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Horseshoe kidney

MedGen UID:
65140
Concept ID:
C0221353
Congenital Abnormality
Synonyms: Horseshoe Kidney; Horseshoe Kidneys; Kidney, Horseshoe; Kidneys, Horseshoe
SNOMED CT: Horseshoe kidney (41729002)
 
HPO: HP:0000085

Definition

A connection of the right and left kidney by an isthmus of functioning renal parenchyma or fibrous tissue that crosses the midline. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Focal dermal hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
42055
Concept ID:
C0016395
Disease or Syndrome
Focal dermal hypoplasia is a multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. Skin manifestations present at birth include atrophic and hypoplastic areas of skin; cutis aplasia; fat nodules in the dermis manifesting as soft, yellow-pink cutaneous nodules; and pigmentary changes. Verrucoid papillomas of the skin and mucous membranes may appear later. The nails can be ridged, dysplastic, or hypoplastic; hair can be sparse or absent. Limb malformations include oligo-/syndactyly and split hand/foot. Developmental abnormalities of the eye can include anophthalmia/microphthalmia, iris and chorioretinal coloboma, and lacrimal duct abnormalities. Craniofacial findings can include facial asymmetry, notched alae nasi, cleft lip and palate, and pointed chin. Occasional findings include dental anomalies, abdominal wall defects, diaphragmatic hernia, and renal anomalies. Psychomotor development is usually normal; some individuals have cognitive impairment.
Radial aplasia-thrombocytopenia syndrome
MedGen UID:
61235
Concept ID:
C0175703
Disease or Syndrome
Thrombocytopenia absent radius (TAR) syndrome is characterized by bilateral absence of the radii with the presence of both thumbs, and thrombocytopenia that is generally transient. Thrombocytopenia may be congenital or may develop within the first few weeks to months of life; in general, thrombocytopenic episodes decrease with age. Cow's milk allergy is common and can be associated with exacerbation of thrombocytopenia. Other anomalies of the skeleton (upper and lower limbs, ribs, and vertebrae), heart, and genitourinary system (renal anomalies and agenesis of uterus, cervix, and upper part of the vagina) can occur.
Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome
MedGen UID:
120537
Concept ID:
C0265342
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebrocostomandibular syndrome (CCMS) is characterized mainly by severe micrognathia, rib defects, and mental retardation. A spectrum of rib gap defects have been reported ranging from a few dorsal rib segments to complete absence of ossification. In about half of the 65 reported cases to date, there is cerebral involvement including mental retardation, microcephaly, and histologic anomalies. Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive forms of the disorder have been described (Zeevaert et al., 2009). See CDG2G (611209) for a cerebrocostomandibular-like syndrome.
CHARGE association
MedGen UID:
75567
Concept ID:
C0265354
Disease or Syndrome
CHD7 disorder encompasses the entire phenotypic spectrum of heterozygous CHD7 pathogenic variants that includes CHARGE syndrome as well as subsets of features that comprise the CHARGE syndrome phenotype. The mnemonic CHARGE syndrome, introduced in the premolecular era, stands for coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies (including deafness). Following the identification of the genetic cause of CHD7 disorder, the phenotypic spectrum expanded to include cranial nerve anomalies, vestibular defects, cleft lip and/or palate, hypothyroidism, tracheoesophageal anomalies, brain anomalies, seizures, and renal anomalies. Life expectancy highly depends on the severity of manifestations; mortality can be high in the first few years when severe birth defects (particularly complex heart defects) are present and often complicated by airway and feeding issues. In childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, decreased life expectancy is likely related to a combination of residual heart defects, infections, aspiration or choking, respiratory issues including obstructive and central apnea, and possibly seizures. Despite these complications, the life expectancy for many individuals can be normal.
Cat eye syndrome
MedGen UID:
120543
Concept ID:
C0265493
Disease or Syndrome
Cat eye syndrome (CES) is characterized clinically by the combination of coloboma of the iris and anal atresia with fistula, downslanting palpebral fissures, preauricular tags and/or pits, frequent occurrence of heart and renal malformations, and normal or near-normal mental development. A small supernumerary chromosome (smaller than chromosome 21) is present, frequently has 2 centromeres, is bisatellited, and represents an inv dup(22)(q11).
Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome
MedGen UID:
95931
Concept ID:
C0392475
Disease or Syndrome
ESCO2 spectrum disorder is characterized by mild-to-severe prenatal growth restriction, limb malformations (which can include bilateral symmetric tetraphocomelia or hypomelia caused by mesomelic shortening), hand anomalies (including oligodactyly, thumb aplasia or hypoplasia, and syndactyly), elbow and knee flexion contractures (involving elbows, wrists, knees, ankles, and feet [talipes equinovarus]), and craniofacial abnormalities (which can include bilateral cleft lip and/or cleft palate, micrognathia, widely spaced eyes, exophthalmos, downslanted palpebral fissures, malar flattening, and underdeveloped ala nasi), ear malformation, and corneal opacities. Intellectual disability (ranging from mild to severe) is common. Early mortality is common among severely affected pregnancies and newborns; mildly affected individuals may survive to adulthood.
Faciocardiorenal syndrome
MedGen UID:
208649
Concept ID:
C0795936
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare syndrome with characteristics of intellectual deficit, horseshoe kidney, and congenital heart defects. Four cases have been reported in the literature in two unrelated families. Dysmorphic features include plagiocephaly, malar hypoplasia, broad nasal bridge, poorly developed philtrum and nasal alae, cleft palate and hypodontia. Congenital heart defects were endocardial fibroelastosis in one family and prolapse of the tricuspid valve in the other. The condition is probably hereditary and transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait.
