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Sotos syndrome(SOTOS)

MedGen UID:
61232
Concept ID:
C0175695
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Cerebral gigantism; CHROMOSOME 5q35 DELETION SYNDROME; Distinctive facial appearance, overgrowth in childhood, and learning disabilities or delayed development; SOTOS; Sotos' syndrome
SNOMED CT: Cerebral gigantism (75968004); Sotos syndrome (75968004); Sotos' syndrome (75968004); Cerebral gigantism syndrome (75968004); Cerebral giant (75968004)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
 
Gene (location): NSD1 (5q35.3)
 
OMIM®: 117550
Orphanet: ORPHA821

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Sotos Syndrome
Sotos syndrome is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance (broad and prominent forehead with a dolichocephalic head shape, sparse frontotemporal hair, downslanting palpebral fissures, malar flushing, long and narrow face, long chin); learning disability (early developmental delay, mild-to-severe intellectual impairment); and overgrowth (height and/or head circumference ≥2 SD above the mean). These three clinical features are considered the cardinal features of Sotos syndrome. Major features of Sotos syndrome include behavioral findings (most notably autistic spectrum disorder), advanced bone age, cardiac anomalies, cranial MRI/CT abnormalities, joint hyperlaxity with or without pes planus, maternal preeclampsia, neonatal complications, renal anomalies, scoliosis, and seizures. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Katrina Tatton-Brown  |  Trevor RP Cole  |  Nazneen Rahman   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Sotos syndrome (SOTOS) is a neurologic disorder characterized by overgrowth from the prenatal stage through childhood, with advanced bone age, an unusual face with large skull, acromegalic features and pointed chin, occasional brain anomalies and seizures, and impaired intellectual development (summary by Kurotaki et al., 2002). Weaver syndrome (277590), which shows considerable phenotypic overlap with Sotos syndrome, has been shown to be caused by mutation in the EZH2 gene (601573) on chromosome 7q36.  http://www.omim.org/entry/117550
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Sotos syndrome is a disorder characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, overgrowth in childhood, and learning disabilities or delayed development of mental and movement abilities. Characteristic facial features include a long, narrow face; a high forehead; flushed (reddened) cheeks; and a small, pointed chin.  In addition, the outside corners of the eyes may point downward (down-slanting palpebral fissures). This facial appearance is most notable in early childhood. Affected infants and children tend to grow quickly; they are significantly taller than their siblings and peers and have an unusually large head. However, adult height is usually in the normal range.

People with Sotos syndrome often have intellectual disability, and most also have neurodevelopmental disorders. Conditions that commonly occur in people with Sotos syndrome include autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), phobias, obsessions and compulsions, tantrums, and impulsive behaviors. Problems with speech and language are also common.  Affected individuals often have a stutter, a monotone voice, and problems with sound production. Additionally, weak muscle tone (hypotonia) may delay other aspects of early development, particularly motor skills such as sitting and crawling.

Other signs and symptoms of Sotos syndrome can include an abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis), seizures, heart or kidney defects, hearing loss, and problems with vision. Some infants with this disorder experience yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice) and poor feeding.

