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Metabolic acidosis

MedGen UID:
65117
Concept ID:
C0220981
Pathologic Function
Synonyms: Acidoses, Metabolic; Acidosis, Metabolic; Metabolic Acidoses; Metabolic Acidosis
SNOMED CT: Metabolic acidosis (59455009)
 
HPO: HP:0001942
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0000440

Definition

Metabolic acidosis (MA) is characterized by a fall in blood pH due to a reduction of serum bicarbonate concentration. This can occur as a result of either the accumulation of acids (high anion gap MA) or the loss of bicarbonate from the gastrointestinal tract or the kidney (hyperchloremic MA). By definition, MA is not due to a respirary cause. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Hereditary fructosuria
MedGen UID:
42105
Concept ID:
C0016751
Disease or Syndrome
Following dietary exposure to fructose, sucrose, or sorbitol, untreated hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is characterized by metabolic disturbances (hypoglycemia, lactic acidemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperuricemia, hypermagnesemia, hyperalaninemia) and clinical findings (nausea, vomiting, and abdominal distress; chronic growth restriction / failure to thrive). While untreated HFI typically first manifested when fructose- and sucrose-containing foods were introduced in the course of weaning young infants from breast milk, it is now presenting earlier, due to the addition of fructose-containing nutrients in infant formulas. If the infant ingests large quantities of fructose, the infant may acutely develop lethargy, seizures, and/or progressive coma. Untreated HFI may result in renal and hepatic failure. If identified and treated before permanent organ injury occurs, individuals with HFI can experience a normal quality of life and life expectancy.
Fructose-biphosphatase deficiency
MedGen UID:
42106
Concept ID:
C0016756
Disease or Syndrome
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) deficiency is characterized by episodic acute crises of lactic acidosis and ketotic hypoglycemia, manifesting as hyperventilation, apneic spells, seizures, and/or coma. Acute crises are most common in early childhood; nearly half of affected children have hypoglycemia in the neonatal period (especially the first 4 days) resulting from deficient glycogen stores. Factors known to trigger episodes include fever, fasting, decreased oral intake, vomiting, infections, and ingestion of large amounts of fructose. In untreated individuals, symptoms worsen progressively as continued catabolism leads to multiorgan failure (especially liver, brain, and later heart). Morbidity and mortality are high. Sepsis, blindness, and Reye syndrome-like presentation have been reported. In between acute episodes, children are asymptomatic. While the majority of affected children have normal growth and psychomotor development, a few have intellectual disability, presumably due to early and prolonged hypoglycemia.
Ariboflavinosis
MedGen UID:
20573
Concept ID:
C0035528
Disease or Syndrome
A reduced concentration of vitamin B2.
Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency
MedGen UID:
65086
Concept ID:
C0220710
Disease or Syndrome
Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) is one of the enzymes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid ß-oxidation. Fatty acid ß-oxidation fuels hepatic ketogenesis, which provides a major source of energy once hepatic glycogen stores become depleted during prolonged fasting and periods of higher energy demands. MCAD deficiency is the most common disorder of fatty acid ß-oxidation and one of the most common inborn errors of metabolism. Most children are now diagnosed through newborn screening. Clinical symptoms in a previously apparently healthy child with MCAD deficiency include hypoketotic hypoglycemia and vomiting that may progress to lethargy, seizures, and coma triggered by a common illness. Hepatomegaly and liver disease are often present during an acute episode. Children appear normal at birth and – if not identified through newborn screening – typically present between age three and 24 months, although presentation even as late as adulthood is possible. The prognosis is excellent once the diagnosis is established and frequent feedings are instituted to avoid any prolonged periods of fasting.
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
66320
Concept ID:
C0220722
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome is an autosomal recessive progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by microcephaly, congenital cataracts, severe mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, and arthrogryposis (summary by Jaakkola et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Cerebrooculofacioskeletal Syndrome See also COFS2 (610756), caused by mutation in the ERCC2 gene (126340); COFS3 (616570), caused by mutation in the ERCC5 gene (133530); and COFS4 (610758), caused by mutation in the ERCC1 gene (126380).
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency
MedGen UID:
82772
Concept ID:
C0268120
Disease or Syndrome
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is characterized by excessive production and renal excretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA), which leads to kidney stone formation and crystal-induced kidney damage (i.e., DHA crystal nephropathy) causing acute kidney injury episodes and progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). Kidney stones, the most common clinical manifestation of APRT deficiency, can occur at any age; in at least 50% of affected persons symptoms do not occur until adulthood. If adequate treatment is not provided, approximately 20%-25% of affected individuals develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD), usually in adult life.
Deficiency of UDPglucose-hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
MedGen UID:
82777
Concept ID:
C0268151
Disease or Syndrome
The term "galactosemia" refers to disorders of galactose metabolism that include classic galactosemia, clinical variant galactosemia, and biochemical variant galactosemia (not covered in this chapter). This GeneReview focuses on: Classic galactosemia, which can result in life-threatening complications including feeding problems, failure to thrive, hepatocellular damage, bleeding, and E coli sepsis in untreated infants. If a lactose-restricted diet is provided during the first ten days of life, the neonatal signs usually quickly resolve and the complications of liver failure, sepsis, and neonatal death are prevented; however, despite adequate treatment from an early age, children with classic galactosemia remain at increased risk for developmental delays, speech problems (termed childhood apraxia of speech and dysarthria), and abnormalities of motor function. Almost all females with classic galactosemia manifest hypergonadatropic hypogonadism or premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). Clinical variant galactosemia, which can result in life-threatening complications including feeding problems, failure to thrive, hepatocellular damage including cirrhosis, and bleeding in untreated infants. This is exemplified by the disease that occurs in African Americans and native Africans in South Africa. Persons with clinical variant galactosemia may be missed with newborn screening as the hypergalactosemia is not as marked as in classic galactosemia and breath testing is normal. If a lactose-restricted diet is provided during the first ten days of life, the severe acute neonatal complications are usually prevented. African Americans with clinical variant galactosemia and adequate early treatment do not appear to be at risk for long-term complications, including POI.
Primary hyperoxaluria, type I
MedGen UID:
75658
Concept ID:
C0268164
Disease or Syndrome
Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is caused by a deficiency of the liver peroxisomal enzyme alanine:glyoxylate-aminotransferase (AGT), which catalyzes the conversion of glyoxylate to glycine. When AGT activity is absent, glyoxylate is converted to oxalate, which forms insoluble calcium oxalate crystals that accumulate in the kidney and other organs. Individuals with PH1 are at risk for recurrent nephrolithiasis (deposition of calcium oxalate in the renal pelvis / urinary tract), nephrocalcinosis (deposition of calcium oxalate in the renal parenchyma), or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Age at onset of symptoms ranges from infancy to the sixth decade. Approximately 10% of affected individuals present in infancy or early childhood with nephrocalcinosis, with or without nephrolithiasis, and failure to thrive related to renal failure. The majority of individuals with PH1 present in childhood or early adolescence, usually with symptomatic nephrolithiasis and normal or reduced kidney function. The remainder of affected individuals present in adulthood with recurrent renal stones and a mild-to-moderate reduction in kidney function. The natural history of untreated PH1 is one of progressive decline in renal function as a result of calcium oxalate deposits in kidney tissue and complications of nephrolithiasis (e.g., obstruction and infection) with eventual progression to oxalosis (widespread tissue deposition of calcium oxalate) and death from ESRD and/or complications of oxalosis.
Congenital lactase deficiency
MedGen UID:
120617
Concept ID:
C0268179
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital lactase deficiency is a severe gastrointestinal disorder characterized by watery diarrhea in infants fed with breast milk or other lactose-containing formulas.
Congenital glucose-galactose malabsorption
MedGen UID:
78647
Concept ID:
C0268186
Disease or Syndrome
Glucose/galactose malabsorption (GGM) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in glucose and galactose transport across the intestinal brush border. Patients with GGM present with neonatal onset of severe life-threatening watery diarrhea and dehydration. If diagnosed and treated properly, patients can fully recover and show normal growth and development (summary by Xin and Wang, 2011).
Deficiency of glycerol kinase
MedGen UID:
82803
Concept ID:
C0268418
Disease or Syndrome
NR0B1-related adrenal hypoplasia congenita includes both X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (X-linked AHC) and Xp21 deletion (previously called complex glycerol kinase deficiency). X-linked AHC is characterized by primary adrenal insufficiency and/or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Adrenal insufficiency is acute infantile onset (average age 3 weeks) in approximately 60% of affected males and childhood onset (ages 1-9 years) in approximately 40%. HH typically manifests in a male with adrenal insufficiency as delayed puberty (i.e., onset age >14 years) and less commonly as arrested puberty at about Tanner Stage 3. Rarely, X-linked AHC manifests initially in early adulthood as delayed-onset adrenal insufficiency, partial HH, and/or infertility. Heterozygous females very occasionally have manifestations of adrenal insufficiency or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Xp21 deletion includes deletion of NR0B1 (causing X-linked AHC) and GK (causing glycerol kinase deficiency), and in some cases deletion of DMD (causing Duchenne muscular dystrophy). Developmental delay has been reported in males with Xp21 deletion when the deletion extends proximally to include DMD or when larger deletions extend distally to include IL1RAPL1 and DMD.
Tyrosinemia type I
MedGen UID:
75688
Concept ID:
C0268490
Disease or Syndrome
Untreated tyrosinemia type I usually presents either in young infants with severe liver involvement or later in the first year with liver dysfunction and renal tubular dysfunction associated with growth failure and rickets. Untreated children may have repeated, often unrecognized, neurologic crises lasting one to seven days that can include change in mental status, abdominal pain, peripheral neuropathy, and/or respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Death in the untreated child usually occurs before age ten years, typically from liver failure, neurologic crisis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. Combined treatment with nitisinone and a low-tyrosine diet has resulted in a greater than 90% survival rate, normal growth, improved liver function, prevention of cirrhosis, correction of renal tubular acidosis, and improvement in secondary rickets.
Isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
MedGen UID:
82822
Concept ID:
C0268575
Disease or Syndrome
Isovaleric acidemia is an inborn error of leucine metabolism caused by a deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase. It can present with severe neonatal ketoacidosis leading to death, but in milder cases recurrent episodes of ketoacidosis of varying degree occur later in infancy and childhood (summary by Vockley et al., 1991).
Propionic acidemia
MedGen UID:
75694
Concept ID:
C0268579
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of propionic acidemia (PA) ranges from neonatal-onset to late-onset disease. Neonatal-onset PA, the most common form, is characterized by a healthy newborn with poor feeding and decreased arousal in the first few days of life, followed by progressive encephalopathy of unexplained origin. Without prompt diagnosis and management, this is followed by progressive encephalopathy manifesting as lethargy, seizures, or coma that can result in death. It is frequently accompanied by metabolic acidosis with anion gap, lactic acidosis, ketonuria, hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, and cytopenias. Individuals with late-onset PA may remain asymptomatic and suffer a metabolic crisis under catabolic stress (e.g., illness, surgery, fasting) or may experience a more insidious onset with the development of multiorgan complications including vomiting, protein intolerance, failure to thrive, hypotonia, developmental delays or regression, movement disorders, or cardiomyopathy. Isolated cardiomyopathy can be observed on rare occasion in the absence of clinical metabolic decompensation or neurocognitive deficits. Manifestations of neonatal and late-onset PA over time can include growth impairment, intellectual disability, seizures, basal ganglia lesions, pancreatitis, and cardiomyopathy. Other rarely reported complications include optic atrophy, hearing loss, premature ovarian insufficiency, and chronic renal failure.
Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency
MedGen UID:
120653
Concept ID:
C0268581
Disease or Syndrome
Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency, a biotin-responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency (MCD), is characterized by metabolic acidosis, lethargy, hypotonia, convulsions, and dermatitis. Most patients present in the newborn or early infantile period, but some become symptomatic in the later infantile period (summary by Suzuki et al., 2005). Also see biotinidase deficiency (253260), another form of MCD with a later onset. Care must be taken to differentiate the inherited multiple carboxylase deficiencies from acquired biotin deficiencies, such as those that develop after excessive dietary intake of avidin, an egg-white glycoprotein that binds specifically and essentially irreversibly to biotin (Sweetman et al., 1981) or prolonged parenteral alimentation without supplemental biotin (Mock et al., 1981).
Glutaric aciduria, type 1
MedGen UID:
124337
Concept ID:
C0268595
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of untreated glutaric acidemia type 1 (GA-1) ranges from the more common form (infantile-onset disease) to the less common form (later-onset disease – i.e., after age 6 years). Of note, the GA-1 phenotype can vary widely between untreated family members with the same genotype, primarily as a function of the age at which the first acute encephalopathic crisis occurred: three months to six years in infantile-onset GA-1 and after age six years in later-onset GA-1. Characteristically these crises result in acute bilateral striatal injury and subsequent complex movement disorders. In the era of newborn screening (NBS), the prompt initiation of treatment of asymptomatic infants detected by NBS means that most individuals who would have developed manifestations of either infantile-onset or later-onset GA-1 remain asymptomatic; however, they may be at increased risk for other manifestations (e.g., renal disease) that are becoming apparent as the understanding of the natural history of treated GA-1 continues to evolve.
Deficiency of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA lyase
MedGen UID:
78692
Concept ID:
C0268601
Disease or Syndrome
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with the cardinal manifestations of metabolic acidosis without ketonuria, hypoglycemia, and a characteristic pattern of elevated urinary organic acid metabolites, including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric, 3-methylglutaric, and 3-hydroxyisovaleric acids. Urinary levels of 3-methylcrotonylglycine may be increased. Dicarboxylic aciduria, hepatomegaly, and hyperammonemia may also be observed. Presenting clinical signs include irritability, lethargy, coma, and vomiting (summary by Gibson et al., 1988).
Sulfite oxidase deficiency
MedGen UID:
78695
Concept ID:
C0268624
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency ranges from classic early-onset (severe) disease to late-onset (mild) disease. Classic ISOD is characterized in the first few hours to days of life by intractable seizures, feeding difficulties, and rapidly progressive encephalopathy manifest as abnormal tone (especially opisthotonus, spastic quadriplegia, and pyramidal signs) followed by progressive microcephaly and profound intellectual disability. Lens subluxation or dislocation, another characteristic finding, may be evident after the newborn period. Children usually die during the first few months of life. Late-onset ISOD manifests between ages six and 18 months and is characterized by ectopia lentis (variably present), developmental delay/regression, movement disorder characterized by dystonia and choreoathetosis, ataxia, and (rarely) acute hemiplegia as a result of metabolic stroke. The clinical course may be progressive or episodic. In the episodic form encephalopathy, dystonia, choreoathetosis, and/or ataxia are intermittent.
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 1
MedGen UID:
90994
Concept ID:
C0342727
Disease or Syndrome
3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency is an inherited condition that causes neurological problems. Beginning in infancy to early childhood, children with this condition often have delayed development of mental and motor skills (psychomotor delay), speech delay, involuntary muscle cramping (dystonia), and spasms and weakness of the arms and legs (spastic quadriparesis). Affected individuals can also have optic atrophy, which is the breakdown (atrophy) of nerve cells that carry visual information from the eyes to the brain.\n\nIn some cases, signs and symptoms of 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency begin in adulthood, often in a person's twenties or thirties. These individuals have damage to a type of brain tissue called white matter (leukoencephalopathy). This damage likely contributes to progressive problems with speech (dysarthria), difficulty coordinating movements (ataxia), stiffness (spasticity), optic atrophy, and a decline in intellectual function (dementia).\n\nAffected individuals who show symptoms of 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency in childhood often go on to develop leukoencephalopathy and other neurological problems in adulthood.\n\nAll people with 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency accumulate large amounts of a substance called 3-methylglutaconic acid in their body fluids. As a result, they have elevated levels of acid in their blood (metabolic acidosis) and excrete large amounts of acid in their urine (aciduria). 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency is one of a group of metabolic disorders that can be diagnosed by the presence of increased levels 3-methylglutaconic acid in urine (3-methylglutaconic aciduria). People with 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency also have high urine levels of another acid called 3-methylglutaric acid.
Phosphate transport defect
MedGen UID:
87455
Concept ID:
C0342749
Disease or Syndrome
Glycogenosis due to glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P) type b, or glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1b, is a type of glycogenosis due to G6P deficiency (see this term).
D-Glyceric aciduria
MedGen UID:
452447
Concept ID:
C0342765
Disease or Syndrome
D-glyceric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients have an encephalopathic presentation, with severe mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, and sometimes early death, whereas others have a mild phenotype with only mild speech delay or even normal development (summary by Sass et al., 2010).
Fumarase deficiency
MedGen UID:
87458
Concept ID:
C0342770
Disease or Syndrome
Fumarate hydratase (FH) deficiency results in severe neonatal and early infantile encephalopathy that is characterized by poor feeding, failure to thrive, hypotonia, lethargy, and seizures. Dysmorphic facial features include frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge, and widely spaced eyes. Many affected individuals are microcephalic. A spectrum of brain abnormalities are seen on magnetic resonance imaging, including cerebral atrophy, enlarged ventricles and generous extra-axial cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) spaces, delayed myelination for age, thinning of the corpus callosum, and an abnormally small brain stem. Brain malformations including bilateral polymicrogyria and absence of the corpus callosum can also be observed. Development is severely affected: most affected individuals are nonverbal and nonambulatory, and many die during early childhood. Less severely affected individuals with moderate cognitive impairment and long-term survival have been reported.
Pearson syndrome
MedGen UID:
87459
Concept ID:
C0342784
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion syndromes predominantly comprise three overlapping phenotypes that are usually simplex (i.e., a single occurrence in a family), but rarely may be observed in different members of the same family or may evolve from one clinical syndrome to another in a given individual over time. The three classic phenotypes caused by mtDNA deletions are Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), Pearson syndrome, and progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO). KSS is a progressive multisystem disorder defined by onset before age 20 years, pigmentary retinopathy, and PEO; additional features include cerebellar ataxia, impaired intellect (intellectual disability, dementia, or both), sensorineural hearing loss, ptosis, oropharyngeal and esophageal dysfunction, exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, cardiac conduction block, and endocrinopathy. Pearson syndrome is characterized by sideroblastic anemia and exocrine pancreas dysfunction and may be fatal in infancy without appropriate hematologic management. PEO is characterized by ptosis, impaired eye movements due to paralysis of the extraocular muscles (ophthalmoplegia), oropharyngeal weakness, and variably severe proximal limb weakness with exercise intolerance. Rarely, a mtDNA deletion can manifest as Leigh syndrome.
Deficiency of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase
MedGen UID:
91001
Concept ID:
C0342793
Disease or Syndrome
Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency is an uncommon inherited metabolic disease. The characteristic phenotype is variable, but may include developmental delay in early childhood, seizures, hypotonia, diarrhea, vomiting, metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia, ketosis, abnormal urinary compounds, lactic acidemia, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (Sweetman and Williams, 2001).
Dihydropyrimidinase deficiency
MedGen UID:
83353
Concept ID:
C0342803
Disease or Syndrome
DPYS deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by the presence of dihydropyrimidinuria. The clinical phenotype is highly variable, ranging from early infantile onset of severe neurologic involvement, dysmorphic features, and feeding problems to late onset of mild intellectual disability and even asymptomatic individuals. Patients with a complete or partial deficiency have an increased risk of developing severe toxicity after administration of the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (summary by Nakajima et al., 2017). See also dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency (274270), a similar disorder.
Deficiency of beta-ureidopropionase
MedGen UID:
226944
Concept ID:
C1291512
Disease or Syndrome
Beta-ureidopropionase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism due to a defect in pyrimidine degradation. Less than 10 patients have been reported, and the phenotype can range from severe neurologic involvement with mental retardation and seizures to normal neurologic development (Yaplito-Lee et al., 2008).
