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Metachromatic leukodystrophy(MLD)

MedGen UID:
6071
Concept ID:
C0023522
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Arylsulfatase A Deficiency; Cerebral sclerosis diffuse metachromatic form; Cerebroside sulfatase deficiency; Metachromatic leukoencephalopathy; MLD; Sulfatide lipidosis
SNOMED CT: Metachromatic leukodystrophy (396338004); Sulfatide lipidosis (396338004); Metachromatic leucodystrophy (396338004); Metachromatic leukoencephaly (396338004); van Bogaert-Nijssen disease (396338004); Familial progressive cerebral sclerosis (396338004); MLD - Metachromatic leucodystrophy (396338004); Scholz-Bielschowsky-Henneberg diffuse cerebral sclerosis (44359008); Scholz cerebral sclerosis (44359008)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): ARSA (22q13.33)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0018868
OMIM®: 250100
Orphanet: ORPHA512

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Arylsulfatase A Deficiency
Arylsulfatase A deficiency (also known as metachromatic leukodystrophy or MLD) is characterized by three clinical subtypes: late-infantile, juvenile, and adult MLD. The age of onset within a family is usually similar. The disease course may be from several years in the late-infantile-onset form to decades in the juvenile- and adult-onset forms. Late-infantile MLD: Onset is before age 30 months. Typical presenting findings include weakness, hypotonia, clumsiness, frequent falls, toe walking, and dysarthria. Language, cognitive, and gross and fine motor skills regress as the disease progresses. Later signs include spasticity, pain, seizures, and compromised vision and hearing. In the final stages, children have tonic spasms, decerebrate posturing, and general unawareness of their surroundings. Juvenile MLD: Onset is between age 30 months and 16 years. Initial manifestations include a decline in school performance and the emergence of behavioral problems, followed by gait disturbances. Progression is similar to but slower than in the late-infantile form. Adult MLD: Onset occurs after the age of 16 years, sometimes not until the fourth or fifth decade. Initial signs can include problems in school or job performance, personality changes, emotional lability, or psychosis; in others, neurologic symptoms (weakness and loss of coordination progressing to spasticity and incontinence) or seizures predominate initially. Peripheral neuropathy is common. The disease course is variable, with periods of stability interspersed with periods of decline, and may extend over two to three decades. The final stage is similar to earlier-onset forms. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Natalia Gomez-Ospina   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
The metachromatic leukodystrophies comprise several allelic disorders. Kihara (1982) recognized 5 allelic forms of MLD: late infantile, juvenile, and adult forms, partial cerebroside sulfate deficiency, and pseudoarylsulfatase A deficiency; and 2 nonallelic forms: metachromatic leukodystrophy due to saposin B deficiency (249900) and multiple sulfatase deficiency or juvenile sulfatidosis (272200), a disorder that combines features of a mucopolysaccharidosis with those of metachromatic leukodystrophy.  http://www.omim.org/entry/250100
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Metachromatic leukodystrophy is an inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of fats called sulfatides in cells. This accumulation especially affects cells in the nervous system that produce myelin, the substance that insulates and protects nerves. Nerve cells covered by myelin make up a tissue called white matter. Sulfatide accumulation in myelin-producing cells causes progressive destruction of white matter (leukodystrophy) throughout the nervous system, including in the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system) and the nerves connecting the brain and spinal cord to muscles and sensory cells that detect sensations such as touch, pain, heat, and sound (the peripheral nervous system).

In people with metachromatic leukodystrophy, white matter damage causes progressive deterioration of intellectual functions and motor skills, such as the ability to walk. Affected individuals also develop loss of sensation in the extremities (peripheral neuropathy), incontinence, seizures, paralysis, an inability to speak, blindness, and hearing loss. Eventually they lose awareness of their surroundings and become unresponsive. While neurological problems are the primary feature of metachromatic leukodystrophy, effects of sulfatide accumulation on other organs and tissues have been reported, most often involving the gallbladder.