3MC syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
208657
Concept ID:
C0796032
Disease or Syndrome
The term '3MC syndrome' encompasses 4 rare autosomal recessive disorders that were previously designated the Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech, and Michels syndromes, respectively. The main features of these syndromes are facial dysmorphism that includes hypertelorism, blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, and highly arched eyebrows, which are present in 70 to 95% of cases. Cleft lip and palate, postnatal growth deficiency, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss are also consistent findings, occurring in 40 to 68% of cases. Craniosynostosis, radioulnar synostosis, and genital and vesicorenal anomalies occur in 20 to 30% of cases. Rare features include anterior chamber defects, cardiac anomalies, caudal appendage, umbilical hernia (omphalocele), and diastasis recti (summary by Rooryck et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3MC syndrome, see 3MC1 (257920).
Juberg-Hayward syndrome
MedGen UID:
162906
Concept ID:
C0796099
Disease or Syndrome
Juberg-Hayward syndrome (JHS) is characterized by cleft lip and palate, rhizomelia of the upper limbs with limited elbow extension due to humeroradial synostosis or dislocation of the radial head, and digital anomalies, including shortened thumbs and index and fifth fingers. Microcephaly has been observed in some patients (Kantaputra et al., 2020).
3MC syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
167115
Concept ID:
C0796279
Disease or Syndrome
The term '3MC syndrome' encompasses 4 rare autosomal recessive disorders that were previously designated the Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech, and Michels syndromes, respectively. The main features of these syndromes are facial dysmorphism that includes hypertelorism, blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, and highly arched eyebrows, which are present in 70 to 95% of cases. Cleft lip and palate, postnatal growth deficiency, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss are also consistent findings, occurring in 40 to 68% of cases. Craniosynostosis, radioulnar synostosis, and genital and vesicorenal anomalies occur in 20 to 30% of cases. Rare features include anterior chamber defects, cardiac anomalies, caudal appendage, umbilical hernia (omphalocele), and diastasis recti (summary by Rooryck et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3MC syndrome, see 3MC1 (257920).
Dyskeratosis congenita, X-linked
MedGen UID:
216941
Concept ID:
C1148551
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita and related telomere biology disorders (DC/TBD) are caused by impaired telomere maintenance resulting in short or very short telomeres. The phenotypic spectrum of telomere biology disorders is broad and includes individuals with classic dyskeratosis congenita (DC) as well as those with very short telomeres and an isolated physical finding. Classic DC is characterized by a triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia, although this may not be present in all individuals. People with DC/TBD are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), taurodontism, liver disease, gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and avascular necrosis of the hips or shoulders. Although most persons with DC/TBD have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in both forms; additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome and Coats plus syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC/TBD vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Currarino triad
MedGen UID:
323460
Concept ID:
C1531773
Disease or Syndrome
Currarino syndrome (CS) is a rare congenital disease characterized by the triad of anorectal malformations (ARMs) (usually anal stenosis), presacral mass (commonly anterior sacral meningocele (ASM) or teratoma) and sacral anomalies (i.e. total or partial agenesis of the sacrum and coccyx or deformity of the sacral vertebrae).
Duane-radial ray syndrome
MedGen UID:
301647
Concept ID:
C1623209
Disease or Syndrome
SALL4-related disorders include Duane-radial ray syndrome (DRRS, Okihiro syndrome), acro-renal-ocular syndrome (AROS), and SALL4-related Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) – three phenotypes previously thought to be distinct entities. DRRS is characterized by uni- or bilateral Duane anomaly and radial ray malformation that can include thenar hypoplasia and/or hypoplasia or aplasia of the thumbs, hypoplasia or aplasia of the radii, shortening and radial deviation of the forearms, triphalangeal thumbs, and duplication of the thumb (preaxial polydactyly). AROS is characterized by radial ray malformations, renal abnormalities (mild malrotation, ectopia, horseshoe kidney, renal hypoplasia, vesicoureteral reflux, bladder diverticula), ocular coloboma, and Duane anomaly. Rarely, pathogenic variants in SALL4 may cause clinically typical HOS (i.e., radial ray malformations and cardiac malformations without additional features).
Short stature, Brussels type
MedGen UID:
318625
Concept ID:
C1832439
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of short stature presenting in the neonatal period, associated with osteochondrodysplastic lesions and facial dysmorphism. It has been described in two members from the same family.
Matthew-Wood syndrome
MedGen UID:
318679
Concept ID:
C1832661
Disease or Syndrome
Syndromic microphthalmia-9, also referred to as pulmonary hypoplasia-diaphragmatic hernia-anophthalmia-cardiac defect, is characterized by bilateral clinical anophthalmia, pulmonary hypoplasia/aplasia, cardiac malformations, and diaphragmatic defects. The phenotype is variable, ranging from isolated clinical anophthalmia or microphthalmia to complex presentations involving the cardiac, pulmonary, diaphragmatic, and renal systems. At its most severe, infants are born without pulmonary structures and die soon after birth (Marcadier et al., 2015).
Microgastria-limb reduction defect syndrome
MedGen UID:
322532
Concept ID:
C1834929
Disease or Syndrome
A rare multiple congenital anomalies syndrome characterized by congenital microgastria and a uni- or bilateral limb reduction defect, that can include absent or hypoplastic thumbs, radius, ulna and/or amelia. Association with other variable abnormalities, including intestinal malrotation, asplenia, dysplastic kidneys, hypoplastic lungs, dysplastic corpus collosum, and abnormal genitalia, has been reported.