Autosomal dominant pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1
MedGen UID:
260623
Concept ID:
C1449842
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant pseudohypoaldosteronism type I is characterized by salt wasting resulting from renal unresponsiveness to mineralocorticoids. Patients may present with neonatal renal salt wasting with hyperkalaemic acidosis despite high aldosterone levels. These patients improve with age and usually become asymptomatic without treatment. Some adult patients with the disorder may have elevated aldosterone levels, but no history of clinical disease. This observation suggests that only those infants whose salt homeostasis is stressed by intercurrent illness and volume depletion develop clinically recognized PHA I (summary by Geller et al., 1998). Autosomal recessive pseudohypoaldosteronism type I (PHA1B; 264350), caused by mutation in any one of 3 genes encoding the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), is a similar but more severe systemic disorder with persistence into adulthood.
Autosomal recessive pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1
MedGen UID:
258573
Concept ID:
C1449843
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive pseudohypoaldosteronism type I, including PHA1B1, is characterized by renal salt wasting and high concentrations of sodium in sweat, stool, and saliva. The disorder involves multiple organ systems and is especially threatening in the neonatal period. Laboratory evaluation shows hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and increased plasma renin activity with high serum aldosterone concentrations. Respiratory tract infections are common in affected children and may be mistaken for cystic fibrosis (CF; 219700). Aggressive salt replacement and control of hyperkalemia results in survival, and the disorder appears to become less severe with age (review by Scheinman et al., 1999). A milder, autosomal dominant form of type I pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1A; 177735) is caused by mutations in the mineralocorticoid receptor gene (MCR, NR3C2; 600983). Gitelman syndrome (263800), another example of primary renal tubular salt wasting, is due to mutation in the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (SLC12A3; 600968). Hanukoglu and Hanukoglu (2016) provided a detailed review of the ENaC gene family, including structure, function, tissue distribution, and associated inherited diseases.
Cardiomyopathy-hypotonia-lactic acidosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
324373
Concept ID:
C1835845
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial phosphate carrier deficiency (MPCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of cardiorespiratory insufficiency soon after birth. Patients usually require intervention in the neonatal period. The disorder may result in death in infancy, although those that survive have stabilization or amelioration of symptoms with age. Most affected individuals have hypotonia, delayed motor development, and exercise intolerance, but cognitive development is normal. Laboratory studies typically show increased serum lactate, although this may not be present. Muscle biopsy shows abnormal mitochondria and lipid accumulation. There is phenotypic variability likely depending on the location of the mutation (summary by Bhoj et al., 2015).
Hepatoencephalopathy due to combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 1
MedGen UID:
322999
Concept ID:
C1836797
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder with variable manifestations resulting from a defect in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Onset occurs at or soon after birth, and features can include growth retardation, microcephaly, hypertonicity, axial hypotonia, encephalopathy, cardiomyopathy, and liver dysfunction. Death usually occurs in the first weeks or years of life (summary by Smits et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Combined Oxidative Phosphorylation Deficiency See also COXPD2 (610498), caused by mutation in the MRPS16 gene (609204) on 10q22; COXPD3 (610505), caused by mutation in the TSFM gene (604723) on 12q14; COXPD4 (610678), caused by mutation in the TUFM gene (602389) on 16p11; COXPD5 (611719), caused by mutation in the MRPS22 gene (605810) on 3q23; COXPD6 (300816), caused by mutation in the AIFM1 gene (300169) on Xq26; COXPD7 (613559), caused by mutation in the MTRFR gene (613541) on 12q24; COXPD8 (614096), caused by mutation in the AARS2 gene (612035) on 6p21; COXPD9 (614582), caused by mutation in the MRPL3 gene (607118) on 3q22; COXPD10 (614702), caused by mutation in the MTO1 gene (614667) on 6q13; COXPD11 (614922), caused by mutation in the RMND1 gene (614917) on 6q25; COXPD12 (614924), caused by mutation in the EARS2 gene (612799) on 16p13; COXPD13 (614932), caused by mutation in the PNPT1 gene (610316) on 2p16; COXPD14 (614946), caused by mutation in the FARS2 gene (611592) on 6p25; COXPD15 (614947), caused by mutation in the MTFMT gene (611766) on 15q; COXPD16 (615395), caused by mutation in the MRPL44 gene (611849) on 2q36; COXPD17 (615440), caused by mutation in the ELAC2 gene (605367) on 17p11; COXPD18 (615578), caused by mutation in the SFXN4 gene (615564) on 10q26; COXPD19 (615595), caused by mutation in the LYRM4 gene (613311) on 6p25; COXPD20 (615917), caused by mutation in the VARS2 gene (612802) on 6p21; COXPD21 (615918), caused by mutation in the TARS2 gene (612805) on 1q21; COXPD22 (616045), caused by mutation in the ATP5A1 gene (164360) on 18q12; COXPD23 (616198), caused by mutation in the GTPBP3 (608536) gene on 19p13; COXPD24 (616239), caused by mutation in the NARS2 gene (612803) on 11q14; COXPD25 (616430), caused by mutation in the MARS2 gene (609728) on 2q33; COXPD26 (616539), caused by mutation in the TRMT5 gene (611023) on 14q23; COXPD27 (616672), caused by mutation in the CARS2 gene (612800) on 13q34; COXPD28 (616794), caused by mutation in the SLC25A26 gene (611037) on 3p14; COXPD29 (616811), caused by mutation in the TXN2 gene (609063) on 22q12; COXPD30 (616974), caused by mutation in the TRMT10C gene (615423) on 3q12; and COXPD31 (617228), caused by mutation in the MIPEP gene (602241) on 13q12; COXPD32 (617664), caused by mutation in the MRPS34 gene (611994) on 16q13; COXPD33 (617713), caused by mutation in the C1QBP gene (601269) on 17p13; and COXPD34 (617872), caused by mutation in the MRPS7 gene (611974) on 17q25; COXPD35 (617873), caused by mutation in the TRIT1 gene (617840) on 1p34; COXPD36 (617950), caused by mutation in the MRPS2 gene (611971) on 9q34; COXPD37 (618329), caused by mutation in the MICOS13 gene (616658) on 19p13; COXPD38 (618378), caused by mutation in the MRPS14 gene (611978) on 1q23; COXPD39 (618397), caused by mutation in the GFM2 gene (606544) on 5q13; COXPD40 (618835), caused by mutation in the QRSL1 gene (617209) on 6q21; COXPD41 (618838), caused by mutation in the GATB gene (603645) on 4q31; COXPD42 (618839), caused by mutation in the GATC gene (617210) on 12q24; COXPD43 (618851), caused by mutation in the TIMM22 gene (607251) on 17p13; COXPD44 (618855), caused by mutation in the FASTKD2 gene (612322) on 2q33; COXPD45 (618951), caused by mutation in the MRPL12 gene (602375) on 17q25; COXPD46 (618952), caused by mutation in the MRPS23 gene (611985) on 17q22; COXPD47 (618958), caused by mutation in the MRPS28 gene (611990) on 8q21; COXPD48 (619012), caused by mutation in the NSUN3 gene (617491) on 3q11; COXPD49 (619024), caused by mutation in the MIEF2 gene (615498) on 17p11; COXPD50 (619025), caused by mutation in the MRPS25 gene (611987) on 3p25; COXPD51 (619057), caused by mutation in the PTCD3 gene (614918) on 2p11; COXPD52 (619386), caused by mutation in the NFS1 gene (603485) on 20q11; COXPD53 (619423), caused by mutation in the C2ORF69 gene (619219) on 2q33; and COXPD54 (619737), caused by mutation in the PRORP gene (609947) on 14q13.; COXPD55 (619743), caused by mutation in the POLRMT gene (601778) on 19p13; COXPD56 (620139), caused by mutation in the TAMM41 gene (614948) on 3p25; and COXPD57 (620167), caused by mutation in the CRLS1 gene (608188) on 20p12.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1-alpha deficiency
MedGen UID:
326486
Concept ID:
C1839413
Disease or Syndrome
Genetic defects in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex are one of the most common causes of primary lactic acidosis in children. Most cases are caused by mutation in the E1-alpha subunit gene on the X chromosome. X-linked PDH deficiency is one of the few X-linked diseases in which a high proportion of heterozygous females manifest severe symptoms. The clinical spectrum of PDH deficiency is broad, ranging from fatal lactic acidosis in the newborn to chronic neurologic dysfunction with structural abnormalities in the central nervous system without systemic acidosis (Robinson et al., 1987; Brown et al., 1994). Genetic Heterogeneity of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency PDH deficiency can also be caused by mutation in other subunits of the PDH complex, including a form (PDHXD; 245349) caused by mutation in the component X gene (PDHX; 608769) on chromosome 11p13; a form (PDHBD; 614111) caused by mutation in the PDHB gene (179060) on chromosome 3p14; a form (PDHDD; 245348) caused by mutation in the DLAT gene (608770) on chromosome 11q23; a form (PDHPD; 608782) caused by mutation in the PDP1 gene (605993) on chromosome 8q22; and a form (PDHLD; 614462) caused by mutation in the LIAS gene (607031) on chromosome 4p14.
Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2C
MedGen UID:
327089
Concept ID:
C1840391
Disease or Syndrome
Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) is characterized by hyperkalemia despite normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and frequently by hypertension. Other associated findings in both children and adults include hyperchloremia, metabolic acidosis, and suppressed plasma renin levels. Aldosterone levels are variable, but are relatively low given the degree of hyperkalemia (elevated serum potassium is a potent stimulus for aldosterone secretion). Hypercalciuria is well described.