The most common form of metachromatic leukodystrophy, affecting about 50 to 60 percent of all individuals with this disorder, is called the late infantile form. This form of the disorder usually appears in the second year of life. Affected children lose any speech they have developed, become weak, and develop problems with walking (gait disturbance). As the disorder worsens, muscle tone generally first decreases, and then increases to the point of rigidity. Individuals with the late infantile form of metachromatic leukodystrophy typically do not survive past childhood.

In 20 to 30 percent of individuals with metachromatic leukodystrophy, onset occurs between the age of 4 and adolescence. In this juvenile form, the first signs of the disorder may be behavioral problems and increasing difficulty with schoolwork. Progression of the disorder is slower than in the late infantile form, and affected individuals may survive for about 20 years after diagnosis.

The adult form of metachromatic leukodystrophy affects approximately 15 to 20 percent of individuals with the disorder. In this form, the first symptoms appear during the teenage years or later. Often behavioral problems such as alcohol use disorder, drug abuse, or difficulties at school or work are the first symptoms to appear. The affected individual may experience psychiatric symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. People with the adult form of metachromatic leukodystrophy may survive for 20 to 30 years after diagnosis. During this time there may be some periods of relative stability and other periods of more rapid decline.

Metachromatic leukodystrophy gets its name from the way cells with an accumulation of sulfatides appear when viewed under a microscope. The sulfatides form granules that are described as metachromatic, which means they pick up color differently than surrounding cellular material when stained for examination.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/metachromatic-leukodystrophy