Fanconi anemia complementation group I
MedGen UID:
323016
Concept ID:
C1836861
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Meacham syndrome
MedGen UID:
373234
Concept ID:
C1837026
Disease or Syndrome
WT1 disorder is characterized by congenital/infantile or childhood onset of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a progressive glomerulopathy that does not respond to standard steroid therapy. Additional common findings can include disorders of testicular development (with or without abnormalities of the external genitalia and/or müllerian structures) and Wilms tumor. Less common findings are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gonadoblastoma. While various combinations of renal and other findings associated with a WT1 pathogenic variant were designated as certain syndromes in the past, those designations are now recognized to be part of a phenotypic continuum and are no longer clinically helpful.
Bladder exstrophy-epispadias-cloacal extrophy complex
MedGen UID:
374033
Concept ID:
C1838703
Disease or Syndrome
Bladder exstrophy and epispadias complex (BEEC) is an anterior midline defect with variable expression involving the infraumbilical abdominal wall including the pelvis, urinary tract, and external genitalia (Gearhart and Jeffs, 1998). BEEC is one of the most severe urologic birth defects because of its profound impact on continence, sexual function, and morbidity due to the effect of chronic and recurrent infections on renal function. The term 'exstrophy,' derived from the Greek work ekstriphein, which literally means 'turn inside out,' was first used by Chaussier in 1780. Martinez-Frias et al. (2001) emphasized that exstrophy of the cloaca and exstrophy of the bladder are 2 different expressions of a primary developmental field defect. Cloacal exstrophy is a feature of the OEIS (omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects) complex (258040). Exstrophy of the cloaca includes the persistence and exstrophy of a common cloaca that receives ureters, ileum, and a rudimentary hindgut and is associated with failure of fusion of the genital tubercles and pubic rami, incomplete development of the lumbosacral vertebrae with spinal dysraphism, imperforate anus, cryptorchidism and epispadias in males and anomalies of the mullerian duct derivatives in females, and a wide range of urinary tract anomalies. Omphalocele is common, and most patients have a single umbilical artery. Reutter et al. (2016) reviewed the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, and animal models for BEEC. They described BEEC as a spectrum of component malformations of variable severity, including epispadias as the mildest phenotype and classic bladder exstrophy as the most common, with cloacal exstrophy representing the most severe form. In approximately one-third of cases, urologic malformations are present, including ectopic kidney, renal agenesis, and/or hydronephrosis. Other malformations involving the gastrointestinal, skeletal, spinal, and genitourinary systems, including cryptorchidism and ambiguous genitalia, are reported frequently. The authors noted that cloacal exstrophy is considered by some to have a different embryologic origin from classic bladder exstrophy.
TARP syndrome
MedGen UID:
333324
Concept ID:
C1839463
Disease or Syndrome
The classic features of TARP syndrome are talipes equinovarus, atrial septal defect, Robin sequence (micrognathia, cleft palate, and glossoptosis), and persistent left superior vena cava. Not all patients have all classic features. Some patients have the additional features of central nervous system dysfunction, renal abnormalities, variable cardiac anomalies including hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, and variable distal limb defects including syndactyly. Most patients die in late prenatal or early postnatal stages (summary by Kaeppler et al., 2018).
Diaphanospondylodysostosis
MedGen UID:
374993
Concept ID:
C1842691
Disease or Syndrome
Diaphanospondylodysostosis is a rare, recessively inherited, perinatal lethal skeletal disorder. The primary skeletal characteristics include small chest, abnormal vertebral segmentation, and posterior rib gaps containing incompletely differentiated mesenchymal tissue. Consistent craniofacial features include ocular hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, depressed nasal bridge with short nose, and low-set ears. The most commonly described extraskeletal finding is nephroblastomatosis with cystic kidneys, but other visceral findings have been described in some cases (summary by Funari et al., 2010).
Heterotaxy, visceral, 1, X-linked
MedGen UID:
336609
Concept ID:
C1844020
Disease or Syndrome
Heterotaxy Heterotaxy ('heter' meaning 'other' and 'taxy' meaning 'arrangement'), or situs ambiguus, is a developmental condition characterized by randomization of the placement of visceral organs, including the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and stomach. The organs are oriented randomly with respect to the left-right axis and with respect to one another (Srivastava, 1997). Heterotaxy is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Multiple Types of Congenital Heart Defects Congenital heart defects (CHTD) are among the most common congenital defects, occurring with an incidence of 8/1,000 live births. The etiology of CHTD is complex, with contributions from environmental exposure, chromosomal abnormalities, and gene defects. Some patients with CHTD also have cardiac arrhythmias, which may be due to the anatomic defect itself or to surgical interventions (summary by van de Meerakker et al., 2011). Reviews Obler et al. (2008) reviewed published cases of double-outlet right ventricle and discussed etiology and associations. Genetic Heterogeneity of Visceral Heterotaxy See also HTX2 (605376), caused by mutation in the CFC1 gene (605194) on chromosome 2q21; HTX3 (606325), which maps to chromosome 6q21; HTX4 (613751), caused by mutation in the ACVR2B gene (602730) on chromosome 3p22; HTX5 (270100), caused by mutation in the NODAL gene (601265) on chromosome 10q22; HTX6 (614779), caused by mutation in the CCDC11 gene (614759) on chromosome 18q21; HTX7 (616749), caused by mutation in the MMP21 gene (608416) on chromosome 10q26; HTX8 (617205), caused by mutation in the PKD1L1 gene (609721) on chromosome 7p12; HTX9 (618948), caused by mutation in the MNS1 gene (610766) on chromosome 15q21; HTX10 (619607), caused by mutation in the CFAP52 gene (609804) on chromosome 17p13; HTX11 (619608), caused by mutation in the CFAP45 gene (605152) on chromosome 1q23; and HTX12 (619702), caused by mutation in the CIROP gene (619703) on chromosome 14q11. Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Types of Congenital Heart Defects An X-linked form of CHTD, CHTD1, is caused by mutation in the ZIC3 gene on chromosome Xq26. CHTD2 (614980) is caused by mutation in the TAB2 gene (605101) on chromosome 6q25. A form of nonsyndromic congenital heart defects associated with cardiac rhythm and conduction disturbances (CHTD3; 614954) has been mapped to chromosome 9q31. CHTD4 (615779) is caused by mutation in the NR2F2 gene (107773) on chromosome 15q26. CHTD5 (617912) is caused by mutation in the GATA5 gene (611496) on chromosome 20q13. CHTD6 (613854) is caused by mutation in the GDF1 gene (602880) on chromosome 19p13. CHTD7 (618780) is caused by mutation in the FLT4 gene (136352) on chromosome 5q35.