Cobalamin C disease
MedGen UID:
341256
Concept ID:
C1848561
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of intracellular cobalamin metabolism have a variable phenotype and age of onset that are influenced by the severity and location within the pathway of the defect. The prototype and best understood phenotype is cblC; it is also the most common of these disorders. The age of initial presentation of cblC spans a wide range: In utero with fetal presentation of nonimmune hydrops, cardiomyopathy, and intrauterine growth restriction. Newborns, who can have microcephaly, poor feeding, and encephalopathy. Infants, who can have poor feeding and slow growth, neurologic abnormality, and, rarely, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Toddlers, who can have poor growth, progressive microcephaly, cytopenias (including megaloblastic anemia), global developmental delay, encephalopathy, and neurologic signs such as hypotonia and seizures. Adolescents and adults, who can have neuropsychiatric symptoms, progressive cognitive decline, thromboembolic complications, and/or subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.
Navajo neurohepatopathy
MedGen UID:
338045
Concept ID:
C1850406
Disease or Syndrome
MPV17-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance defect presents in the vast majority of affected individuals as an early-onset encephalohepatopathic (hepatocerebral) disease that is typically associated with mtDNA depletion, particularly in the liver. A later-onset neuromyopathic disease characterized by myopathy and neuropathy, and associated with multiple mtDNA deletions in muscle, has also rarely been described. MPV17-related mtDNA maintenance defect, encephalohepatopathic form is characterized by: Hepatic manifestations (liver dysfunction that typically progresses to liver failure, cholestasis, hepatomegaly, and steatosis); Neurologic involvement (developmental delay, hypotonia, microcephaly, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy); Gastrointestinal manifestations (gastrointestinal dysmotility, feeding difficulties, and failure to thrive); and Metabolic derangements (lactic acidosis and hypoglycemia). Less frequent manifestations include renal tubulopathy, nephrocalcinosis, and hypoparathyroidism. Progressive liver disease often leads to death in infancy or early childhood. Hepatocellular carcinoma has been reported.
Methylmalonic acidemia due to methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase deficiency
MedGen UID:
344419
Concept ID:
C1855100
Disease or Syndrome
For this GeneReview, the term "isolated methylmalonic acidemia" refers to a group of inborn errors of metabolism associated with elevated methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentration in the blood and urine that result from the failure to isomerize (convert) methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) into succinyl-CoA during propionyl-CoA metabolism in the mitochondrial matrix, without hyperhomocysteinemia or homocystinuria, hypomethioninemia, or variations in other metabolites, such as malonic acid. Isolated MMA is caused by complete or partial deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (mut0 enzymatic subtype or mut– enzymatic subtype, respectively), a defect in the transport or synthesis of its cofactor, 5-deoxy-adenosyl-cobalamin (cblA, cblB, or cblD-MMA), or deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. Prior to the advent of newborn screening, common phenotypes included: Infantile/non-B12-responsive form (mut0 enzymatic subtype, cblB), the most common phenotype, associated with infantile-onset lethargy, tachypnea, hypothermia, vomiting, and dehydration on initiation of protein-containing feeds. Without appropriate treatment, the infantile/non-B12-responsive phenotype could rapidly progress to coma due to hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Partially deficient or B12-responsive phenotypes (mut– enzymatic subtype, cblA, cblB [rare], cblD-MMA), in which symptoms occur in the first few months or years of life and are characterized by feeding problems, failure to thrive, hypotonia, and developmental delay marked by episodes of metabolic decompensation. Methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase deficiency, in which findings range from complete absence of symptoms to severe metabolic acidosis. Affected individuals can also develop ataxia, dysarthria, hypotonia, mild spastic paraparesis, and seizures. In those individuals diagnosed by newborn screening and treated from an early age, there appears to be decreased early mortality, less severe symptoms at diagnosis, favorable short-term neurodevelopmental outcome, and lower incidence of movement disorders and irreversible cerebral damage. However, secondary complications may still occur and can include intellectual disability, tubulointerstitial nephritis with progressive impairment of renal function, "metabolic stroke" (bilateral lacunar infarction of the basal ganglia during acute metabolic decompensation), pancreatitis, growth failure, functional immune impairment, bone marrow failure, optic nerve atrophy, arrhythmias and/or cardiomyopathy (dilated or hypertrophic), liver steatosis/fibrosis/cancer, and renal cancer.
Methylmalonic aciduria, cblB type
MedGen UID:
344420
Concept ID:
C1855102
Disease or Syndrome
For this GeneReview, the term "isolated methylmalonic acidemia" refers to a group of inborn errors of metabolism associated with elevated methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentration in the blood and urine that result from the failure to isomerize (convert) methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) into succinyl-CoA during propionyl-CoA metabolism in the mitochondrial matrix, without hyperhomocysteinemia or homocystinuria, hypomethioninemia, or variations in other metabolites, such as malonic acid. Isolated MMA is caused by complete or partial deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (mut0 enzymatic subtype or mut– enzymatic subtype, respectively), a defect in the transport or synthesis of its cofactor, 5-deoxy-adenosyl-cobalamin (cblA, cblB, or cblD-MMA), or deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. Prior to the advent of newborn screening, common phenotypes included: Infantile/non-B12-responsive form (mut0 enzymatic subtype, cblB), the most common phenotype, associated with infantile-onset lethargy, tachypnea, hypothermia, vomiting, and dehydration on initiation of protein-containing feeds. Without appropriate treatment, the infantile/non-B12-responsive phenotype could rapidly progress to coma due to hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Partially deficient or B12-responsive phenotypes (mut– enzymatic subtype, cblA, cblB [rare], cblD-MMA), in which symptoms occur in the first few months or years of life and are characterized by feeding problems, failure to thrive, hypotonia, and developmental delay marked by episodes of metabolic decompensation. Methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase deficiency, in which findings range from complete absence of symptoms to severe metabolic acidosis. Affected individuals can also develop ataxia, dysarthria, hypotonia, mild spastic paraparesis, and seizures. In those individuals diagnosed by newborn screening and treated from an early age, there appears to be decreased early mortality, less severe symptoms at diagnosis, favorable short-term neurodevelopmental outcome, and lower incidence of movement disorders and irreversible cerebral damage. However, secondary complications may still occur and can include intellectual disability, tubulointerstitial nephritis with progressive impairment of renal function, "metabolic stroke" (bilateral lacunar infarction of the basal ganglia during acute metabolic decompensation), pancreatitis, growth failure, functional immune impairment, bone marrow failure, optic nerve atrophy, arrhythmias and/or cardiomyopathy (dilated or hypertrophic), liver steatosis/fibrosis/cancer, and renal cancer.
Methylmalonic aciduria, cblA type
MedGen UID:
344422
Concept ID:
C1855109
Disease or Syndrome
For this GeneReview, the term "isolated methylmalonic acidemia" refers to a group of inborn errors of metabolism associated with elevated methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentration in the blood and urine that result from the failure to isomerize (convert) methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) into succinyl-CoA during propionyl-CoA metabolism in the mitochondrial matrix, without hyperhomocysteinemia or homocystinuria, hypomethioninemia, or variations in other metabolites, such as malonic acid. Isolated MMA is caused by complete or partial deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (mut0 enzymatic subtype or mut– enzymatic subtype, respectively), a defect in the transport or synthesis of its cofactor, 5-deoxy-adenosyl-cobalamin (cblA, cblB, or cblD-MMA), or deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. Prior to the advent of newborn screening, common phenotypes included: Infantile/non-B12-responsive form (mut0 enzymatic subtype, cblB), the most common phenotype, associated with infantile-onset lethargy, tachypnea, hypothermia, vomiting, and dehydration on initiation of protein-containing feeds. Without appropriate treatment, the infantile/non-B12-responsive phenotype could rapidly progress to coma due to hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Partially deficient or B12-responsive phenotypes (mut– enzymatic subtype, cblA, cblB [rare], cblD-MMA), in which symptoms occur in the first few months or years of life and are characterized by feeding problems, failure to thrive, hypotonia, and developmental delay marked by episodes of metabolic decompensation. Methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase deficiency, in which findings range from complete absence of symptoms to severe metabolic acidosis. Affected individuals can also develop ataxia, dysarthria, hypotonia, mild spastic paraparesis, and seizures. In those individuals diagnosed by newborn screening and treated from an early age, there appears to be decreased early mortality, less severe symptoms at diagnosis, favorable short-term neurodevelopmental outcome, and lower incidence of movement disorders and irreversible cerebral damage. However, secondary complications may still occur and can include intellectual disability, tubulointerstitial nephritis with progressive impairment of renal function, "metabolic stroke" (bilateral lacunar infarction of the basal ganglia during acute metabolic decompensation), pancreatitis, growth failure, functional immune impairment, bone marrow failure, optic nerve atrophy, arrhythmias and/or cardiomyopathy (dilated or hypertrophic), liver steatosis/fibrosis/cancer, and renal cancer.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E3-binding protein deficiency
MedGen UID:
343383
Concept ID:
C1855553
Disease or Syndrome
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of neurological problems. Signs and symptoms of this condition usually first appear shortly after birth, and they can vary widely among affected individuals. The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, vomiting, severe breathing problems, and an abnormal heartbeat. People with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency usually have neurological problems as well. Most have delayed development of mental abilities and motor skills such as sitting and walking. Other neurological problems can include intellectual disability, seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), poor coordination, and difficulty walking. Some affected individuals have abnormal brain structures, such as underdevelopment of the tissue connecting the left and right halves of the brain (corpus callosum), wasting away (atrophy) of the exterior part of the brain known as the cerebral cortex, or patches of damaged tissue (lesions) on some parts of the brain. Because of the severe health effects, many individuals with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency do not survive past childhood, although some may live into adolescence or adulthood.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 4
MedGen UID:
387884
Concept ID:
C1857682
Disease or Syndrome
A rare mitochondrial disorder due to a defect in mitochondrial protein synthesis with characteristics of neonatal onset of severe metabolic acidosis and respiratory distress, persistent lactic acidosis with episodes of metabolic crises, developmental regression, microcephaly, abnormal gaze fixation and pursuit, axial hypotonia with limb spasticity and reduced spontaneous movements. Neuroimaging studies reveal polymicrogyria, white matter abnormalities and multiple cystic brain lesions, including basal ganglia, and cerebral atrophy. Decreased activity of complex I and IV have been determined in muscle biopsy.