A small percentage of people with Sotos syndrome have developed cancer, most often in childhood, but no single form of cancer occurs most frequently with this condition. It remains uncertain whether Sotos syndrome increases the risk of specific types of cancer. If people with this disorder have an increased cancer risk, it is only slightly greater than that of the general population.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/sotos-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Abnormality of the kidney
MedGen UID:
78593
Concept ID:
C0266292
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of the kidney.
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Large hands
MedGen UID:
98097
Concept ID:
C0426870
Finding
Genu valgum
MedGen UID:
154364
Concept ID:
C0576093
Anatomical Abnormality
The legs angle inward, such that the knees are close together and the ankles far apart.
Long foot
MedGen UID:
154365
Concept ID:
C0576225
Finding
Increased back to front length of the foot.
Long metacarpals
MedGen UID:
866904
Concept ID:
C4021260
Finding
An abnormally increased length of the metacarpal bones.
Long phalanx of finger
MedGen UID:
870635
Concept ID:
C4025087
Anatomical Abnormality
Increased length of multiple or a single phalanx of finger.
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Muscular ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
473253
Concept ID:
C0685707
Congenital Abnormality
The trabecular septum is the largest part of the interventricular septum. It extends from the membranous septum to the apex and superiorly to the infundibular septum. A defect in the trabecular septum is called muscular VSD if the defect is completely rimmed by muscle.
Increased body weight
MedGen UID:
12145
Concept ID:
C0043094
Finding
Abnormally increased body weight.
Tall stature
MedGen UID:
69137
Concept ID:
C0241240
Finding
A height above that which is expected according to age and gender norms.
Overgrowth
MedGen UID:
376550
Concept ID:
C1849265
Finding
Excessive postnatal growth which may comprise increased weight, increased length, and/or increased head circumference.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Episodic vomiting
MedGen UID:
333228
Concept ID:
C1838993
Finding
Paroxysmal, recurrent episodes of vomiting.
Prolonged neonatal jaundice
MedGen UID:
347108
Concept ID:
C1859236
Finding
Neonatal jaundice refers to a yellowing of the skin and other tissues of a newborn infant as a result of increased concentrations of bilirubin in the blood. Neonatal jaundice affects over half of all newborns to some extent in the first week of life. Prolonged neonatal jaundice is said to be present if the jaundice persists for longer than 14 days in term infants and 21 days in preterm infants.
Gastroesophageal reflux
MedGen UID:
1368658
Concept ID:
C4317146
Finding
A condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus through the lower esophageal sphincter.
Conductive hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
9163
Concept ID:
C0018777
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of vibrational conductance of sound to the inner ear leading to impairment of sensory perception of sound.
Macrotia
MedGen UID:
488785
Concept ID:
C0152421
Congenital Abnormality
Median longitudinal ear length greater than two standard deviations above the mean and median ear width greater than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparent increase in length and width of the pinna (subjective).
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Aggressive behavior
MedGen UID:
1375
Concept ID:
C0001807
Individual Behavior
Behavior or an act aimed at harming a person, animal, or physical property (e.g., acts of physical violence; shouting, swearing, and using harsh language; slashing someone's tires).
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Stuttering
MedGen UID:
20981
Concept ID:
C0038506
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Disruptions in the production of speech sounds, with involuntary repetitions of words or parts of words, prolongations of speech sounds, or complete blockage of speech production for several seconds.
Arachnoid cyst
MedGen UID:
86860
Concept ID:
C0078981
Disease or Syndrome
An extra-parenchymal and intra-arachnoidal collection of fluid with a composition similar to that of cerebrospinal fluid.
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles.
Partial agenesis of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
98127
Concept ID:
C0431368
Congenital Abnormality
A partial failure of the development of the corpus callosum.
Expressive language delay
MedGen UID:
141568
Concept ID:
C0454641
Disease or Syndrome
A delay in the acquisition of the ability to use language to communicate needs, wishes, or thoughts.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Poor coordination
MedGen UID:
107874
Concept ID:
C0563243
Finding
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.\n\nIn people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.\n\nHyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.\n\nImpulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.\n\nIn most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.\n\nMore than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.
Cavum septum pellucidum
MedGen UID:
327087
Concept ID:
C1840380
Finding
If the two laminae of the septum pellucidum are not fused then a fluid-filled space or cavum is present. The cavum septum pellucidum is present at birth but usually obliterates by the age of 3 to 6 months. It is up to 1cm in width and the walls are parallel. It is an enclosed space and is not part of the ventricular system or connected with the subarachnoid space.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Dolichocephaly
MedGen UID:
65142
Concept ID:
C0221358
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a increased anterior-posterior diameter, i.e., an increased antero-posterior dimension of the skull. Cephalic index less than 76%. Alternatively, an apparently increased antero-posterior length of the head compared to width. Often due to premature closure of the sagittal suture.