Lathosterolosis
MedGen UID:
375885
Concept ID:
C1846421
Disease or Syndrome
Lathosterolosis (LATHOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of multiple congenital anomalies involving axial and appendicular skeleton, liver, central nervous and urogenital systems, and lysosomal storage. It is caused by a defect of cholesterol biosynthesis due to sterol C5-desaturase deficiency (summary by Rossi et al., 2007).
Teebi-Shaltout syndrome
MedGen UID:
376472
Concept ID:
C1848912
Disease or Syndrome
Teebi-Shaltout syndrome is characterized by slow hair growth, scaphocephaly with prominent forehead, bitemporal depression, absence of primary teeth, camptodactyly, and caudal appendage with sacral dimple (summary by Aldemir et al., 2013).
Renal and mullerian duct hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
340326
Concept ID:
C1849439
Disease or Syndrome
Renal coloboma syndrome
MedGen UID:
339002
Concept ID:
C1852759
Disease or Syndrome
PAX2-related disorder is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with renal and eye abnormalities. The disorder was originally referred to as renal coloboma syndrome and characterized by renal hypodysplasia and abnormalities of the optic nerve; with improved access to molecular testing, a wider range of phenotypes has been recognized in association with pathogenic variants in PAX2. Abnormal renal structure or function is noted in 92% of affected individuals and ophthalmologic abnormalities in 77% of affected individuals. Renal abnormalities can be clinically silent in rare individuals. In most individuals, clinically significant renal insufficiency / renal failure is reported. End-stage renal disease requiring renal transplant is not uncommon. Uric acid nephrolithiasis has been reported. Ophthalmologic abnormalities are typically described as optic nerve coloboma or dysplasia. Iris colobomas have not been reported in any individual with PAX2–related disorder. Ophthalmologic abnormalities may significantly impair vision in some individuals, while others have subtle changes only noted after detailed ophthalmologic examination. Additional clinical findings include high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss, soft skin, and ligamentous laxity. PAX2 pathogenic variants have been identified in multiple sporadic and familial cases of nonsyndromic renal disease including renal hypodysplasia and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome
MedGen UID:
381579
Concept ID:
C1855188
Disease or Syndrome
Brachydactyly-short stature-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome is a rare, genetic, congenital limb malformation syndrome characterized by mild to severe short stature, brachydactyly, and retinal degeneration (usually retinitis pigmentosa), associated with variable intellectual disability, developmental delays, and craniofacial anomalies.
Craniofacial dyssynostosis
MedGen UID:
347473
Concept ID:
C1857511
Disease or Syndrome
A rare cranial malformation syndrome characterized by the premature closure of both lambdoid sutures and the posterior sagittal suture, resulting in abnormal skull contour (frontal bossing, anterior turricephaly with mild brachycephaly, biparietal narrowing, occipital concavity) and dysmorphic facial features (low-set ears, midfacial hypoplasia). Short stature, developmental delay, epilepsy, and oculomotor dyspraxia have also been reported. Associated anomalies include enlargement of the cerebral ventricles, agenesis of the corpus callosum, Arnold-Chiari malformation type I, venous anomalies of skull, and hydrocephalus.
Brachyphalangy, polydactyly, and tibial aplasia/hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
355340
Concept ID:
C1864965
Disease or Syndrome
Ventriculomegaly with defects of the radius and kidney
MedGen UID:
400843
Concept ID:
C1865780
Disease or Syndrome
Orofaciodigital syndrome V
MedGen UID:
358131
Concept ID:
C1868118
Disease or Syndrome
Orofaciodigital syndrome V (OFD5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cleft palate/uvula, lobulated tongue, frontal bossing, hypertelorism, postaxial polydactyly, and impaired intellectual development (summary by Faily et al., 2017).
Diamond-Blackfan anemia 7
MedGen UID:
436451
Concept ID:
C2675512
Disease or Syndrome
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50%, and growth deficiency in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia or no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma.
Meckel syndrome, type 6
MedGen UID:
382942
Concept ID:
C2676790
Disease or Syndrome
Because of their serious health problems, most individuals with Meckel syndrome die before or shortly after birth. Most often, affected infants die of respiratory problems or kidney failure.\n\nOther signs and symptoms of Meckel syndrome vary widely among affected individuals. Numerous abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) have been reported in people with Meckel syndrome, including a group of birth defects known as neural tube defects. These defects occur when a structure called the neural tube, a layer of cells that ultimately develops into the brain and spinal cord, fails to close completely during the first few weeks of embryonic development. Meckel syndrome can also cause problems with development of the eyes and other facial features, heart, bones, urinary system, and genitalia.\n\nMeckel syndrome is a disorder with severe signs and symptoms that affect many parts of the body. The most common features are enlarged kidneys with numerous fluid-filled cysts; an occipital encephalocele, which is a sac-like protrusion of the brain through an opening at the back of the skull; and the presence of extra fingers and toes (polydactyly). Most affected individuals also have a buildup of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the liver.