3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase 2 deficiency
MedGen UID:
347898
Concept ID:
C1859499
Disease or Syndrome
Infants with 3-MCC deficiency appear normal at birth but usually develop signs and symptoms in infancy or early childhood. The characteristic features of this condition, which can range from mild to life-threatening, include feeding difficulties, recurrent episodes of vomiting and diarrhea, excessive tiredness (lethargy), and weak muscle tone (hypotonia). If untreated, this disorder can lead to delayed development, seizures, and coma. Many of these complications can be prevented with early detection and lifelong management with a low-protein diet and appropriate supplements. Some people with gene mutations that cause 3-MCC deficiency never experience any signs or symptoms of the condition.\n\nThe characteristic features of 3-MCC deficiency are similar to those of Reye syndrome, a severe disorder that develops in children while they appear to be recovering from viral infections such as chicken pox or flu. Most cases of Reye syndrome are associated with the use of aspirin during these viral infections.\n\n3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (also known as 3-MCC deficiency) is an inherited disorder in which the body is unable to process certain proteins properly. People with this disorder have a shortage of an enzyme that helps break down proteins containing a particular building block (amino acid) called leucine.
Arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis 1
MedGen UID:
347219
Concept ID:
C1859722
Disease or Syndrome
Any arthrogryposis-renal dysfunction-cholestasis syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the VPS33B gene.
Pyridoxal phosphate-responsive seizures
MedGen UID:
350498
Concept ID:
C1864723
Disease or Syndrome
Untreated pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency, characterized by a range of seizure types, is "classic" (i.e., seizure onset in the neonatal period) in about 90% of affected individuals and "late onset" (seizure onset after the neonatal period) in about 10%. In classic PNPO deficiency, seizures (including status epilepticus) often begin on the first day of life and typically before age two weeks. In both classic and late-onset untreated PNPO deficiency, seizure semiology varies from myoclonic to clonic or tonic seizures, and seizures are typically resistant to common anti-seizure medications. Independent of age of onset, seizures respond to life-long treatment with a B6 vitamer: pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) in about 60% of affected individuals and pyridoxine (PN) in about 40%. About 60% of individuals with PNPO deficiency have developmental impairment, affecting speech, cognition, and behavior; some individuals have neurologic impairment such as muscular hypotonia or dystonia. Severe neurodevelopmental impairment is more likely to occur in individuals with PNPO deficiency who experienced diagnostic delay and prolonged periods of uncontrolled seizures.
Medium chain 3-ketoacyl-Coa thiolase deficiency
MedGen UID:
356367
Concept ID:
C1865781
Disease or Syndrome
Renal tubular acidosis, distal, with nephrocalcinosis, short stature, intellectual disability, and distinctive facies
MedGen UID:
370587
Concept ID:
C1969055
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive proximal renal tubular acidosis
MedGen UID:
370883
Concept ID:
C1970309
Disease or Syndrome
A rare autosomal recessive form of proximal renal tubular acidosis characterized by an isolated defect in the proximal tubule leading to the decreased reabsorption of bicarbonate and consequentially to urinary bicarbonate wastage. Presentation is typically with hyperchloremic acidosis, usually occurring in childhood. Extrarenal manifestations include ocular abnormalities (band keratopathy, glaucoma, and cataracts), intellectual disability and severe growth retardation. Other features like dental enamel defects, basal ganglia calcification and pancreatitis are sometimes present.
Hypotonia with lactic acidemia and hyperammonemia
MedGen UID:
435972
Concept ID:
C2673642
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome is characterized by severe hypotonia, lactic acidemia and congenital hyperammonemia. It has been described in three newborns born to consanguineous parents. Ultrasound examination during the 36th week of pregnancy revealed generalized edema. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and tubulopathy developed within the first week of life and the infants died within the first month. The activities of enzymes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain were reduced in the muscles of the patients. Mutations were identified in the MRPS22 gene on chromosome 3q23, encoding a mitochondrial ribosomal protein
Oxoglutaricaciduria
MedGen UID:
414553
Concept ID:
C2752074
Disease or Syndrome
Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase deficiency (OGDHD) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with features of infantile- and pediatric-onset basal ganglia-associated movement disorders, hypotonia, developmental delays, ataxia, and seizures (summary by Yap et al., 2021).
Hawkinsinuria
MedGen UID:
419319
Concept ID:
C2931042
Disease or Syndrome
Hawkinsinuria (HWKS) is an autosomal dominant inborn error of metabolism. Metabolic acidosis and tyrosinemia are transient, and symptoms improve within the first year of life. Patients continue to excrete the hawkinsin metabolite in their urine throughout life (Danks et al., 1975; Tomoeda et al., 2000).
Nephropathic cystinosis
MedGen UID:
419735
Concept ID:
C2931187
Disease or Syndrome
Cystinosis comprises three allelic phenotypes: Nephropathic cystinosis in untreated children is characterized by renal Fanconi syndrome, poor growth, hypophosphatemic/calcipenic rickets, impaired glomerular function resulting in complete glomerular failure, and accumulation of cystine in almost all cells, leading to cellular dysfunction with tissue and organ impairment. The typical untreated child has short stature, rickets, and photophobia. Failure to thrive is generally noticed after approximately age six months; signs of renal tubular Fanconi syndrome (polyuria, polydipsia, dehydration, and acidosis) appear as early as age six months; corneal crystals can be present before age one year and are always present after age 16 months. Prior to the use of renal transplantation and cystine-depleting therapy, the life span in nephropathic cystinosis was no longer than ten years. With these interventions, affected individuals can survive at least into the mid-forties or fifties with satisfactory quality of life. Intermediate cystinosis is characterized by all the typical manifestations of nephropathic cystinosis, but onset is at a later age. Renal glomerular failure occurs in all untreated affected individuals, usually between ages 15 and 25 years. The non-nephropathic (ocular) form of cystinosis is characterized clinically only by photophobia resulting from corneal cystine crystal accumulation.
Arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis 2
MedGen UID:
462022
Concept ID:
C3150672
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis-2 (ARCS2) is a multisystem disorder associated with abnormalities in polarized liver and kidney cells (Qiu et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ARCS, see ARCS1 (208085).
HSD10 mitochondrial disease
MedGen UID:
781653
Concept ID:
C3266731
Disease or Syndrome
HSD10 mitochondrial disease (HSD10MD) most commonly presents as an X-linked neurodegenerative disorder with highly variable severity and age at onset ranging from the neonatal period to early childhood. The features are usually multisystemic, consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. Some affected males have a severe infantile form associated with cardiomyopathy that may result in death in early childhood, whereas other rare patients may have juvenile onset or even atypical presentations with normal neurologic development. More severely affected males show developmental regression in infancy or early childhood, often associated with early-onset intractable seizures, progressive choreoathetosis and spastic tetraplegia, optic atrophy or retinal degeneration resulting in visual loss, and mental retardation. Heterozygous females may show non-progressive developmental delay and intellectual disability, but may also be clinically normal. Although the diagnosis can be aided by the observation of increased urinary levels of metabolites of isoleucine breakdown (2-methyl-3 hydroxybutyrate and tiglylglycine), there is not a correlation between these laboratory features and the phenotype. In addition, patients do not develop severe metabolic crises in the neonatal period as observed in other organic acidurias, but may show persistent lactic acidosis, most likely reflecting mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Rauschenberger et al., 2010; Zschocke, 2012). In a review of this disorder, Zschocke (2012) noted that although it was originally thought to be an inborn error of branched-chain fatty acid and isoleucine metabolism resulting from decreased HSD17B10 dehydrogenase activity (HSD17B10 'deficiency'), subsequent studies have shown that the HSD17B10 gene product has additional functions and also acts as a component of the mitochondrial RNase P holoenzyme, which is involved in mitochondrial tRNA processing and maturation and ultimately mitochondrial protein synthesis. The multisystemic features of HSD10MD most likely result from the adverse effect of HSD17B10 mutations on mitochondrial function, rather than from the effects on the dehydrogenase activity (see PATHOGENESIS).
Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
MedGen UID:
481470
Concept ID:
C3279840
Disease or Syndrome
Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients may be asymptomatic, whereas others show global developmental delay, nonspecific dysmorphic features, and delayed myelination on brain imaging. Laboratory studies typically show increased urinary 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid, although additional metabolic abnormalities may also be observed (summary by Marcadier et al., 2013).
Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2E
MedGen UID:
483336
Concept ID:
C3469606
Disease or Syndrome
Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) is characterized by hyperkalemia despite normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and frequently by hypertension. Other associated findings in both children and adults include hyperchloremia, metabolic acidosis, and suppressed plasma renin levels. Aldosterone levels are variable, but are relatively low given the degree of hyperkalemia (elevated serum potassium is a potent stimulus for aldosterone secretion). Hypercalciuria is well described.
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 1
MedGen UID:
762097
Concept ID:
C3541471
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive mitochondrial complex III deficiency is a severe multisystem disorder with onset at birth of lactic acidosis, hypotonia, hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, encephalopathy, and delayed psychomotor development. Visceral involvement, including hepatopathy and renal tubulopathy, may also occur. Many patients die in early childhood, but some may show longer survival (de Lonlay et al., 2001; De Meirleir et al., 2003). Genetic Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial Complex III Deficiency Mitochondrial complex III deficiency can be caused by mutation in several different nuclear-encoded genes. See MC3DN2 (615157), caused by mutation in the TTC19 gene (613814) on chromosome 17p12; MC3DN3 (615158), caused by mutation in the UQCRB gene (191330) on chromosome 8q; MC3DN4 (615159), caused by mutation in the UQCRQ gene (612080) on chromosome 5q31; MC3DN5 (615160), caused by mutation in the UQCRC2 gene (191329) on chromosome 16p12; MC3DN6 (615453), caused by mutation in the CYC1 gene (123980) on chromosome 8q24; MC3DN7 (615824), caused by mutation in the UQCC2 gene (614461) on chromosome 6p21; MC3DN8 (615838), caused by mutation in the LYRM7 gene (615831) on chromosome 5q23; MC3DN9 (616111), caused by mutation in the UQCC3 gene (616097) on chromosome 11q12; and MC3DN10 (618775), caused by mutation in the UQCRFS1 gene (191327) on chromosome 19q12. See also MTYCB (516020) for a discussion of a milder phenotype associated with isolated mitochondrial complex III deficiency and mutations in a mitochondrial-encoded gene.
