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Male pseudohermaphroditism

MedGen UID:
68666
Concept ID:
C0238395
Congenital Abnormality
Synonyms: Male Pseudohermaphroditism; Male Pseudohermaphroditisms; Pseudohermaphroditism, Male; Pseudohermaphroditisms, Male
SNOMED CT: Male pseudohermaphroditism (111332007); Merms (111332007)
 
HPO: HP:0000037

Definition

Hermaphroditism refers to a discrepancy between the morphology of the gonads and that of the external genitalia. In male pseudohermaphroditism, the genotype is male (XY) and the external genitalia are imcompletely virilized, ambiguous, or complete female. If gonads are present, they are testes. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Deficiency of steroid 17-alpha-monooxygenase
MedGen UID:
82782
Concept ID:
C0268285
Disease or Syndrome
17 alpha(a)-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency is a condition that affects the function of certain hormone-producing glands called the gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males) and the adrenal glands. The gonads direct sexual development before birth and during puberty and are important for reproduction. The adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys, regulate the production of certain hormones, including those that control salt levels in the body. People with 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency have an imbalance of many of the hormones that are made in these glands. 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency is one of a group of disorders, known as congenital adrenal hyperplasias, that impair hormone production and disrupt sexual development and maturation.\n\nHormone imbalances lead to the characteristic signs and symptoms of 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, which include high blood pressure (hypertension), low levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia), and abnormal sexual development. The severity of the features varies. Two forms of the condition are recognized: complete 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, which is more severe, and partial 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, which is typically less so.\n\nMales and females are affected by disruptions to sexual development differently. Females (who have two X chromosomes) with 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency are born with normal external female genitalia; however, the internal reproductive organs, including the uterus and ovaries, may be underdeveloped. Women with complete 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency do not develop secondary sex characteristics, such as breasts and pubic hair, and do not menstruate (amenorrhea). Women with partial 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency may develop some secondary sex characteristics; menstruation is typically irregular or absent. Either form of the disorder results in an inability to conceive a baby (infertility).\n\nIn affected individuals who are chromosomally male (having an X and a Y chromosome), problems with sexual development lead to abnormalities of the external genitalia. The most severely affected are born with characteristically female external genitalia and are generally raised as females. However, because they do not have female internal reproductive organs, these individuals have amenorrhea and do not develop female secondary sex characteristics. These individuals have testes, but they are abnormally located in the abdomen (undescended). Sometimes, complete 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency leads to external genitalia that do not look clearly male or clearly female. Males with partial 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency may have a small penis (micropenis), the opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis (hypospadias), or a scrotum divided into two lobes (bifid scrotum). Males with either complete or partial 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency are also infertile.
Testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase deficiency
MedGen UID:
120626
Concept ID:
C0268296
Disease or Syndrome
HSD17B3 deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that manifests, in males, as undermasculinization characterized by hypoplastic-to-normal internal genitalia (epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory ducts) but female external genitalia and the absence of a prostate. This phenotype is caused by inadequate testicular synthesis of testosterone, which, in turn, results in insufficient formation of dihydrotestosterone in the anlage of the external genitalia and prostate during fetal development. At the expected time of puberty, there is a marked increase in plasma leuteinizing hormone and, consequently, in testicular secretion of androstenedione. Hence, a diagnostic hallmark of this disorder is a decreased plasma testosterone-to-androstenedione ratio. Significant amounts of the circulating androstenedione are, however, converted to testosterone, in peripheral tissues, thereby causing virilization (summary by Lindqvist et al., 2001).
Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome
MedGen UID:
82785
Concept ID:
C0268301
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with androgen insensitivity have a 46,XY karyotype and testes that produce age-appropriate androgen levels but have undermasculinized external genitalia due to defects in androgen action. The phenotype in PAIS varies depending on residual androgen receptor function, ranging from severe undermasculinization presenting as female-like external genitalia to male-appearing genitalia. The typical presentation comprises micropenis, severe hypospadias, and bifid scrotum with or without cryptorchidism (summary by Mongan et al., 2015).
3 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency
MedGen UID:
452446
Concept ID:
C0342471
Disease or Syndrome
Classic 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency is an autosomal recessive form of CAH characterized by a severe impairment of steroid biosynthesis in both the adrenals and the gonads, resulting in decreased excretion of cortisol and aldosterone and of progesterone, androgens, and estrogens by these tissues. Affected newborns exhibit signs and symptoms of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiencies, which may be fatal if not diagnosed and treated early, especially in the severe salt-wasting form. Moreover, male newborns exhibit pseudohermaphroditism with incomplete masculinization of the external genitalia due to an impairment of androgen biosynthesis in the testis. In contrast, affected females exhibit normal sexual differentiation or partial virilization (summary by Rheaume et al., 1992).
Drash syndrome
MedGen UID:
181980
Concept ID:
C0950121
Disease or Syndrome
WT1 disorder is characterized by congenital/infantile or childhood onset of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a progressive glomerulopathy that does not respond to standard steroid therapy. Additional common findings can include disorders of testicular development (with or without abnormalities of the external genitalia and/or müllerian structures) and Wilms tumor. Less common findings are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gonadoblastoma. While various combinations of renal and other findings associated with a WT1 pathogenic variant were designated as certain syndromes in the past, those designations are now recognized to be part of a phenotypic continuum and are no longer clinically helpful.
Frasier syndrome
MedGen UID:
215533
Concept ID:
C0950122
Disease or Syndrome
WT1 disorder is characterized by congenital/infantile or childhood onset of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a progressive glomerulopathy that does not respond to standard steroid therapy. Additional common findings can include disorders of testicular development (with or without abnormalities of the external genitalia and/or müllerian structures) and Wilms tumor. Less common findings are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gonadoblastoma. While various combinations of renal and other findings associated with a WT1 pathogenic variant were designated as certain syndromes in the past, those designations are now recognized to be part of a phenotypic continuum and are no longer clinically helpful.
Meacham syndrome
MedGen UID:
373234
Concept ID:
C1837026
Disease or Syndrome
WT1 disorder is characterized by congenital/infantile or childhood onset of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a progressive glomerulopathy that does not respond to standard steroid therapy. Additional common findings can include disorders of testicular development (with or without abnormalities of the external genitalia and/or müllerian structures) and Wilms tumor. Less common findings are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gonadoblastoma. While various combinations of renal and other findings associated with a WT1 pathogenic variant were designated as certain syndromes in the past, those designations are now recognized to be part of a phenotypic continuum and are no longer clinically helpful.
Chondrodysplasia-pseudohermaphroditism syndrome
MedGen UID:
333149
Concept ID:
C1838654
Disease or Syndrome
Nivelon-Nivelon-Mabille syndrome (NNMS) is characterized by progressive microcephaly, vermis hypoplasia, and skeletal dysplasia. Variable features include infantile-onset seizures, dwarfism, generalized chondrodysplasia, and micromelia (Abdel-Salam et al., 2019).
46,XY disorder of sex development due to testicular 17,20-desmolase deficiency
MedGen UID:
333416
Concept ID:
C1839840
Disease or Syndrome
46,XY sex reversal 1
MedGen UID:
412662
Concept ID:
C2748896
Disease or Syndrome
Sex reversal in an individual with 46,XY karyotype caused by point mutations or deletions in the SRY gene, encoding sex-determining region Y protein.
Methemoglobinemia type 4
MedGen UID:
925090
Concept ID:
C4285231
Disease or Syndrome
Methemoglobinemia and ambiguous genitalia (METAG) is due to isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency, defined by apparently normal 17-alpha-hydroxylase activity but severely reduced 17,20-lyase activity of the CYP17A1 enzyme (609300), which results in sex steroid deficiency but normal glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid reserve. The clinical phenotype is characterized by male undermasculinization, with absent or disturbed pubertal development in both 46,XY and 46,XX individuals. Mild to severe methemoglobinemia has been reported in these patients (Idkowiak et al., 2012). Other autosomal recessive methemoglobinemias include types I and II (see 250800), caused by mutation in the CYB5R3 gene (613213). Isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency can also be caused by mutation in the CYP17A1 gene (609300), and mutation in the POR gene can manifest clinically as isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency (see 124015.0016).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Bidarkar SS, Hutson JM
Semin Pediatr Surg 2005 May;14(2):118-23. doi: 10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2005.01.008. PMID: 15846569
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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