Clinical features

From HPO
Urinary incontinence
MedGen UID:
22579
Concept ID:
C0042024
Finding
Loss of the ability to control the urinary bladder leading to involuntary urination.
Cholecystitis
MedGen UID:
920
Concept ID:
C0008325
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of inflammatory changes in the gallbladder.
Gallbladder dysfunction
MedGen UID:
66680
Concept ID:
C0232769
Finding
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Chorea
MedGen UID:
3420
Concept ID:
C0008489
Disease or Syndrome
Chorea (Greek for 'dance') refers to widespread arrhythmic involuntary movements of a forcible, jerky and restless fashion. It is a random-appearing sequence of one or more discrete involuntary movements or movement fragments. Movements appear random because of variability in timing, duration or location. Each movement may have a distinct start and end. However, movements may be strung together and thus may appear to flow randomly from one muscle group to another. Chorea can involve the trunk, neck, face, tongue, and extremities.
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Dystonic disorder
MedGen UID:
3940
Concept ID:
C0013421
Sign or Symptom
An abnormally increased muscular tone that causes fixed abnormal postures. There is a slow, intermittent twisting motion that leads to exaggerated turning and posture of the extremities and trunk.
Hallucinations
MedGen UID:
6709
Concept ID:
C0018524
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Perceptions in a conscious and awake state that, in the absence of external stimuli, have qualities of real perception. These perceptions are vivid, substantial, and located in external objective space.
Tetraplegia
MedGen UID:
19617
Concept ID:
C0034372
Disease or Syndrome
Paralysis of all four limbs, and trunk of the body below the level of an associated injury to the spinal cord. The etiology of quadriplegia is similar to that of paraplegia except that the lesion is in the cervical spinal cord rather than in the thoracic or lumbar segments of the spinal cord.
Babinski sign
MedGen UID:
19708
Concept ID:
C0034935
Finding
Upturning of the big toe (and sometimes fanning of the other toes) in response to stimulation of the sole of the foot. If the Babinski sign is present it can indicate damage to the corticospinal tract.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Emotional lability
MedGen UID:
39319
Concept ID:
C0085633
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Unstable emotional experiences and frequent mood changes; emotions that are easily aroused, intense, and/or disproportionate to events and circumstances.
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles.
Mental deterioration
MedGen UID:
66713
Concept ID:
C0234985
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Loss of previously present mental abilities, generally in adults.
Spastic tetraplegia
MedGen UID:
98433
Concept ID:
C0426970
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paralysis affecting all four limbs.
Loss of speech
MedGen UID:
107445
Concept ID:
C0542223
Finding
Gait disturbance
MedGen UID:
107895
Concept ID:
C0575081
Finding
The term gait disturbance can refer to any disruption of the ability to walk. In general, this can refer to neurological diseases but also fractures or other sources of pain that is triggered upon walking. However, in the current context gait disturbance refers to difficulty walking on the basis of a neurological or muscular disease.
Hyporeflexia
MedGen UID:
195967
Concept ID:
C0700078
Finding
Reduction of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Peripheral demyelination
MedGen UID:
451074
Concept ID:
C0878575
Pathologic Function
A loss of myelin from the internode regions along myelinated nerve fibers of the peripheral nervous system.
Abnormal cerebral white matter morphology
MedGen UID:
181756
Concept ID:
C0948163
Pathologic Function
An abnormality of the cerebral white matter.
Increased CSF protein concentration
MedGen UID:
329971
Concept ID:
C1806780
Finding
Increased concentration of protein in the cerebrospinal fluid.
Decreased nerve conduction velocity
MedGen UID:
347509
Concept ID:
C1857640
Finding
A reduction in the speed at which electrical signals propagate along the axon of a neuron.
Progressive peripheral neuropathy
MedGen UID:
347816
Concept ID:
C1859178
Finding
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Bulbar palsy
MedGen UID:
898626
Concept ID:
C4082299
Disease or Syndrome
Bulbar weakness (or bulbar palsy) refers to bilateral impairment of function of the lower cranial nerves IX, X, XI and XII, which occurs due to lower motor neuron lesion either at nuclear or fascicular level in the medulla or from bilateral lesions of the lower cranial nerves outside the brain-stem. Bulbar weakness is often associated with difficulty in chewing, weakness of the facial muscles, dysarthria, palatal weakness and regurgitation of fluids, dysphagia, and dysphonia.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
EMG: neuropathic changes
MedGen UID:
867363
Concept ID:
C4021727
Finding
The presence of characteristic findings of denervation on electromyography (fibrillations, positive sharp waves, and giant motor unit potentials).
Reduced leukocyte arylsulfatase A activity
MedGen UID:
1841730
Concept ID:
C5826718
Finding
Concentration or activity of the lysosomal enzyme arylsulfatase A (EC 3.1.6.8) as measured in leukocytes is below the limits of normal.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Impaired cerebroside sulfate hydrolysis
MedGen UID:
1842111
Concept ID:
C5826589
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
Reduced hydrolysis (splitting of a bond and the addition of the hydrogen anion of water) of the sulfuric ester linkage in the molecule of cerebroside sulfate, possibly leading to accumuation of cerebroside sulfate.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Dangouloff T, Boemer F, Servais L
Neuromuscul Disord 2021 Oct;31(10):1070-1080. Epub 2021 Jul 28 doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2021.07.008. PMID: 34620514
Bradbury AM, Ream MA
Semin Pediatr Neurol 2021 Apr;37:100876. Epub 2021 Feb 10 doi: 10.1016/j.spen.2021.100876. PMID: 33892849
van Rappard DF, Boelens JJ, Wolf NI
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015 Mar;29(2):261-73. Epub 2014 Oct 16 doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2014.10.001. PMID: 25987178