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 3
MedGen UID:
767520
Concept ID:
C3554606
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency is a genetic condition that can affect several parts of the body, including the brain, kidneys, liver, heart, and the muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). Signs and symptoms of mitochondrial complex III deficiency usually begin in infancy but can appear later.\n\nThe severity of mitochondrial complex III deficiency varies widely among affected individuals. People who are mildly affected tend to have muscle weakness (myopathy) and extreme tiredness (fatigue), particularly during exercise (exercise intolerance). More severely affected individuals have problems with multiple body systems, such as liver disease that can lead to liver failure, kidney abnormalities (tubulopathy), and brain dysfunction (encephalopathy). Encephalopathy can cause delayed development of mental and motor skills (psychomotor delay), movement problems, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and difficulty with communication. Some affected individuals have a form of heart disease called cardiomyopathy, which can lead to heart failure. Most people with mitochondrial complex III deficiency have a buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body (lactic acidosis). Some affected individuals also have buildup of molecules called ketones (ketoacidosis) or high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia). Abnormally high levels of these chemicals in the body can be life-threatening.\n\nMitochondrial complex III deficiency can be fatal in childhood, although individuals with mild signs and symptoms can survive into adolescence or adulthood.
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 5
MedGen UID:
767522
Concept ID:
C3554608
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency is a genetic condition that can affect several parts of the body, including the brain, kidneys, liver, heart, and the muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). Signs and symptoms of mitochondrial complex III deficiency usually begin in infancy but can appear later.\n\nThe severity of mitochondrial complex III deficiency varies widely among affected individuals. People who are mildly affected tend to have muscle weakness (myopathy) and extreme tiredness (fatigue), particularly during exercise (exercise intolerance). More severely affected individuals have problems with multiple body systems, such as liver disease that can lead to liver failure, kidney abnormalities (tubulopathy), and brain dysfunction (encephalopathy). Encephalopathy can cause delayed development of mental and motor skills (psychomotor delay), movement problems, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and difficulty with communication. Some affected individuals have a form of heart disease called cardiomyopathy, which can lead to heart failure. Most people with mitochondrial complex III deficiency have a buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body (lactic acidosis). Some affected individuals also have buildup of molecules called ketones (ketoacidosis) or high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia). Abnormally high levels of these chemicals in the body can be life-threatening.\n\nMitochondrial complex III deficiency can be fatal in childhood, although individuals with mild signs and symptoms can survive into adolescence or adulthood.
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
815495
Concept ID:
C3809165
Disease or Syndrome
MMDS3 is an autosomal recessive severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of previously acquired developmental milestones in the first months or years of life. Some affected patients have normal development in early infancy before the onset of symptoms, whereas others show delays from birth. Features included loss of motor function, spasticity, pyramidal signs, loss of speech, and cognitive impairment. The disease course is highly variable: some patients die of respiratory failure early in childhood, whereas some survive but may be bedridden with a feeding tube. Less commonly, some patients may survive and have a stable course with motor deficits and mild or even absent cognitive impairment, although there may be fluctuating symptoms, often in response to infection. Other variable features include visual problems and seizures. Brain imaging shows diffuse leukodystrophy in the subcortical region, brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Laboratory studies tend to show increased lactate and CSF glycine, and decreased activity of mitochondrial complexes I and II, although these findings are also variable. There may be additional biochemical evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Liu et al., 2018). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome, see MMDS1 (605711).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 19
MedGen UID:
816385
Concept ID:
C3810055
Disease or Syndrome
Any combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the LYRM4 gene.
Fanconi renotubular syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
816430
Concept ID:
C3810100
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi renotubular syndrome-3 (FRTS3) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by rickets, impaired growth, glucosuria, generalized aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, metabolic acidosis, and low molecular weight proteinuria (summary by Klootwijk et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Fanconi renotubular syndrome, see FRTS1 (134600).
Hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency
MedGen UID:
816734
Concept ID:
C3810404
Disease or Syndrome
Most children with carbonic anhydrase VA (CA-VA) deficiency reported to date have presented between day 2 of life and early childhood (up to age 20 months) with hyperammonemic encephalopathy (i.e., lethargy, feeding intolerance, weight loss, tachypnea, seizures, and coma). Given that fewer than 20 affected individuals have been reported to date, the ranges of initial presentations and long-term prognoses are not completely understood. As of 2021 the oldest known affected individual is an adolescent. Almost all affected individuals reported to date have shown normal psychomotor development and no further episodes of metabolic crisis; however, a few have shown mild learning difficulties or delayed motor skills.
Familial hyperaldosteronism type III
MedGen UID:
824604
Concept ID:
C3838758
Disease or Syndrome
This form of hyperaldosteronism is characterized by hypertension secondary to massive adrenal mineralocorticoid production. Like patients with glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism (GRA, or FH I; 103900), patients with FH III present with childhood hypertension, elevated aldosteronism levels, and high levels of the hybrid steroids 18-oxocortisol and 18-hydroxycortisol. However, hypertension and aldosteronism in FH III are not reversed by administration of exogenous glucocorticoids and patients require adrenalectomy to control hypertension (Geller et al., 2008). Reviews Mulatero et al. (2013) reviewed the role of KCNJ5 in adrenal pathophysiology and provided an overview of the clinical and biochemical phenotypes resulting from KCNJ5 mutations in patients with sporadic and familial primary aldosteronism. The authors stated that the prevalence of FH III appeared to be 7% of patients with familial aldosteronism and 0.3% of all cases of primary hyperaldosteronism. In addition, they noted that the total prevalence of reported KCNJ5 mutations in aldosterone-producing adrenal adenomas (APAs) was 40%.
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 7
MedGen UID:
862845
Concept ID:
C4014408
Disease or Syndrome
Any mitochondrial complex III deficiency in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the UQCC2 gene.
Polyglucosan body myopathy type 1
MedGen UID:
863042
Concept ID:
C4014605
Disease or Syndrome
Polyglucosan body myopathy-1 (PGBM1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset in childhood of progressive proximal muscle weakness, resulting in difficulties in ambulation. Most patients also develop progressive dilated cardiomyopathy, which may necessitate cardiac transplant in severe cases. A small subset of patients present with severe immunodeficiency and a hyperinflammatory state in very early childhood (summary by Boisson et al., 2012 and Nilsson et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Polyglucosan Body Myopathy See also PGBM2 (616199), caused by mutation in the GYG1 gene (603942) on chromosome 3q24.
Fanconi renotubular syndrome 4 with maturity-onset diabetes of the young
MedGen UID:
863399
Concept ID:
C4014962
Disease or Syndrome
Any Fanconi syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the HNF4A gene.
Cardioencephalomyopathy, fatal infantile, due to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency 4
MedGen UID:
905398
Concept ID:
C4225304
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 13 (MC4DN13) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy soon after birth. Affected individuals have hypotonia, weakness, and failure to thrive, resulting in death in infancy. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Baertling et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Epilepsy, early-onset, vitamin B6-dependent
MedGen UID:
934599
Concept ID:
C4310632
Disease or Syndrome
Early-onset vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the neonatal period or first months of life. The seizures show favorable response to treatment with activated vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 5-prime-phosphate; PLP) and/or pyridoxine. However, most patients show delayed psychomotor development (summary by Darin et al., 2016).
Sudden cardiac failure, infantile
MedGen UID:
934631
Concept ID:
C4310664
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 8
MedGen UID:
1377817
Concept ID:
C4518839
Disease or Syndrome
COXPD8 is an autosomal recessive disorder due to dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The main clinical manifestation is a lethal infantile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but there may also be subtle skeletal muscle and brain involvement. Biochemical studies show combined respiratory chain complex deficiencies in complexes I, III, and IV in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, and brain. The liver is not affected (summary by Gotz et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 33
MedGen UID:
1623699
Concept ID:
C4540209
Disease or Syndrome
COXPD33 is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder resulting from a defect in mitochondrial energy metabolism. The phenotype is highly variable, ranging from death in infancy to adult-onset progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) and myopathy. A common finding is cardiomyopathy and increased serum lactate (summary by Feichtinger et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 9
MedGen UID:
1634481
Concept ID:
C4706315
Disease or Syndrome
A rare mitochondrial disease due to a defect in mitochondrial protein synthesis characterized by initially normal growth and development followed by the infantile-onset of failure to thrive, psychomotor delay, poor feeding, dyspnea, severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hepatomegaly. Laboratory studies report increased plasma lactate and alanine, abnormal liver enzymes and decreased activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, III, IV, and V. Caused by compound heterozygous mutation in the MRPL3 gene on chromosome 3q22.
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 30
MedGen UID:
1648313
Concept ID:
C4746985
Disease or Syndrome
Diarrhea 10, protein-losing enteropathy type
MedGen UID:
1648311
Concept ID:
C4748579
Disease or Syndrome
Diarrhea-10 (DIAR10) is a protein-losing enteropathy characterized by intractable secretory diarrhea and massive protein loss due to leaky fenestrated capillaries. Features include early-onset anasarca, severe hypoalbuminemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, as well as electrolyte abnormalities. Some patients exhibit facial dysmorphism and cardiac and renal anomalies. Intrafamilial variability has been observed, and the disease can be severe, with death occurring in infancy in some patients (Broekaert et al., 2018; Kurolap et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of diarrhea, see DIAR1 (214700).