Accelerated skeletal maturation
MedGen UID:
154262
Concept ID:
C0545053
Finding
An abnormally increased rate of skeletal maturation. Accelerated skeletal maturation can be diagnosed on the basis of an estimation of the bone age from radiographs of specific bones in the human body.
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The capability that a joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes.
Enlarged cisterna magna
MedGen UID:
344031
Concept ID:
C1853377
Finding
Increase in size of the cisterna magna, one of three principal openings in the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid and pia mater, located between the cerebellum and the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata.
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium.
Neonatal hypotonia
MedGen UID:
412209
Concept ID:
C2267233
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) manifesting in the neonatal period.
Narrow jaw
MedGen UID:
866719
Concept ID:
C4021066
Finding
Bigonial distance (lower facial width) more than 2 standard deviations below the mean (objective); or an apparently decreased width of the lower jaw (mandible) when viewed from the front (subjective).
Otitis media
MedGen UID:
45253
Concept ID:
C0029882
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammation or infection of the middle ear.
Neonatal hypoglycemia
MedGen UID:
57646
Concept ID:
C0158986
Finding
Blood glucose concentration below the lower limit of established reference ranges in a newborn.
Glucose intolerance
MedGen UID:
75760
Concept ID:
C0271650
Disease or Syndrome
Glucose intolerance (GI) can be defined as dysglycemia that comprises both prediabetes and diabetes. It includes the conditions of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM).
High forehead
MedGen UID:
65991
Concept ID:
C0239676
Finding
An abnormally increased height of the forehead.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Advanced eruption of teeth
MedGen UID:
78588
Concept ID:
C0266054
Finding
Premature tooth eruption, which can be defined as tooth eruption more than 2 SD earlier than the mean eruption age.
Mandibular prognathia
MedGen UID:
98316
Concept ID:
C0399526
Finding
Abnormal prominence of the chin related to increased length of the mandible.
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Broad nasal tip
MedGen UID:
98424
Concept ID:
C0426429
Finding
Increase in width of the nasal tip.
Enlarged naris
MedGen UID:
98425
Concept ID:
C0426440
Finding
Increased aperture of the nostril.
Narrow palate
MedGen UID:
278045
Concept ID:
C1398312
Finding
Width of the palate more than 2 SD below the mean (objective) or apparently decreased palatal width (subjective).
Sparse eyebrow
MedGen UID:
371332
Concept ID:
C1832446
Finding
Decreased density/number of eyebrow hairs.
Triangular face
MedGen UID:
324383
Concept ID:
C1835884
Finding
Facial contour, as viewed from the front, triangular in shape, with breadth at the temples and tapering to a narrow chin.
Long face
MedGen UID:
324419
Concept ID:
C1836047
Finding
Facial height (length) is more than 2 standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, an apparent increase in the height (length) of the face (subjective).
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Prominent forehead
MedGen UID:
373291
Concept ID:
C1837260
Finding
Forward prominence of the entire forehead, due to protrusion of the frontal bone.
High, narrow palate
MedGen UID:
324787
Concept ID:
C1837404
Finding
The presence of a high and narrow palate.
Narrow face
MedGen UID:
373334
Concept ID:
C1837463
Finding
Bizygomatic (upper face) and bigonial (lower face) width are both more than 2 standard deviations below the mean (objective); or, an apparent reduction in the width of the upper and lower face (subjective).
Anteverted nares
MedGen UID:
326648
Concept ID:
C1840077
Finding
Anteriorly-facing nostrils viewed with the head in the Frankfurt horizontal and the eyes of the observer level with the eyes of the subject. This gives the appearance of an upturned nose (upturned nasal tip).
Pointed chin
MedGen UID:
336193
Concept ID:
C1844505
Finding
A marked tapering of the lower face to the chin.
Broad forehead
MedGen UID:
338610
Concept ID:
C1849089
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently increased distance between the two sides of the forehead.
High anterior hairline
MedGen UID:
477667
Concept ID:
C3276036
Finding
Distance between the hairline (trichion) and the glabella (the most prominent point on the frontal bone above the root of the nose), in the midline, more than two SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between the hairline and the glabella.
Small nail
MedGen UID:
537942
Concept ID:
C0263523
Finding
A nail that is diminished in length and width, i.e., underdeveloped nail.
Decreased fetal movement
MedGen UID:
68618
Concept ID:
C0235659
Finding
An abnormal reduction in quantity or strength of fetal movements.
Esotropia
MedGen UID:
4550
Concept ID:
C0014877
Disease or Syndrome
A form of strabismus with one or both eyes turned inward ('crossed') to a relatively severe degree, usually defined as 10 diopters or more.
Hypermetropia
MedGen UID:
43780
Concept ID:
C0020490
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of refraction characterized by the ability to see objects in the distance clearly, while objects nearby appear blurry.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
Follow this link to review classifications for Sotos syndrome in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Macchiaiolo M, Panfili FM, Vecchio D, Gonfiantini MV, Cortellessa F, Caciolo C, Zollino M, Accadia M, Seri M, Chinali M, Mammì C, Tartaglia M, Bartuli A, Alfieri P, Priolo M
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2022 Jun 18;17(1):235. doi: 10.1186/s13023-022-02384-9. PMID: 35717370Free PMC Article
Muhsin E, Basak G, Banu D, Alper G, Mustafa S
J Mol Neurosci 2022 Jan;72(1):149-157. Epub 2021 Aug 12 doi: 10.1007/s12031-021-01897-5. PMID: 34386909
Chen CP
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2012 Jun;51(2):186-91. doi: 10.1016/j.tjog.2012.04.004. PMID: 22795092