Curated

Leukodystrophies in Children: Diagnosis, Care, and Treatment, Pediatrics (2021) 148 (3): e2021053126.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Shaimardanova AA, Solovyeva VV, Issa SS, Rizvanov AA
Int J Mol Sci 2023 Feb 11;24(4) doi: 10.3390/ijms24043627. PMID: 36835039Free PMC Article
Fumagalli F, Calbi V, Natali Sora MG, Sessa M, Baldoli C, Rancoita PMV, Ciotti F, Sarzana M, Fraschini M, Zambon AA, Acquati S, Redaelli D, Attanasio V, Miglietta S, De Mattia F, Barzaghi F, Ferrua F, Migliavacca M, Tucci F, Gallo V, Del Carro U, Canale S, Spiga I, Lorioli L, Recupero S, Fratini ES, Morena F, Silvani P, Calvi MR, Facchini M, Locatelli S, Corti A, Zancan S, Antonioli G, Farinelli G, Gabaldo M, Garcia-Segovia J, Schwab LC, Downey GF, Filippi M, Cicalese MP, Martino S, Di Serio C, Ciceri F, Bernardo ME, Naldini L, Biffi A, Aiuti A
Lancet 2022 Jan 22;399(10322):372-383. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02017-1. PMID: 35065785Free PMC Article
Ashrafi MR, Amanat M, Garshasbi M, Kameli R, Nilipour Y, Heidari M, Rezaei Z, Tavasoli AR
Expert Rev Neurother 2020 Jan;20(1):65-84. Epub 2019 Dec 12 doi: 10.1080/14737175.2020.1699060. PMID: 31829048
Platt FM, d'Azzo A, Davidson BL, Neufeld EF, Tifft CJ
Nat Rev Dis Primers 2018 Oct 1;4(1):27. doi: 10.1038/s41572-018-0025-4. PMID: 30275469
Köhler W, Curiel J, Vanderver A
Nat Rev Neurol 2018 Feb;14(2):94-105. Epub 2018 Jan 5 doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2017.175. PMID: 29302065

Diagnosis

Modesti NB, Evans SH, Jaffe N, Vanderver A, Gavazzi F
Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2022 Dec;52(12):101311. Epub 2022 Dec 2 doi: 10.1016/j.cppeds.2022.101311. PMID: 36470810
Fumagalli F, Calbi V, Natali Sora MG, Sessa M, Baldoli C, Rancoita PMV, Ciotti F, Sarzana M, Fraschini M, Zambon AA, Acquati S, Redaelli D, Attanasio V, Miglietta S, De Mattia F, Barzaghi F, Ferrua F, Migliavacca M, Tucci F, Gallo V, Del Carro U, Canale S, Spiga I, Lorioli L, Recupero S, Fratini ES, Morena F, Silvani P, Calvi MR, Facchini M, Locatelli S, Corti A, Zancan S, Antonioli G, Farinelli G, Gabaldo M, Garcia-Segovia J, Schwab LC, Downey GF, Filippi M, Cicalese MP, Martino S, Di Serio C, Ciceri F, Bernardo ME, Naldini L, Biffi A, Aiuti A
Lancet 2022 Jan 22;399(10322):372-383. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02017-1. PMID: 35065785Free PMC Article
Etemadifar M, Ashourizadeh H, Nouri H, Kargaran PK, Salari M, Rayani M, Aghababaee A, Abhari AP
Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jan;47:102665. Epub 2020 Dec 4 doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2020.102665. PMID: 33310421
Perlman SJ, Mar S
Adv Exp Med Biol 2012;724:154-71. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-0653-2_13. PMID: 22411242
Gieselmann V, Krägeloh-Mann I
Neuropediatrics 2010 Feb;41(1):1-6. Epub 2010 Jun 22 doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1253412. PMID: 20571983