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 3
MedGen UID:
1648346
Concept ID:
C4748752
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 4
MedGen UID:
1648324
Concept ID:
C4748753
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 11
MedGen UID:
1648356
Concept ID:
C4748769
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 13
MedGen UID:
1648370
Concept ID:
C4748770
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 15
MedGen UID:
1648320
Concept ID:
C4748778
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 26
MedGen UID:
1648283
Concept ID:
C4748809
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 32
MedGen UID:
1648336
Concept ID:
C4748839
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 33
MedGen UID:
1648420
Concept ID:
C4748840
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with lactic acidosis due to MTO1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
1664257
Concept ID:
C4749921
Disease or Syndrome
COXPD10 is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting in variable defects of mitochondrial oxidative respiration. Affected individuals present in infancy with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and lactic acidosis. The severity is variable, but can be fatal in the most severe cases (summary by Ghezzi et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 16 (hepatic type)
MedGen UID:
1684495
Concept ID:
C5193142
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 34
MedGen UID:
1720533
Concept ID:
C5394053
Disease or Syndrome
Renal tubular acidosis, distal, 3, with or without sensorineural hearing loss
MedGen UID:
1732975
Concept ID:
C5399980
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with hereditary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) typically present in infancy with failure to thrive, although later presentations can occur, especially in individuals with autosomal dominant SLC4A1-dRTA. Initial clinical manifestations can also include emesis, polyuria, polydipsia, constipation, diarrhea, decreased appetite, and episodes of dehydration. Electrolyte manifestations include hyperchloremic non-anion gap metabolic acidosis and hypokalemia. Renal complications of dRTA include nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, medullary cysts, and impaired renal function. Additional manifestations include bone demineralization (rickets, osteomalacia), growth deficiency, sensorineural hearing loss (in ATP6V0A4-, ATP6V1B1-, and FOXI1-dRTA), and hereditary hemolytic anemia (in some individuals with SLC4A1-dRTA).
Renal tubular acidosis, distal, 4, with hemolytic anemia
MedGen UID:
1771439
Concept ID:
C5436235
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with hereditary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) typically present in infancy with failure to thrive, although later presentations can occur, especially in individuals with autosomal dominant SLC4A1-dRTA. Initial clinical manifestations can also include emesis, polyuria, polydipsia, constipation, diarrhea, decreased appetite, and episodes of dehydration. Electrolyte manifestations include hyperchloremic non-anion gap metabolic acidosis and hypokalemia. Renal complications of dRTA include nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, medullary cysts, and impaired renal function. Additional manifestations include bone demineralization (rickets, osteomalacia), growth deficiency, sensorineural hearing loss (in ATP6V0A4-, ATP6V1B1-, and FOXI1-dRTA), and hereditary hemolytic anemia (in some individuals with SLC4A1-dRTA).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 47
MedGen UID:
1775535
Concept ID:
C5436476
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 35
MedGen UID:
1745427
Concept ID:
C5436576
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 3
MedGen UID:
1764816
Concept ID:
C5436682
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 3 (MC4DN3) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients present with encephalomyopathic features in early infancy, whereas others may present later in infancy or the first years of life after normal early development. Affected individuals show hypotonia, failure to thrive, and developmental delay or regression with poor eye contact and loss of motor skills with ataxia. Additional features observed in some patients include proximal renal tubulopathy, macrocytic anemia, sensorineural hearing loss, nystagmus, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, consistent with systemic involvement. Brain imaging in most patients shows lesions consistent with Leigh syndrome (see 256000). Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV. Most patients die in infancy (summary by Valnot et al., 2000 and Antonicka et al., 2003). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 4
MedGen UID:
1748100
Concept ID:
C5436683
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 4 (MC4DN4) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of symptoms in infancy. Affected individuals show hypotonia, failure to thrive, and neurologic distress. Additional features include hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis, increased serum lactate, and metabolic acidosis. Some patients may develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Patient tissues show decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV. Death usually occurs in infancy (summary by Valnot et al., 2000 and Stiburek et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 7
MedGen UID:
1754683
Concept ID:
C5436685
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 7 (MC4DN7) is an autosomal recessive metabolic encephalomyopathic disorder with highly variable manifestations. Only a few patients have been reported. Some patients have normal early development then show rapid neurodegeneration with progressive muscle weakness, gait disturbances, and cognitive decline in mid to late childhood. Other features may include seizures and visual impairment. Brain imaging shows progressive leukodystrophy with cystic lesions. In contrast, at least 1 patient has been reported who presented in the neonatal period with metabolic acidosis, hydrocephalus, hypotonia, and cortical blindness. This patient developed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy resulting in early death. All patients had increased serum lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Massa et al., 2008 and Abdulhag et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 10
MedGen UID:
1746545
Concept ID:
C5436692
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 10 (MC4DN10) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of severe symptoms soon after birth. Affected infants have respiratory and neurologic distress, metabolic lactic acidosis, and dysmorphic features, including microphthalmia. Death occurs in early infancy. Postmortem examination has demonstrated systemic involvement with hepatomegaly, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, renal hypoplasia, and adrenal hyperplasia. There is also abnormal brain myelination and cavitating brain lesions. Patient tissues show decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Weraarpachai et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 12
MedGen UID:
1745691
Concept ID:
C5436695
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 12 (MC4DN12) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of neurologic dysfunction in early infancy. Affected individuals demonstrate hypotonia with poor head control, profoundly delayed global development with inability to fix and follow, poor overall growth, abnormal spasms or myoclonus, and seizures. Most patients die in the first years of life; those that survive have spastic quadriplegia, feeding difficulties necessitating tube feeding, and profoundly impaired intellectual development with poor or absent communication. More variable features include cortical blindness, nystagmus, scoliosis, and hearing impairment. Brain imaging shows abnormalities consistent with Leigh syndrome (see 256000), as well as cystic cavitation. Laboratory studies show lactic acidosis, increased serum creatine kinase, and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Lim et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Congenital short bowel syndrome
MedGen UID:
1784105
Concept ID:
C5441717
Disease or Syndrome
A rare intestinal disorder of neonates of unknown etiology. Patients are born with a short small bowel (less than 75 cm in length) that compromises proper intestinal absorption and leads chronic diarrhea, vomiting and failure to thrive.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 52
MedGen UID:
1780479
Concept ID:
C5543592
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-52 (COXPD52) is an autosomal recessive infantile mitochondrial complex II/III deficiency characterized by lactic acidemia, multiorgan system failure, and abnormal mitochondria. Intrafamilial variability has been reported (Farhan et al., 2014; Hershkovitz et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Diarrhea 12, with microvillus atrophy
MedGen UID:
1794152
Concept ID:
C5561942
Disease or Syndrome
Microvillus inclusion disease (DIAR12) is a congenital enteropathy characterized by neonatal-onset intractable secretory diarrhea, resulting in severe dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Patients may tolerate limited enteral feeding, but are dependent on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and require eventual small bowel and/or liver transplantation. Pathologic hallmarks include variable loss of brush-border microvilli, microvillus inclusions, and accumulation of subapical vesicles in villus enterocytes (summary by Wiegerinck et al., 2014). Another form of microvillus inclusion disease, MVID1 (DIAR2; 251850), is caused by mutation in the MYO5B gene (606540). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of diarrhea, see DIAR1 (214700). Mutations in the STX3 gene that affect only isoform A (STX3A) cause DIAR12, whereas mutations in STX3 affecting both STX3A and isoform B (STX3B), which predominates in retinal tissue, cause a syndrome involving severe early-onset retinal dystrophy and MVID (RDMVID; 619446).
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794200
Concept ID:
C5561990
Disease or Syndrome
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome (BRENS) is an autosomal recessive complex ciliopathy with multisystemic manifestations. The most common presentation is severe neonatal cholestasis that progresses to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Most patients have additional clinical features suggestive of a ciliopathy, including postaxial polydactyly, hydrocephalus, retinal abnormalities, and situs inversus. Additional features of the syndrome may include congenital cardiac defects, echogenic kidneys with renal failure, ocular abnormalities, joint hyperextensibility, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients have global developmental delay. Brain imaging typically shows dilated ventricles, hypomyelination, and white matter abnormalities, although some patients have been described with abnormal pituitary development (summary by Shaheen et al., 2020 and David et al., 2020).
DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY WITH OR WITHOUT INTELLECTUAL IMPAIRMENT OR BEHAVIORAL ABNORMALITIES
MedGen UID:
1794214
Concept ID:
C5562004
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with or without intellectual impairment or behavioral abnormalities (DDIB) is an autosomal dominant disorder with a nonspecific phenotype of developmental delay. Additional features may include neonatal feeding problems, hypotonia, and dysmorphic facial features (Dulovic-Mahlow et al., 2019; van Woerden et al., 2021).
Immunodeficiency 87 and autoimmunity
MedGen UID:
1794280
Concept ID:
C5562070
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-87 and autoimmunity (IMD87) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder with wide phenotypic variation and severity. Affected individuals usually present in infancy or early childhood with increased susceptibility to infections, often Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), as well as with lymphadenopathy or autoimmune manifestations, predominantly hemolytic anemia. Laboratory studies may show low or normal lymphocyte numbers, often with skewed T-cell subset ratios. The disorder results primarily from defects in T-cell function, which causes both immunodeficiency and overall immune dysregulation (summary by Serwas et al., 2019 and Fournier et al., 2021).
