguez Y, Roa G, Lozano M, Rodríguez-Jiménez M, Montoya N, Zapata E; Post-COVID study group, Monsalve DM, Acosta-Ampudia Y, Ramírez-Santana C
Autoimmun Rev 2021 Nov;20(11):102947. Epub 2021 Sep 10 doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2021.102947. PMID: 34509649Free PMC Article
Tooth C, Gofflot A, Schwartz C, Croisier JL, Beaudart C, Bruyère O, Forthomme B
Sports Health 2020 Sep/Oct;12(5):478-487. Epub 2020 Aug 6 doi: 10.1177/1941738120931764. PMID: 32758080Free PMC Article
van der Windt DA, Simons E, Riphagen II, Ammendolia C, Verhagen AP, Laslett M, Devillé W, Deyo RA, Bouter LM, de Vet HC, Aertgeerts B
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010 Feb 17;(2):CD007431. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007431.pub2. PMID: 20166095

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