Therapy

Fumagalli F, Calbi V, Natali Sora MG, Sessa M, Baldoli C, Rancoita PMV, Ciotti F, Sarzana M, Fraschini M, Zambon AA, Acquati S, Redaelli D, Attanasio V, Miglietta S, De Mattia F, Barzaghi F, Ferrua F, Migliavacca M, Tucci F, Gallo V, Del Carro U, Canale S, Spiga I, Lorioli L, Recupero S, Fratini ES, Morena F, Silvani P, Calvi MR, Facchini M, Locatelli S, Corti A, Zancan S, Antonioli G, Farinelli G, Gabaldo M, Garcia-Segovia J, Schwab LC, Downey GF, Filippi M, Cicalese MP, Martino S, Di Serio C, Ciceri F, Bernardo ME, Naldini L, Biffi A, Aiuti A
Lancet 2022 Jan 22;399(10322):372-383. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02017-1. PMID: 35065785Free PMC Article
Babcock MC, Mikulka CR, Wang B, Chandriani S, Chandra S, Xu Y, Webster K, Feng Y, Nelvagal HR, Giaramita A, Yip BK, Lo M, Jiang X, Chao Q, Woloszynek JC, Shen Y, Bhagwat S, Sands MS, Crawford BE
Sci Rep 2021 Jul 14;11(1):14486. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-93601-1. PMID: 34262084Free PMC Article
Bradbury AM, Ream MA
Semin Pediatr Neurol 2021 Apr;37:100876. Epub 2021 Feb 10 doi: 10.1016/j.spen.2021.100876. PMID: 33892849
Poletti V, Biffi A
Hum Gene Ther 2019 Oct;30(10):1222-1235. Epub 2019 Sep 10 doi: 10.1089/hum.2019.190. PMID: 31397176
Biffi A, Montini E, Lorioli L, Cesani M, Fumagalli F, Plati T, Baldoli C, Martino S, Calabria A, Canale S, Benedicenti F, Vallanti G, Biasco L, Leo S, Kabbara N, Zanetti G, Rizzo WB, Mehta NA, Cicalese MP, Casiraghi M, Boelens JJ, Del Carro U, Dow DJ, Schmidt M, Assanelli A, Neduva V, Di Serio C, Stupka E, Gardner J, von Kalle C, Bordignon C, Ciceri F, Rovelli A, Roncarolo MG, Aiuti A, Sessa M, Naldini L
Science 2013 Aug 23;341(6148):1233158. Epub 2013 Jul 11 doi: 10.1126/science.1233158. PMID: 23845948

Prognosis

Fumagalli F, Calbi V, Natali Sora MG, Sessa M, Baldoli C, Rancoita PMV, Ciotti F, Sarzana M, Fraschini M, Zambon AA, Acquati S, Redaelli D, Attanasio V, Miglietta S, De Mattia F, Barzaghi F, Ferrua F, Migliavacca M, Tucci F, Gallo V, Del Carro U, Canale S, Spiga I, Lorioli L, Recupero S, Fratini ES, Morena F, Silvani P, Calvi MR, Facchini M, Locatelli S, Corti A, Zancan S, Antonioli G, Farinelli G, Gabaldo M, Garcia-Segovia J, Schwab LC, Downey GF, Filippi M, Cicalese MP, Martino S, Di Serio C, Ciceri F, Bernardo ME, Naldini L, Biffi A, Aiuti A
Lancet 2022 Jan 22;399(10322):372-383. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02017-1. PMID: 35065785Free PMC Article
Platt FM, d'Azzo A, Davidson BL, Neufeld EF, Tifft CJ
Nat Rev Dis Primers 2018 Oct 1;4(1):27. doi: 10.1038/s41572-018-0025-4. PMID: 30275469
Köhler W, Curiel J, Vanderver A
Nat Rev Neurol 2018 Feb;14(2):94-105. Epub 2018 Jan 5 doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2017.175. PMID: 29302065
Biffi A, Montini E, Lorioli L, Cesani M, Fumagalli F, Plati T, Baldoli C, Martino S, Calabria A, Canale S, Benedicenti F, Vallanti G, Biasco L, Leo S, Kabbara N, Zanetti G, Rizzo WB, Mehta NA, Cicalese MP, Casiraghi M, Boelens JJ, Del Carro U, Dow DJ, Schmidt M, Assanelli A, Neduva V, Di Serio C, Stupka E, Gardner J, von Kalle C, Bordignon C, Ciceri F, Rovelli A, Roncarolo MG, Aiuti A, Sessa M, Naldini L
Science 2013 Aug 23;341(6148):1233158. Epub 2013 Jul 11 doi: 10.1126/science.1233158. PMID: 23845948
Perlman SJ, Mar S
Adv Exp Med Biol 2012;724:154-71. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-0653-2_13. PMID: 22411242