Cardiospondylocarpofacial syndrome
MedGen UID:
444060
Concept ID:
C2931461
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiospondylocarpofacial syndrome (CSCF) is characterized by growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features, brachydactyly with carpal-tarsal fusion, extensive posterior cervical vertebral synostosis, cardiac septal defects with valve dysplasia, and deafness with inner ear malformations (summary by Le Goff et al., 2016).
Antley-Bixler syndrome with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis
MedGen UID:
461449
Concept ID:
C3150099
Disease or Syndrome
Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a disorder of steroidogenesis with a broad phenotypic spectrum including cortisol deficiency, altered sex steroid synthesis, disorders of sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations of the Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) phenotype. Cortisol deficiency is usually partial, with some baseline cortisol production but failure to mount an adequate cortisol response in stress. Mild mineralocorticoid excess can be present and causes arterial hypertension, usually presenting in young adulthood. Manifestations of altered sex steroid synthesis include ambiguous genitalia/DSD in both males and females, large ovarian cysts in females, poor masculinization and delayed puberty in males, and maternal virilization during pregnancy with an affected fetus. Skeletal malformations can manifest as craniosynostosis, mid-face retrusion with proptosis and choanal stenosis or atresia, low-set dysplastic ears with stenotic external auditory canals, hydrocephalus, radiohumeral synostosis, neonatal fractures, congenital bowing of the long bones, joint contractures, arachnodactyly, and clubfeet; other anomalies observed include urinary tract anomalies (renal pelvic dilatation, vesicoureteral reflux). Cognitive impairment is of minor concern and likely associated with the severity of malformations; studies of developmental outcomes are lacking.
Cocoon syndrome
MedGen UID:
462241
Concept ID:
C3150891
Disease or Syndrome
A rare lethal developmental defect during embryogenesis with characteristics of severe fetal malformations. These malformations include craniofacial dysmorphism (abnormal cyst in the cranial region, hypoplastic eyeballs, two orifices in the nasal region separated by a nasal septum, abnormal orifice replacing the mouth), omphalocele and immotile hypoplastic limbs encased under an abnormal, transparent membrane-like skin. Additional features include absence of adnexal structures of the skin on the outer aspect of the limbs, as well as underdeveloped skeletal muscles and bones. Association with tetralogy of Fallot, horseshoe kidneys, diaphragm and lung lobulation defects is reported.
THOC6-related developmental delay-microcephaly-facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
462289
Concept ID:
C3150939
Disease or Syndrome
THOC6 intellectual disability syndrome is associated with moderate-to-severe developmental delay or intellectual disability; nonspecific dysmorphic facial features (tall forehead, deep-set eyes, short and upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, and long nose with low-hanging columella); microcephaly (typically 2-3 SD below the mean); teeth anomalies (dental caries, malocclusion, and supernumerary teeth); cardiac anomalies (most typically atrial and/or ventricular septal defects); prenatal ventriculomegaly and hydrocephalus; cryptorchidism in males; and renal malformations (most commonly unilateral renal agenesis). More rarely, affected individuals may have hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (in females), seizures, poor growth, feeding difficulties, hearing loss, refractive errors and/or other eye abnormalities, vertebral anomalies, micro/retrognathia, and imperforate / anteriorly placed anus.
Fanconi anemia complementation group D2
MedGen UID:
463627
Concept ID:
C3160738
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia complementation group E
MedGen UID:
463628
Concept ID:
C3160739
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Nascimento type
MedGen UID:
477095
Concept ID:
C3275464
Disease or Syndrome
The Nascimento type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSN) is characterized by dysmorphic features, including large head, synophrys, prominent supraorbital ridges, almond-shaped and deep-set eyes, large ears, wide mouth, myxedematous appearance, hirsutism, abnormal hair whorls, micropenis, and onychodystrophy. Female carriers have normal cognition, but may show subtle facial features (summary by Budny et al., 2010).
Kabuki syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
477126
Concept ID:
C3275495
Disease or Syndrome
Kabuki syndrome (KS) is characterized by typical facial features (long palpebral fissures with eversion of the lateral third of the lower eyelid; arched and broad eyebrows; short columella with depressed nasal tip; large, prominent, or cupped ears), minor skeletal anomalies, persistence of fetal fingertip pads, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and postnatal growth deficiency. Other findings may include: congenital heart defects, genitourinary anomalies, cleft lip and/or palate, gastrointestinal anomalies including anal atresia, ptosis and strabismus, and widely spaced teeth and hypodontia. Functional differences can include: increased susceptibility to infections and autoimmune disorders, seizures, endocrinologic abnormalities (including isolated premature thelarche in females), feeding problems, and hearing loss.
Fanconi anemia complementation group C
MedGen UID:
483324
Concept ID:
C3468041
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia complementation group A
MedGen UID:
483333
Concept ID:
C3469521
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia complementation group P
MedGen UID:
854020
Concept ID:
C3469542
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Joubert syndrome 18
MedGen UID:
766672
Concept ID:
C3553758
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
860487
Concept ID:
C4012050
Disease or Syndrome
Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome (HKLLS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized lymphatic dysplasia affecting various organs, including the intestinal tract, pericardium, and limbs. Additional features of the disorder include facial dysmorphism and cognitive impairment (summary by Alders et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hennekam Lymphangiectasia-Lymphedema Syndrome See also HKLLS2 (616006), caused by mutation in the FAT4 gene (612411) on chromosome 4q28, and HKLLS3 (618154), caused by mutation in the ADAMTS3 gene (605011) on chromosome 4q13.