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Clayton RN
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Norio R, Rapola J
Prog Clin Biol Res 1989;305:179-92. PMID: 2668971

Diagnosis

Huhtaniemi I, Alevizaki M
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Dec;20(4):561-76. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2006.09.003. PMID: 17161332
Sultan C, Lumbroso S, Paris F, Jeandel C, Terouanne B, Belon C, Audran F, Poujol N, Georget V, Gobinet J, Jalaguier S, Auzou G, Nicolas JC
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Anhalt H, Neely EK, Hintz RL
Pediatr Rev 1996 Jun;17(6):213-20. doi: 10.1542/pir.17-6-213. PMID: 8857201
Kupfer SR, Quigley CA, French FS
Semin Perinatol 1992 Oct;16(5):319-31. PMID: 1485188
Hughes IA, Williams DM, Batch JA, Patterson MN
Horm Res 1992;38 Suppl 2:77-81. doi: 10.1159/000182604. PMID: 1292987

Therapy

Ning X, Yang Y, Deng H, Zhang Q, Huang Y, Su Z, Fu Y, Xiang Q, Zhang S
Steroids 2017 May;121:10-16. Epub 2017 Mar 4 doi: 10.1016/j.steroids.2017.02.003. PMID: 28267564
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Anhalt H, Neely EK, Hintz RL
Pediatr Rev 1996 Jun;17(6):213-20. doi: 10.1542/pir.17-6-213. PMID: 8857201

Prognosis

Ezaki J, Hashimoto K, Asano T, Kanda S, Akioka Y, Hattori M, Yamamoto T, Shibata N
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Clayton RN
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Norio R, Rapola J
Prog Clin Biol Res 1989;305:179-92. PMID: 2668971

Clinical prediction guides

Nistal M, Paniagua R, González-Peramato P, Reyes-Múgica M
Pediatr Dev Pathol 2015 Jul-Aug;18(4):279-96. Epub 2014 Aug 8 doi: 10.2350/14-04-1465-PB.1. PMID: 25105706
Niaudet P, Gubler MC
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Clayton RN
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