Clinical prediction guides

Amedick LB, Martin P, Beschle J, Strölin M, Wilke M, Wolf N, Pouwels P, Hagberg G, Klose U, Naegele T, Kraegeloh-Mann I, Groeschel S
Neuropediatrics 2023 Aug;54(4):244-252. Epub 2023 Apr 13 doi: 10.1055/a-2073-4178. PMID: 37054976Free PMC Article
Fumagalli F, Calbi V, Natali Sora MG, Sessa M, Baldoli C, Rancoita PMV, Ciotti F, Sarzana M, Fraschini M, Zambon AA, Acquati S, Redaelli D, Attanasio V, Miglietta S, De Mattia F, Barzaghi F, Ferrua F, Migliavacca M, Tucci F, Gallo V, Del Carro U, Canale S, Spiga I, Lorioli L, Recupero S, Fratini ES, Morena F, Silvani P, Calvi MR, Facchini M, Locatelli S, Corti A, Zancan S, Antonioli G, Farinelli G, Gabaldo M, Garcia-Segovia J, Schwab LC, Downey GF, Filippi M, Cicalese MP, Martino S, Di Serio C, Ciceri F, Bernardo ME, Naldini L, Biffi A, Aiuti A
Lancet 2022 Jan 22;399(10322):372-383. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02017-1. PMID: 35065785Free PMC Article
Babcock MC, Mikulka CR, Wang B, Chandriani S, Chandra S, Xu Y, Webster K, Feng Y, Nelvagal HR, Giaramita A, Yip BK, Lo M, Jiang X, Chao Q, Woloszynek JC, Shen Y, Bhagwat S, Sands MS, Crawford BE
Sci Rep 2021 Jul 14;11(1):14486. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-93601-1. PMID: 34262084Free PMC Article
Resende LL, de Paiva ARB, Kok F, da Costa Leite C, Lucato LT
Radiographics 2019 Jan-Feb;39(1):153-168. doi: 10.1148/rg.2019180081. PMID: 30620693
Biffi A, Montini E, Lorioli L, Cesani M, Fumagalli F, Plati T, Baldoli C, Martino S, Calabria A, Canale S, Benedicenti F, Vallanti G, Biasco L, Leo S, Kabbara N, Zanetti G, Rizzo WB, Mehta NA, Cicalese MP, Casiraghi M, Boelens JJ, Del Carro U, Dow DJ, Schmidt M, Assanelli A, Neduva V, Di Serio C, Stupka E, Gardner J, von Kalle C, Bordignon C, Ciceri F, Rovelli A, Roncarolo MG, Aiuti A, Sessa M, Naldini L
Science 2013 Aug 23;341(6148):1233158. Epub 2013 Jul 11 doi: 10.1126/science.1233158. PMID: 23845948

Recent systematic reviews

Chang SC, Bergamasco A, Bonnin M, Bisonó TA, Moride Y
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2024 Feb 21;19(1):80. doi: 10.1186/s13023-024-03044-w. PMID: 38383398Free PMC Article
Armstrong N, Olaye A, Noake C, Pang F
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2023 Aug 29;18(1):248. doi: 10.1186/s13023-023-02814-2. PMID: 37644601Free PMC Article
Schlotawa L, Preiskorn J, Ahrens-Nicklas R, Schiller S, Adang LA, Gärtner J, Friede T
J Inherit Metab Dis 2020 Nov;43(6):1288-1297. Epub 2020 Jul 22 doi: 10.1002/jimd.12282. PMID: 32621519
Musolino PL, Lund TC, Pan J, Escolar ML, Paker AM, Duncan CN, Eichler FS
Neuropediatrics 2014 Jun;45(3):169-74. Epub 2014 Jan 23 doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1364179. PMID: 24459069Free PMC Article
Mahmood A, Berry J, Wenger DA, Escolar M, Sobeih M, Raymond G, Eichler FS
J Child Neurol 2010 May;25(5):572-80. Epub 2009 Dec 28 doi: 10.1177/0883073809341669. PMID: 20038527Free PMC Article

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    Curated

    • AAP, 2021
      Leukodystrophies in Children: Diagnosis, Care, and Treatment, Pediatrics (2021) 148 (3): e2021053126.

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