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Lui JC, Baron J
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2024 Jan 18;109(2):312-320. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgad420. PMID: 37450557
Mohan P, Lemoine J, Trotter C, Rakova I, Billings P, Peacock S, Kao CY, Wang Y, Xia F, Eng CM, Benn P
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;59(1):33-39. doi: 10.1002/uog.23756. PMID: 34358384Free PMC Article
Priolo M, Schanze D, Tatton-Brown K, Mulder PA, Tenorio J, Kooblall K, Acero IH, Alkuraya FS, Arias P, Bernardini L, Bijlsma EK, Cole T, Coubes C, Dapia I, Davies S, Di Donato N, Elcioglu NH, Fahrner JA, Foster A, González NG, Huber I, Iascone M, Kaiser AS, Kamath A, Liebelt J, Lynch SA, Maas SM, Mammì C, Mathijssen IB, McKee S, Menke LA, Mirzaa GM, Montgomery T, Neubauer D, Neumann TE, Pintomalli L, Pisanti MA, Plomp AS, Price S, Salter C, Santos-Simarro F, Sarda P, Segovia M, Shaw-Smith C, Smithson S, Suri M, Valdez RM, Van Haeringen A, Van Hagen JM, Zollino M, Lapunzina P, Thakker RV, Zenker M, Hennekam RC
Hum Mutat 2018 Sep;39(9):1226-1237. Epub 2018 Jun 25 doi: 10.1002/humu.23563. PMID: 29897170Free PMC Article
Lane C, Milne E, Freeth M
PLoS One 2016;11(2):e0149189. Epub 2016 Feb 12 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149189. PMID: 26872390Free PMC Article
Baujat G, Cormier-Daire V
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Sep 7;2:36. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-36. PMID: 17825104Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Mohan P, Lemoine J, Trotter C, Rakova I, Billings P, Peacock S, Kao CY, Wang Y, Xia F, Eng CM, Benn P
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;59(1):33-39. doi: 10.1002/uog.23756. PMID: 34358384Free PMC Article
Urakami T
Minerva Pediatr 2020 Dec;72(6):472-483. Epub 2020 Aug 4 doi: 10.23736/S0026-4946.20.05971-X. PMID: 32748612
Priolo M, Schanze D, Tatton-Brown K, Mulder PA, Tenorio J, Kooblall K, Acero IH, Alkuraya FS, Arias P, Bernardini L, Bijlsma EK, Cole T, Coubes C, Dapia I, Davies S, Di Donato N, Elcioglu NH, Fahrner JA, Foster A, González NG, Huber I, Iascone M, Kaiser AS, Kamath A, Liebelt J, Lynch SA, Maas SM, Mammì C, Mathijssen IB, McKee S, Menke LA, Mirzaa GM, Montgomery T, Neubauer D, Neumann TE, Pintomalli L, Pisanti MA, Plomp AS, Price S, Salter C, Santos-Simarro F, Sarda P, Segovia M, Shaw-Smith C, Smithson S, Suri M, Valdez RM, Van Haeringen A, Van Hagen JM, Zollino M, Lapunzina P, Thakker RV, Zenker M, Hennekam RC
Hum Mutat 2018 Sep;39(9):1226-1237. Epub 2018 Jun 25 doi: 10.1002/humu.23563. PMID: 29897170Free PMC Article
Tatton-Brown K, Loveday C, Yost S, Clarke M, Ramsay E, Zachariou A, Elliott A, Wylie H, Ardissone A, Rittinger O, Stewart F, Temple IK, Cole T; Childhood Overgrowth Collaboration, Mahamdallie S, Seal S, Ruark E, Rahman N
Am J Hum Genet 2017 May 4;100(5):725-736. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.03.010. PMID: 28475857Free PMC Article
Tanaka T
Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2014 Sep;12(1):1. PMID: 25345080