Cognitive impairment - coarse facies - heart defects - obesity - pulmonary involvement - short stature - skeletal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
894554
Concept ID:
C4085597
Disease or Syndrome
CHOPS syndrome is a disorder involving multiple abnormalities that are present from birth (congenital). The name "CHOPS" is an abbreviation for a list of features of the disorder including cognitive impairment, coarse facial features, heart defects, obesity, lung (pulmonary) involvement, short stature, and skeletal abnormalities.\n\nChildren with CHOPS syndrome have intellectual disability and delayed development of skills such as sitting and walking. Characteristic facial features include a round face; thick hair; thick eyebrows that grow together in the middle (synophrys); wide-set, bulging eyes with long eyelashes; a short nose; and down-turned corners of the mouth.\n\nMost affected individuals are born with a heart defect called patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The ductus arteriosus is a connection between two major arteries, the aorta and the pulmonary artery. This connection is open during fetal development and normally closes shortly after birth. However, the ductus arteriosus remains open, or patent, in babies with PDA. If untreated, this heart defect causes infants to breathe rapidly, feed poorly, and gain weight slowly; in severe cases, it can lead to heart failure. Multiple heart abnormalities have sometimes been found in children with CHOPS syndrome. In addition to PDA, affected individuals may have ventricular septal defect, which is a defect in the muscular wall (septum) that separates the right and left sides of the heart's lower chamber.\n\nPeople with CHOPS syndrome have abnormalities of the throat and airways that cause momentary cessation of breathing while asleep (obstructive sleep apnea). These abnormalities can also cause affected individuals to breathe food or fluids into the lungs accidentally, which can lead to a potentially life-threatening bacterial lung infection (aspiration pneumonia) and chronic lung disease. Affected individuals are shorter than more than 97 percent of their peers and are overweight for their height. They also have skeletal differences including unusually short fingers and toes (brachydactyly) and abnormally-shaped spinal bones (vertebrae).\n\nOther features that can occur in CHOPS syndrome include a small head size (microcephaly); hearing loss; clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract); a single, horseshoe-shaped kidney; and, in affected males, undescended testes (cryptorchidism).
Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 20
MedGen UID:
909388
Concept ID:
C4275029
Congenital Abnormality
The Mulchandani-Bhoj-Conlin syndrome (MBCS) is characterized by prenatal growth restriction, severe short stature with proportional head circumference, and profound feeding difficulty (Mulchandani et al., 2016).
ZTTK syndrome
MedGen UID:
934663
Concept ID:
C4310696
Disease or Syndrome
ZTTK syndrome (ZTTKS) is a severe multisystem developmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability. Affected individuals have characteristic dysmorphic facial features, hypotonia, poor feeding, poor overall growth, and eye or visual abnormalities. Most patients also have musculoskeletal abnormalities, and some have congenital defects of the heart and urogenital system. Brain imaging usually shows developmental abnormalities such as gyral changes, cortical and/or cerebellar atrophy, and thin corpus callosum (summary by Kim et al., 2016).
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 15 with polydactyly
MedGen UID:
934691
Concept ID:
C4310724
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). SRTD15 is characterized by narrow thorax, oral and cardiovascular anomalies, short long bones, and postaxial polydactyly, in addition to other congenital anomalies. Considerable variability in features and in severity has been reported, with some affected individuals succumbing shortly after birth and others living to adulthood, even within the same family. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia with or without polydactyly, see SRTD1 (208500).
Bardet-biedl syndrome 21
MedGen UID:
1374358
Concept ID:
C4319932
Disease or Syndrome
BBS21 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by obesity, postaxial polydactyly, retinal degeneration, and mild cognitive impairment (Heon et al., 2016; Khan et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1616382
Concept ID:
C4539839
Disease or Syndrome
MVA3 is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from errors in chromosome segregation. Most affected individuals develop early-onset Wilms tumor and show either aneuploidy or premature chromatid separation in cells. Some patients may have additional developmental features, such as microcephaly, growth retardation, or developmental delay (summary by Yost et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MVA, see MVA1 (257300).
Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract syndrome with or without hearing loss, abnormal ears, or developmental delay
MedGen UID:
1612119
Concept ID:
C4539968
Disease or Syndrome
CAKUTHED is an autosomal dominant highly pleiotropic developmental disorder characterized mainly by variable congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, sometimes resulting in renal dysfunction or failure, dysmorphic facial features, and abnormalities of the outer ear, often with hearing loss. Most patients have global developmental delay (summary by Heidet et al., 2017 and Slavotinek et al., 2017).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 32
MedGen UID:
1617600
Concept ID:
C4540029
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-32 is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of delayed psychomotor development and developmental regression in infancy. Affected individuals have multiple variable symptoms, including poor or absent speech, inability to walk, and abnormal movements. Brain imaging shows T2-weighted abnormalities in the basal ganglia and brainstem consistent with Leigh syndrome (256000). Patient cells showed decreased activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, I, III, and IV, as well as impaired mitochondrial translation (summary by Lake et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Renal hypodysplasia/aplasia 3
MedGen UID:
1626497
Concept ID:
C4540497
Congenital Abnormality
RHDA3 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by abnormal kidney development beginning in utero. The phenotype is highly variable, even within families, and there is evidence for incomplete penetrance. Some affected individuals have bilateral renal agenesis, which is usually fatal in utero or in the perinatal period, whereas others may have unilateral agenesis that is compatible with life, or milder manifestations, such as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Female mutation carriers may also have uterine or ovarian abnormalities, including uterovaginal and ovarian agenesis. Renal aplasia falls at the most severe end of the spectrum of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT; see 610805) (summary by Brophy et al., 2017, Sanna-Cherchi et al., 2017, and Herlin et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of renal hypodysplasia/aplasia, see RHDA1 (191830).
