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Abnormal cardiac septum morphology

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Congenital Abnormality
Synonyms: Abnormality of the cardiac septa; Congenital septal defect; Congenital septal defects; Heart septal defect
SNOMED CT: Congenital septal defect (396351009); Congenital septal defect of heart (59494005); Congenital cardiac septal defect (59494005)
HPO: HP:0001671
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0002078


An anomaly of the intra-atrial or intraventricular septum. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVAbnormal cardiac septum morphology

Conditions with this feature

Child syndrome
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Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
The NSDHL-related disorders include: CHILD (congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects) syndrome, an X-linked condition that is usually male lethal during gestation and thus predominantly affects females; and CK syndrome, an X-linked disorder that affects males. CHILD syndrome is characterized by unilateral distribution of ichthyosiform (yellow scaly) skin lesions and ipsilateral limb defects that range from shortening of the metacarpals and phalanges to absence of the entire limb. Intellect is usually normal. The ichthyosiform skin lesions are usually present at birth or in the first weeks of life; new lesions can develop in later life. Nail changes are also common. The heart, lung, and kidneys can also be involved. CK syndrome (named for the initials of the original proband) is characterized by mild to severe cognitive impairment and behavior problems (aggression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and irritability). All affected males reported have developed seizures in infancy and have cerebral cortical malformations and microcephaly. All have distinctive facial features, a thin habitus, and relatively long, thin fingers and toes. Some have scoliosis and kyphosis. Strabismus is common. Optic atrophy is also reported.
Acrocallosal syndrome
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Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Toriello-Carey syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Toriello-Carey syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder with variable systemic manifestations, most commonly including mental retardation, agenesis of the corpus callosum, postnatal growth delay, cardiac defects, usually septal defects, distal limb defects, and urogenital anomalies in affected males. Patients have facial dysmorphic features, micrognathia, including full cheeks, hypertelorism, flattened nasal bridge, anteverted nares, and short neck. Not all features are found in all patients and some patients may have additional features such as anal anomalies or hernias (summary by Toriello et al., 2003). In a review of the Toriello-Carey syndrome, Toriello et al. (2016) stated that while corpus callosum abnormalities and micrognathia with highly arched or cleft palate are seen in most patients, other manifestations are widely variable. They noted that etiologic heterogeneity has been observed in reported patients, with at least 20% of patients having chromosome anomalies, and that no good candidate genes have been identified by exome sequencing. The authors commented that this condition might not be a unitary diagnostic entity. They recommended chromosome microarray for any child suspected of having the condition, followed by standard of care by genetic testing.
Absent thumb-short stature-immunodeficiency syndrome
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Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
An exceedingly rare, autosomal recessive immune disease characterized by thumb aplasia, short stature with skeletal abnormalities, and combined immunodeficiency described in three sibships from two possibly related families. The skeletal abnormalities included unfused olecranon and the immunodeficiency manifested with severe chickenpox and chronic candidiasis. No new cases have been reported since 1978.
Chromosome 15q26-qter deletion syndrome
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Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Distal monosomy 15q is a rare chromosomal anomaly syndrome characterized by pre- and postnatal growth restriction, developmental delay, variable degrees of intellectual disability, hand and foot anomalies (e.g. brachy-/clinodactyly, talipes equinovarus, nail hypoplasia, proximally placed digits) and mild craniofacial dysmorphism (incl. microcephaly, triangular face, broad nasal bridge, micrognathia). Neonatal lymphedema, heart malformations, aplasia cutis congenita, aortic root dilatation, and autistic spectrum disorder have also been reported.
ALG9 congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) that represent defects of dolichol-linked oligosaccharide assembly are classified as CDG type I. For a general description and a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Lung agenesis-heart defect-thumb anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
The Mardini-Nyhan association comprises uni- or bilateral lung agenesis, complex cardiac defects, particularly total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR), and thumb abnormalities (summary by Hastings et al., 2009).
Chromosome 15q25 deletion syndrome
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Disease or Syndrome
Schuurs-Hoeijmakers syndrome
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Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
PACS1 neurodevelopmental disorder (PACS1-NDD) is characterized by mild-to-severe neurodevelopmental delays. Language skills are more severely affected than motor skills. Hypotonia is reported in about a third of individuals and is noted to improve over time. Approximately 60% of individuals are ambulatory. Feeding difficulty is common, with 25% requiring gastrostomy tube to maintain appropriate caloric intake. Other common features include constipation, seizures, behavioral issues, congenital heart anomalies, short stature, and microcephaly. Common facial features include hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, bulbous nasal tip, low-set and simple ears, smooth philtrum, wide mouth with downturned corners, thin upper vermilion, and wide-spaced teeth. To date approximately 35 individuals with PACS1-NDD have been reported.