Recurrent metabolic encephalomyopathic crises-rhabdomyolysis-cardiac arrhythmia-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
1798947
Concept ID:
C5567524
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with TANGO2-related metabolic encephalopathy and arrhythmias can present in acute metabolic crisis (hypoglycemia, elevated lactate, mild hyperammonemia) or with developmental delay, regression, and/or seizures. The acute presentation varies from profound muscle weakness, ataxia, and/or disorientation to a comatose state. Individuals can present with intermittent acute episodes of rhabdomyolysis. The first episode of myoglobinuria has been known to occur as early as age five months. Acute renal tubular damage due to myoglobinuria can result in acute kidney injury and renal failure. During acute illness, transient electrocardiogram changes can be seen; the most common is QT prolongation. Life-threatening recurrent ventricular tachycardia or torsade de pointes occurs primarily during times of acute illness. Individuals who do not present in metabolic crises may present with gait incoordination, progressively unsteady gait, difficulty with speech, or clumsiness. Intellectual disability of variable severity is observed in almost all individuals. Seizures are observed outside the periods of crises in more than 75% of individuals. Hypothyroidism has been reported in more than one third of individuals.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E3 deficiency
MedGen UID:
449386
Concept ID:
CN043137
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypes of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) deficiency are an overlapping continuum that ranges from early-onset neurologic manifestations to adult-onset liver involvement and, rarely, a myopathic presentation. Early-onset DLD deficiency typically manifests in infancy as hypotonia with lactic acidosis. Affected infants frequently do not survive their initial metabolic decompensation, or die within the first few years of life during a recurrent metabolic decompensation. Children who live beyond the first two to three years frequently exhibit growth deficiencies and residual neurologic deficits (intellectual disability, spasticity, ataxia, and seizures). In contrast, isolated liver involvement can present as early as the neonatal period and as late as the third decade. Evidence of liver injury/failure is preceded by nausea and emesis and frequently associated with encephalopathy and/or coagulopathy. Acute metabolic episodes are frequently associated with lactate elevations, hyperammonemia, and hepatomegaly. With resolution of the acute episodes affected individuals frequently return to baseline with no residual neurologic deficit or intellectual disability. Liver failure can result in death, even in those with late-onset disease. Individuals with the myopathic presentation may experience muscle cramps, weakness, and an elevated creatine kinase.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Lambert DC, Kane J, Slaton A, Abramowitz MK
Kidney360 2022 Nov 24;3(11):1842-1851. Epub 2022 Jul 13 doi: 10.34067/KID.0002402022. PMID: 36514392Free PMC Article
Tangri N, Mathur V, Reaven N, Funk SE, Wesson DE
Am J Nephrol 2022;53(8-9):603-613. Epub 2022 Nov 8 doi: 10.1159/000527036. PMID: 36349769
Mathur VS, Li E, Wesson DE
Nephrol Dial Transplant 2022 Jun 23;37(7):1302-1309. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfab209. PMID: 34240198Free PMC Article
Lambert DC, Abramowitz MK
Kidney360 2021 Nov 25;2(11):1706-1715. Epub 2021 Sep 9 doi: 10.34067/KID.0003562021. PMID: 35372994Free PMC Article
Mzumara G, Leopold S, Marsh K, Dondorp A, Ohuma EO, Mukaka M
Malar J 2021 Jun 25;20(1):282. doi: 10.1186/s12936-021-03785-0. PMID: 34172046Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Okada S, Miyazono A, Inaba Y, Eura R, Itesako T, Kawano Y, Okamoto Y
CEN Case Rep 2022 Aug;11(3):363-365. Epub 2022 Jan 31 doi: 10.1007/s13730-022-00686-2. PMID: 35099756Free PMC Article
Mzumara G, Leopold S, Marsh K, Dondorp A, Ohuma EO, Mukaka M
Malar J 2021 Jun 25;20(1):282. doi: 10.1186/s12936-021-03785-0. PMID: 34172046Free PMC Article
Wesson DE, Buysse JM, Bushinsky DA
J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 Mar;31(3):469-482. Epub 2020 Jan 27 doi: 10.1681/ASN.2019070677. PMID: 31988269Free PMC Article
Berkoben M, Roberts JK
MedEdPORTAL 2019 Sep 27;15:10835. doi: 10.15766/mep_2374-8265.10835. PMID: 31890870Free PMC Article
Raphael KL
Am J Kidney Dis 2019 Aug;74(2):263-275. Epub 2019 Apr 26 doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2019.01.036. PMID: 31036389

Therapy

Mathur VS, Wesson DE, Tangri N, Li E, Bushinsky DA
BMC Nephrol 2022 Feb 25;23(1):82. doi: 10.1186/s12882-022-02690-1. PMID: 35216581Free PMC Article
Okada S, Miyazono A, Inaba Y, Eura R, Itesako T, Kawano Y, Okamoto Y
CEN Case Rep 2022 Aug;11(3):363-365. Epub 2022 Jan 31 doi: 10.1007/s13730-022-00686-2. PMID: 35099756Free PMC Article
Mathur VS, Li E, Wesson DE
Nephrol Dial Transplant 2022 Jun 23;37(7):1302-1309. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfab209. PMID: 34240198Free PMC Article
Mzumara G, Leopold S, Marsh K, Dondorp A, Ohuma EO, Mukaka M
Malar J 2021 Jun 25;20(1):282. doi: 10.1186/s12936-021-03785-0. PMID: 34172046Free PMC Article
Fujii T, Udy AA, Nichol A, Bellomo R, Deane AM, El-Khawas K, Thummaporn N, Serpa Neto A, Bergin H, Short-Burchell R, Chen CM, Cheng KH, Cheng KC, Chia C, Chiang FF, Chou NK, Fazio T, Fu PK, Ge V, Hayashi Y, Holmes J, Hu TY, Huang SF, Iguchi N, Jones SL, Karumai T, Katayama S, Ku SC, Lai CL, Lee BJ, Liaw WJ, Ong CTW, Paxton L, Peppin C, Roodenburg O, Saito S, Santamaria JD, Shehabi Y, Tanaka A, Tiruvoipati R, Tsai HE, Wang AY, Wang CY, Yeh YC, Yu CJ, Yuan KC; SODA-BIC investigators.
Crit Care 2021 Feb 2;25(1):45. doi: 10.1186/s13054-020-03431-2. PMID: 33531020Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Iwasaki Y, Sasabuchi Y, Horikita S, Furukawa T, Shiotsuka J, Lefor AK, Sanui M
BMC Endocr Disord 2022 Aug 20;22(1):209. doi: 10.1186/s12902-022-01126-z. PMID: 35987618Free PMC Article
Mzumara G, Leopold S, Marsh K, Dondorp A, Ohuma EO, Mukaka M
Malar J 2021 Jun 25;20(1):282. doi: 10.1186/s12936-021-03785-0. PMID: 34172046Free PMC Article
Fujii T, Udy AA, Nichol A, Bellomo R, Deane AM, El-Khawas K, Thummaporn N, Serpa Neto A, Bergin H, Short-Burchell R, Chen CM, Cheng KH, Cheng KC, Chia C, Chiang FF, Chou NK, Fazio T, Fu PK, Ge V, Hayashi Y, Holmes J, Hu TY, Huang SF, Iguchi N, Jones SL, Karumai T, Katayama S, Ku SC, Lai CL, Lee BJ, Liaw WJ, Ong CTW, Paxton L, Peppin C, Roodenburg O, Saito S, Santamaria JD, Shehabi Y, Tanaka A, Tiruvoipati R, Tsai HE, Wang AY, Wang CY, Yeh YC, Yu CJ, Yuan KC; SODA-BIC investigators.
Crit Care 2021 Feb 2;25(1):45. doi: 10.1186/s13054-020-03431-2. PMID: 33531020Free PMC Article
Wesson DE, Buysse JM, Bushinsky DA
J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 Mar;31(3):469-482. Epub 2020 Jan 27 doi: 10.1681/ASN.2019070677. PMID: 31988269Free PMC Article
Gao F, Lin MT, Yang XY, Cai MX, Nan H, Xie W, Huang ZM
Turk J Gastroenterol 2019 Oct;30(10):883-891. doi: 10.5152/tjg.2019.18813. PMID: 31633484Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Tangri N, Mathur V, Reaven N, Funk SE, Wesson DE
Am J Nephrol 2022;53(8-9):603-613. Epub 2022 Nov 8 doi: 10.1159/000527036. PMID: 36349769
Tangri N, Reaven NL, Funk SE, Ferguson TW, Collister D, Mathur V
BMC Nephrol 2021 May 19;22(1):185. doi: 10.1186/s12882-021-02385-z. PMID: 34011303Free PMC Article
Fujii T, Udy AA, Nichol A, Bellomo R, Deane AM, El-Khawas K, Thummaporn N, Serpa Neto A, Bergin H, Short-Burchell R, Chen CM, Cheng KH, Cheng KC, Chia C, Chiang FF, Chou NK, Fazio T, Fu PK, Ge V, Hayashi Y, Holmes J, Hu TY, Huang SF, Iguchi N, Jones SL, Karumai T, Katayama S, Ku SC, Lai CL, Lee BJ, Liaw WJ, Ong CTW, Paxton L, Peppin C, Roodenburg O, Saito S, Santamaria JD, Shehabi Y, Tanaka A, Tiruvoipati R, Tsai HE, Wang AY, Wang CY, Yeh YC, Yu CJ, Yuan KC; SODA-BIC investigators.
Crit Care 2021 Feb 2;25(1):45. doi: 10.1186/s13054-020-03431-2. PMID: 33531020Free PMC Article
Cnattingius S, Johansson S, Razaz N
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2020 Sep;34(5):572-580. Epub 2020 Mar 4 doi: 10.1111/ppe.12663. PMID: 32133682
Gao F, Lin MT, Yang XY, Cai MX, Nan H, Xie W, Huang ZM
Turk J Gastroenterol 2019 Oct;30(10):883-891. doi: 10.5152/tjg.2019.18813. PMID: 31633484Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Matyukhin I, Patschan S, Ritter O, Patschan D
Kidney Blood Press Res 2020;45(4):523-531. Epub 2020 Jul 14 doi: 10.1159/000507813. PMID: 32663831
Navaneethan SD, Shao J, Buysse J, Bushinsky DA
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2019 Jul 5;14(7):1011-1020. Epub 2019 Jun 13 doi: 10.2215/CJN.13091118. PMID: 31196951Free PMC Article
Fujii T, Udy A, Licari E, Romero L, Bellomo R
J Crit Care 2019 Jun;51:184-191. Epub 2019 Feb 26 doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2019.02.027. PMID: 30852347
Leibson T, Davies P, Nickel C, Koren G
Burns 2018 Jun;44(4):776-783. Epub 2017 Aug 7 doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2017.06.006. PMID: 28797572
Roderick P, Willis NS, Blakeley S, Jones C, Tomson C
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007 Jan 24;(1):CD001890. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001890.pub3. PMID: 17253467Free PMC Article

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