Linear nevus sebaceous syndrome
MedGen UID:
1646345
Concept ID:
C4552097
Disease or Syndrome
Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome, also known as linear sebaceous nevus syndrome, is characterized by sebaceous nevi, often on the face, associated with variable ipsilateral abnormalities of the central nervous system, ocular anomalies, and skeletal defects (summary by Happle, 1991 and Ernst et al., 2007). The linear sebaceous nevi follow the lines of Blaschko (Hornstein and Knickenberg, 1974; Bouwes Bavinck and van de Kamp, 1985). All cases are sporadic. The syndrome is believed to be caused by an autosomal dominant lethal mutation that survives by somatic mosaicism (Gorlin et al., 2001).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, sleep disturbance, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1777442
Concept ID:
C5436821
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, sleep disturbance, and brain abnormalities (NEDFASB) is a syndromic disorder with multisystemic involvement. Affected individuals have severe global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development, poor or absent language, behavioral abnormalities, seizures, and sleep disturbances. Craniofacial dysmorphisms, while variable, include round face, prognathism, depressed nasal bridge, and cleft or high-arched palate. Brain imaging shows dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and progressive cerebellar atrophy. Additional features may include genitourinary tract anomalies, hearing loss, and mild distal skeletal defects (summary by Humbert et al., 2020).
Coffin-Siris syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
1782096
Concept ID:
C5444111
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome-12 (CSS12) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development, speech and language delay, and behavioral abnormalities, such as autism or hyperactivity. Affected individuals may have hypotonia and poor feeding in infancy. There are variable dysmorphic facial features, although most patients do not have the classic hypoplastic fifth digit/nail abnormalities that are often observed in other forms of CSS (Barish et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900).
KINSSHIP SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
1779339
Concept ID:
C5543317
Disease or Syndrome
KINSSHIP syndrome (KINS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of anomalies including developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, seizures, mesomelic dysplasia, dysmorphic facial features, horseshoe or hypoplastic kidney, and failure to thrive (summary by Voisin et al., 2021).
Oculogastrointestinal-neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1779113
Concept ID:
C5543355
Disease or Syndrome
Oculogastrointestinal neurodevelopmental syndrome (OGIN) is characterized by microphthalmia and/or coloboma in association with other congenital anomalies, including imperforate anus, horseshoe kidney, and structural cardiac defects. Hearing loss and severe developmental delay are also observed in most patients (Zha et al., 2020; Mor-Shaked et al., 2021).
WHITE-KERNOHAN SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
1785087
Concept ID:
C5543635
Disease or Syndrome
White-Kernohan syndrome (WHIKERS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, and characteristic facial features. Some patients may have abnormalities of other systems, including genitourinary and skeletal (summary by White et al., 2021).
ACCES syndrome
MedGen UID:
1804308
Concept ID:
C5677019
Disease or Syndrome
Aplasia cutis congenita and ectrodactyly skeletal syndrome (ACCES) is characterized by highly variable expressivity, even within the same family. Most patients exhibit scalp defects, whereas ectrodactyly is less common; however, more variable and less obvious digital and skeletal anomalies are often present. Early growth deficiency and neurodevelopmental delay are also commonly seen (Schnur et al., 2021).

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Gonzalez-Urquijo M, Padilla-Armendariz DP, Hinojosa-Gonzalez DE, Lozano-Balderas G, Flores-Villalba E, Fabiani MA
J Endovasc Ther 2022 Aug;29(4):637-645. Epub 2021 Nov 26 doi: 10.1177/15266028211059447. PMID: 34836459
Sutthatarn P, Gomez Quevedo O, Gleason J, Davidoff AM, Murphy AJ
J Pediatr Surg 2022 Sep;57(9):166-173. Epub 2021 Aug 5 doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2021.07.025. PMID: 34452755
Zhou Q, Chen X
J Int Med Res 2019 Jun;47(6):2754-2763. Epub 2019 May 20 doi: 10.1177/0300060519845989. PMID: 31109221Free PMC Article
Fabiani MA, González-Urquijo M, Riambau V, Vaquero Puerta C, Mosquera Arochena NJ, Varona Frolov S, Maldonado TS
Ann Vasc Surg 2019 Jul;58:232-237. Epub 2019 Feb 4 doi: 10.1016/j.avsg.2018.10.042. PMID: 30731220