Meckel syndrome, type 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Meckel syndrome, also known as Meckel-Gruber syndrome, is a severe pleiotropic autosomal recessive developmental disorder caused by dysfunction of primary cilia during early embryogenesis. There is extensive clinical variability and controversy as to the minimum diagnostic criteria. Early reports, including that of Opitz and Howe (1969) and Wright et al. (1994), stated that the classic triad of Meckel syndrome comprises (1) cystic renal disease; (2) a central nervous system malformation, most commonly occipital encephalocele; and (3) polydactyly, most often postaxial. However, based on a study of 67 patients, Salonen (1984) concluded that the minimum diagnostic criteria are (1) cystic renal disease; (2) CNS malformation, and (3) hepatic abnormalities, including portal fibrosis or ductal proliferation. In a review of Meckel syndrome, Logan et al. (2011) stated that the classic triad first described by Meckel (1822) included occipital encephalocele, cystic kidneys, and fibrotic changes to the liver. Genetic Heterogeneity of Meckel Syndrome See also MKS2 (603194), caused by mutation in the TMEM216 gene (613277) on chromosome 11q12; MKS3 (607361), caused by mutation in the TMEM67 gene (609884) on chromosome 8q; MKS4 (611134), caused by mutation in the CEP290 gene (610142) on chromosome 12q; MKS5 (611561), caused by mutation in the RPGRIP1L gene (610937) on chromosome 16q12; MKS6 (612284), caused by mutation in the CC2D2A gene (612013) on chromosome 4p15; MKS7 (267010), caused by mutation in the NPHP3 (608002) gene on chromosome 3q22; MKS8 (613885), caused by mutation in the TCTN2 gene (613846) on chromosome 12q24; MKS9 (614209), caused by mutation in the B9D1 gene (614144) on chromosome 17p11; MKS10 (614175), caused by mutation in the B9D2 gene (611951) on chromosome 19q13; MKS11 (615397), caused by mutation in the TMEM231 gene (614949) on chromosome 16q23; MKS12 (616258), caused by mutation in the KIF14 gene (611279) on chromosome 1q32; MKS13 (617562), caused by mutation in the TMEM107 gene (616183) on chromosome 17p13; and MKS14 (619879), caused by mutation in the TXNDC15 gene (617778) on chromosome 5q31.
Heterotaxy, visceral, 7, autosomal
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal visceral heterotaxy-7 is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by complex congenital heart malformations and/or situs inversus and caused by defects in the normal left-right asymmetric positioning of internal organs. The phenotype is variable (summary by Guimier et al., 2015). For a discussion of the genetic heterogeneity of visceral heterotaxy, see HTX1 (306955).
Macrothrombocytopenia-lymphedema-developmental delay-facial dysmorphism-camptodactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome is a highly heterogeneous autosomal dominant complex congenital developmental disorder affecting multiple organ systems. The core phenotype includes delayed psychomotor development with variable intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, and cardiac, genitourinary, and hematologic or lymphatic defects, including thrombocytopenia and lymphedema. Additional features may include abnormalities on brain imaging, skeletal anomalies, and recurrent infections. Some patients have a milder disease course reminiscent of Noonan syndrome (see, e.g., NS1, 163950) (summary by Martinelli et al., 2018).
Chromosome 19q13.11 deletion syndrome, distal
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Distal chromosome 19q13.11 deletion syndrome is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by poor overall growth, slender habitus, microcephaly, delayed development, intellectual disability with poor or absent speech, and feeding difficulties. Additional features include dysmorphic facies, signs of ectodermal dysplasia, hand and foot anomalies, and genitourinary anomalies, particularly in males (summary by Chowdhury et al., 2014).
Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome-1 (CFZS1) is a multisystem congenital disorder characterized by hypotonia, Moebius sequence (bilateral congenital facial palsy with impairment of ocular abduction), Pierre Robin complex (micrognathia, glossoptosis, and high-arched or cleft palate), delayed motor milestones, and failure to thrive. More variable features include dysmorphic facial features, brain abnormalities, and intellectual disability. It has been postulated that many clinical features in CFZS1 may be secondary effects of muscle weakness during development or brainstem anomalies (summary by Pasetti et al., 2016). Di Gioia et al. (2017) determined that CFZS1 represents a slowly progressive congenital myopathy resulting from a defect in myoblast fusion. Genetic Heterogeneity of Carey-Fineman-Ziter Syndrome Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome-2 (CFZS2) is caused by mutation in the MYMX gene (619912) on chromosome 6p21.

Professional guidelines


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Recent clinical studies


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Lancet 2014 May 31;383(9932):1921-32. Epub 2014 Apr 8 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62145-5. PMID: 24725467


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Clinical prediction guides

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Recent systematic reviews

Scatularo CE, Ballesteros OA, Saldarriaga C, Mendoza I, Wyss F, Liprandi AS, Munera A, Liendro MC, Baranchuk A; Neglected Tropical Diseases and other Infectious Diseases affecting the Heart (NET-Heart project)
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