Therapy

Ragaie C, Kishk NA, Nawito AM, Othman AS, Magdy R
Int J Neurosci 2023 Jan;133(1):81-85. Epub 2021 Feb 17 doi: 10.1080/00207454.2021.1886096. PMID: 33554696
Gilbert JD, Byard RW
Med Sci Law 2018 Apr;58(2):119-121. Epub 2018 Mar 12 doi: 10.1177/0025802418758210. PMID: 29528771
Lord K, De León DD
Clin Perinatol 2018 Mar;45(1):61-74. Epub 2017 Dec 6 doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2017.10.007. PMID: 29406007
Vougiouklakis T, Hamamoto R, Nakamura Y, Saloura V
Epigenomics 2015 Aug;7(5):863-74. Epub 2015 May 5 doi: 10.2217/epi.15.32. PMID: 25942451
Sabin MA, Werther GA, Kiess W
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011 Feb;25(1):207-20. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2010.09.010. PMID: 21396586

Prognosis

Zenker M, Mohnike K, Palm K
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2023;14:1013874. Epub 2023 Mar 30 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2023.1013874. PMID: 37065762Free PMC Article
Urakami T
Minerva Pediatr 2020 Dec;72(6):472-483. Epub 2020 Aug 4 doi: 10.23736/S0026-4946.20.05971-X. PMID: 32748612
Tatton-Brown K, Loveday C, Yost S, Clarke M, Ramsay E, Zachariou A, Elliott A, Wylie H, Ardissone A, Rittinger O, Stewart F, Temple IK, Cole T; Childhood Overgrowth Collaboration, Mahamdallie S, Seal S, Ruark E, Rahman N
Am J Hum Genet 2017 May 4;100(5):725-736. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.03.010. PMID: 28475857Free PMC Article
Arnoux JB, de Lonlay P, Ribeiro MJ, Hussain K, Blankenstein O, Mohnike K, Valayannopoulos V, Robert JJ, Rahier J, Sempoux C, Bellanné C, Verkarre V, Aigrain Y, Jaubert F, Brunelle F, Nihoul-Fékété C
Early Hum Dev 2010 May;86(5):287-94. Epub 2010 Jun 13 doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2010.05.003. PMID: 20550977
Baujat G, Cormier-Daire V
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Sep 7;2:36. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-36. PMID: 17825104Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Zenker M, Mohnike K, Palm K
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2023;14:1013874. Epub 2023 Mar 30 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2023.1013874. PMID: 37065762Free PMC Article
Mohan P, Lemoine J, Trotter C, Rakova I, Billings P, Peacock S, Kao CY, Wang Y, Xia F, Eng CM, Benn P
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;59(1):33-39. doi: 10.1002/uog.23756. PMID: 34358384Free PMC Article
Urakami T
Minerva Pediatr 2020 Dec;72(6):472-483. Epub 2020 Aug 4 doi: 10.23736/S0026-4946.20.05971-X. PMID: 32748612
Tatton-Brown K, Loveday C, Yost S, Clarke M, Ramsay E, Zachariou A, Elliott A, Wylie H, Ardissone A, Rittinger O, Stewart F, Temple IK, Cole T; Childhood Overgrowth Collaboration, Mahamdallie S, Seal S, Ruark E, Rahman N
Am J Hum Genet 2017 May 4;100(5):725-736. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.03.010. PMID: 28475857Free PMC Article
Baujat G, Cormier-Daire V
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Sep 7;2:36. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-36. PMID: 17825104Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Romero VI, Arias-Almeida B, Aguiar SA
BMC Genomics 2022 Dec 22;23(1):849. doi: 10.1186/s12864-022-09071-w. PMID: 36550402Free PMC Article
Danis DO 3rd, Bodamer O, Levi JR
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Apr;143:110649. Epub 2021 Feb 12 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2021.110649. PMID: 33640723
Lane C, Milne E, Freeth M
PLoS One 2016;11(2):e0149189. Epub 2016 Feb 12 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149189. PMID: 26872390Free PMC Article

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