Sagi-Dain L, Maya I, Falik-Zaccai T, Feingold-Zadok M, Lev D, Yonath H, Kaliner E, Frumkin A, Ben Shachar S, Singer A
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2018 Mar;222:80-83. Epub 2018 Jan 23 doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2018.01.015. PMID: 29367169

Diagnosis

Nagendra V, Phatak SV, Singh RK, Pandey SS, Gupta R
Pan Afr Med J 2022;42:116. Epub 2022 Jun 14 doi: 10.11604/pamj.2022.42.116.31632. PMID: 36034027Free PMC Article
Yoshizawa JI, Gomi K, Makino A, Hisamune R, Sugenoya S, Shimada K, Maruyama K, Mihara M, Kajikawa S
BMC Surg 2021 Jan 6;21(1):15. doi: 10.1186/s12893-020-01032-y. PMID: 33407320Free PMC Article
Nwokoro CC, Emmanuel EA, Olatunji AA, Salami BA, Amosu LO, Ogundele IO
Afr J Paediatr Surg 2020 Jul-Dec;17(3 & 4):122-126. doi: 10.4103/ajps.AJPS_92_17. PMID: 33342849Free PMC Article
Shao Z, Tan S, Yu X, Liu H, Jiang Y, Gao J
J Int Med Res 2020 Jun;48(6):300060520926736. doi: 10.1177/0300060520926736. PMID: 32489122Free PMC Article
Chaabouni Y, Guesmi R, Hentati Y, Kammoun K, Hmida MB, Mnif Z, Boudawara T, Hachicha J
Pan Afr Med J 2017;26:243. Epub 2017 Apr 28 doi: 10.11604/pamj.2017.26.243.11438. PMID: 28690757Free PMC Article

Therapy

Gonzalez-Urquijo M, Padilla-Armendariz DP, Hinojosa-Gonzalez DE, Lozano-Balderas G, Flores-Villalba E, Fabiani MA
J Endovasc Ther 2022 Aug;29(4):637-645. Epub 2021 Nov 26 doi: 10.1177/15266028211059447. PMID: 34836459
Gupta S, Kasim A, Pal DK
Urologia 2022 Nov;89(4):559-563. Epub 2021 May 19 doi: 10.1177/03915603211015546. PMID: 34006150
Tinelli G, Sica S, Minelli F, Natola M, De Nigris F, Tshomba Y
Ann Vasc Surg 2020 Feb;63:459.e5-459.e8. Epub 2019 Oct 14 doi: 10.1016/j.avsg.2019.08.105. PMID: 31622767
Fabiani MA, González-Urquijo M, Riambau V, Vaquero Puerta C, Mosquera Arochena NJ, Varona Frolov S, Maldonado TS
Ann Vasc Surg 2019 Jul;58:232-237. Epub 2019 Feb 4 doi: 10.1016/j.avsg.2018.10.042. PMID: 30731220
Chaabouni Y, Guesmi R, Hentati Y, Kammoun K, Hmida MB, Mnif Z, Boudawara T, Hachicha J
Pan Afr Med J 2017;26:243. Epub 2017 Apr 28 doi: 10.11604/pamj.2017.26.243.11438. PMID: 28690757Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Nagendra V, Phatak SV, Singh RK, Pandey SS, Gupta R
Pan Afr Med J 2022;42:116. Epub 2022 Jun 14 doi: 10.11604/pamj.2022.42.116.31632. PMID: 36034027Free PMC Article
Kumata H, Takayama T, Asami K, Haga I
Transplant Proc 2021 May;53(4):1257-1261. Epub 2021 Apr 21 doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2021.03.015. PMID: 33892929
Lottmann H, Pio L, Heloury Y, Boyer O, Aigrain Y, Blanc T
J Pediatr Urol 2019 Oct;15(5):574-575. Epub 2019 Aug 7 doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2019.07.026. PMID: 31477414
Zhou Q, Chen X
J Int Med Res 2019 Jun;47(6):2754-2763. Epub 2019 May 20 doi: 10.1177/0300060519845989. PMID: 31109221Free PMC Article
Bleve C, Bucci V, Conighi ML, Battaglino F, Costa L, Fasoli L, Zolpi E, Chiarenza SF
Pediatr Med Chir 2017 Dec 13;39(4):178. doi: 10.4081/pmc.2017.178. PMID: 29502388

Clinical prediction guides

Fujiwara H, Ogawa K, Kanamaru S, Tamaki M, Ito N
Urology 2020 Sep;143:263-265. Epub 2020 Jun 4 doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2020.05.040. PMID: 32505619
Chen H, Chen G, Pan Y, Zhu Y, Xiong C, Chen H, Yang Z
Urol Int 2019;103(3):249-255. Epub 2019 May 16 doi: 10.1159/000500328. PMID: 31096234
Seker KG, Sam E, Sahin S, Yenice MG, Aktas AG, Simsek A, Tugcu V
Arch Ital Urol Androl 2017 Dec 31;89(4):316-318. doi: 10.4081/aiua.2017.4.316. PMID: 29473385
Hu CH, Li QL, Li HP, Fan SQ, Zhang HX, Liu XL, He Y, Huang M, Lu M, Wang SS, Wu F
Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2015;8(9):11741-6. Epub 2015 Sep 1 PMID: 26617920Free PMC Article
Hu P, Jin M, Xie Y, Chen P, Zhang X, Yin Z, Cai G, Chen X
Nephrology (Carlton) 2014 Oct;19(10):605-9. doi: 10.1111/nep.12328. PMID: 25142750

Recent systematic reviews

Gonzalez-Urquijo M, Padilla-Armendariz DP, Hinojosa-Gonzalez DE, Lozano-Balderas G, Flores-Villalba E, Fabiani MA
J Endovasc Ther 2022 Aug;29(4):637-645. Epub 2021 Nov 26 doi: 10.1177/15266028211059447. PMID: 34836459
Lavan L, Herrmann T, Netsch C, Becker B, Somani BK
World J Urol 2020 May;38(5):1135-1146. Epub 2019 May 17 doi: 10.1007/s00345-019-02810-x. PMID: 31101967Free PMC Article
Chen H, Chen G, Pan Y, Zhu Y, Xiong C, Chen H, Yang Z
Urol Int 2019;103(3):249-255. Epub 2019 May 16 doi: 10.1159/000500328. PMID: 31096234
Oderda M, Calleris G, Allasia M, Dalmasso E, Falcone M, Catti M, Merlini E, Gontero P
Urologia 2017 Feb 3;84(1):55-60. Epub 2016 Aug 2 doi: 10.5301/uro.5000188. PMID: 27516351
Öztürk H
J Endourol 2014 Nov;28(11):1256-67. Epub 2014 Sep 5 doi: 10.1089/end.2014.0344. PMID: 25057959

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